implications for educational policy alternate teacher certification routes
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IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL POLICYAlternate Teacher Certification Routes
Teacher ShortagesHigh Need Areas (SPED, MATH, Science)Shortages affect 66% of All School DistrictsHigh Need Areas Difficult To Staff
Explanation of ShortagesDifficult Work Environments (Urban Areas)Low starting salariesMass Retirements (Baby Boomers)New Teacher Attrition/Turnover8% yearly (Testing/Accountability, too little support, student discipline, unfunded programs, lack of influence/respect, pay) (Flynt & Morton 2009)Class Size ReductionLicensure Requirements
Alternative Teacher Certification ProgramsIntend to increase pool of qualified teachersFor Non-Education College MajorsCast a wider netNCLB provides monetary incentives to states to establish ATCPsTake advantage of existing content knowledge of candidates
ImplementationAdministered by:UniversitiesCommunity CollegesSchool DivisionsGovernmental Agencies (DOD)Program instructional time varies between 75-794 hours.Student teaching requirements vary 10-21 weeks
National and State Alternate Teacher Certification Programs
Policies and Programs Teach for America1999 VA SJR No.384 calls for alternative teacher certification program40 states have themTeacher shortages across the stateStudy other states (New Jersey and Texas)SJR No. 384 lead to:Virginia Career SwitcherTransition to Teaching (T2T)Troops to Teachers (TTT)Pathways to Teaching
Teach for America (TFT)Aims to end educational injustice by placing college grads from most selective universities to staff shortages in most difficult K-12 environments33 Regions throughout the US7,400 placements for 2009-2010 school yearFunded by 2008 Higher Ed ActHigher than average teacher performanceProgram completion = job placement or graduate scholarships
VA Career SwitcherMilitary Personnel, 5yr work experience (2001) Qualifications4 year degree from accredited universityPassing PRAXIS scores150 hours instruction in classroom management, instructional strategies, and human development theoriesMentorship20 Hr Additional Training
Transition to Teaching (T2T)Federally Funded, State AdministeredCollaboration between Local University and School DistrictHigh Need Area Schools/Subjects - >30% SESEducation Paraprofessionals and Recent College GraduatesProgram ProvidesSummer TrainingPaid TuitionUniversity Classroom SupportJob Placement 3yr Contract$5,000 Stipend
Troops to Teachers (TTT)Program RequirementsHonorably discharges Retirees, 10yr Service4-yr degree from accredited university in content areaTeach in high poverty rate >20%SES = $5,000 Bonus, >50%SES =$10,000 BonusSPED, Math Science PrioritiesUS Dep't funded through DODDOD administered - Offices in 50 States - ODU
- Pathways to TeachingBased on NJ and Texas programsProgram goals: increase quantity of minority and male teachers and quality of instructionProgram Requirements60 Semester Hours2.3
CaveatsACTP less prepared Student Achievement ImpactPedagogyAttrition of ACTPMathematica Study No statistical difference between traditionally and alternatively certified teachersTFA teachers student EOC better than traditionally certified teacher in Reading and MathTFA Classroom Management Negative Correlation
Caveats ContinuedResearch finds student lower student achievement for Middle School MathematicsOverreliance on textbooks and canned materialsLower teacher retention for some ATCP optionsSome ATCPs require as much college preparation as traditional certification programs.
ATCP Legislative Review: VA HB 506 introduced by Rep. Phil Hamilton, this bill would expand the Virginia Teaching Scholarship Loan Program leading to an endorsement in career and technical education
VA SJ 55 2008 establishes joint subcommittee to study teacher shortage in the Commonwealth; examines programs such as Teach for America, identifies barriers to teaching as a career choice and seeks to find possible solutions.
VA SJ 384 1999 Resolution calling alternative teacher certification programs
NC S803 offers teacher certification programs on military bases, probably as an incentive to lure former soldiers into teaching.
NC S868 act directing the State Board of Ed to remove barriers to the lateral entry of skilled individuals from the private sector into the teaching profession.
Political ConsiderationsNCLB Highly Qualified Requirement / AccountabilityBachelor's DegreeActive teaching CertificatePass PRAXIS IIHOUSSE High Objective and Uniform State Standard of Evaluation Mandated Federal Standards Measuring Teacher CompetencyNEA Will ATC teachers dilute their power baseHigher Education Competition with existing teacher prep programs
CNU Teaching Program EliminationHampton's First Steps Program
ConclusionsPolicy Cycle ATCP No Policy EvaluationImpact of NCLB on teacher licensurePolicy Decisions ignores the MarketImpact of Current Economic Cycle on ATCPATCP Result of Govnt Distributive Approach to fixing the problem of teacher shortageNCLP Regulatory Approach v. Federal and State Distributive Approach