india case study. a paradigm shift towards earthquake disaster resilience
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TOWARDS DISASTER RESILIENCE IN INDIA A Paradigm Shift That Will Improve the Quality of Life in IndiaPart 1: Earthquakes
GLOBAL NATURAL HAZARDS THAT CAN CAUSE DISASTERSFLOODSSEVERE WINDSTORMSEARTHQUAKESTSUNAMISDROUGHTSVOLCANIC ERUPTIONSLANDSLIDESWILDFIRES
INDIA IS PRONE TO DISASTERS FROM NATURAL HAZARDS FLOODS (especially during monsoon season)EARTHQUAKES (from sources inside and outside the country)CYCLONES
INDIA IS BIG, DIVERSE, and CAPABLE It is the seventh largest country, The second most populous country with human resources of over 1.2 billion people having cultural and religious diversity,The most populous democracy, - - -
INDIA IS BIG, DIVERSE , and CAPABLE (continued) With many well- educated and well- trained people,With high-tech and low-tech capabilities, With a large ArmyINDIA IS BIG, DIVERSE , and CAPABLE, and VULNERABLE (continued) With many living in poverty,With many living in non-earthquake-resistant housing, With cities and towns that are dependent upon non- earthquake-resistant infrastructure and critical facilities. INDIA FACES MULTIPLE DISASTER THREATSIndia faces potential disasters each year from floods, earthquakes, and cyclones, some of which have triggered notable disasters in the past, and very recently, - - - That will happen again, unless a paradigm shift occurs. INDIAs NEIGHBORS ARE ALSO DISASTER PRONEIndia shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, and Burma and Bangladesh to the east; All have experienced disasters
CONTINUATION OF THE STATUS QUO WHEN A COUNTRY IS DISASTER PRONE - - - Will result in new and more complex HEALTH PROBLEMSWILL result in unnecessary DEATHS AND INJURIESWILL result in longer and more costly RECOVERY and RECONSTRUCTION WHAT DO WE KNOW?Disaster resilience has become an urgent global goal in the 21st century as many Nations are experiencing disasters after a natural hazard strikes, and learning that their communities, institutions, and people do NOT yet have the capacity to be disaster resilient.
WHAT DO WE KNOW?Disaster resilience does not just happen; it is the result of decision-making for a national paradigm shift from the status quo to an improved coping capacity that enables the country to rebound quickly after a disaster.
PART 1: Earthquakes1905,1934,1950, 1990, 1993, 2001, 2004*, 2011 13EARTHQUAKES CENTERED INSIDE INDIA Ongoing collision of the indo-Australian and the Eurasian tectonic plates has created the Himalayan Mountains and generated many small and a few great magnitude earthquakesCOLLISION OF THE INDO-AUSTRALIA AND EURASIAN PLATES CAUSES EARTHQUAKES
INDIA HAS PEOPLE AND COMMUN-ITIES AT FUTURE RISK AD INFINITUMThe inter-plate collision is NOT going to stop, - - - So, many generations of Indias 1.2 BILLION PEOPLE are at risk ad infinitum from earthquakes centered inside India.SEISMICITY MAP
GUJARET, INDIA EARTHQUAKEJANUARY 26, 2001TIMING OF THE EARTHQUAKEIt happened at 8:46 am on a Saturday morning that was also a national holiday.GUJARAT EARTHQUAKE
A NOTABLE HISTORIC EARTHQUAKE DISASTERGUJARAT Saturday, January 26, 2001, (Republic Day holiday); M7.7; 8:46 am near the towns of Bhuj, Bhachau, Anjar, Rapar; Buildings/houses damaged in Ahmedabad and partially to totally destroyed in Bhuj, Bhachau, Anjar, Rapar, leaving 50.000 -100,000 dead and 600,000 homeless.GUJARAT: ESTIMATED ECONONIC LOSSNearly $5 billion INDIAs FIVE SEISMIC ZONES: GUJARAT IS IN ZONE 3
ZONESZONES 1 and 2: (Blue to Yellow-Brown) Very low to Low seismic activiityZONE 3: (Orange) Moderate seismic activityZONE 4 : (Light Red) High seismic activityZONE 5 (Dark Red): Very high seismic activityCOLLAPSED HOUSES AND BUILDINGSWithin a few minutes, poorly constructed homes and buildings in the towns of Bhuj, Bhachau, Anjar, and Rapar, and the city of Ahmedabad were damaged or destroyed, leaving 50,000 to 100,000 dead and 600,000 survivors needing medical care and relief
HOMELESS AND NEEDY
HOMELESS AND NEEDY
RESPONSIVE TO THE NEEDSThe Indian government, with assistance from International NGOs, the people, and others responded immediately and effectively to the urgent needs. EXAMPLE OF EMERGENCY ASSISTANCEA relief effort began the next day in the most-affected towns: Anjar, Bhachau, Rapar and Bhuj.Food and relief kits containing life essentials and materials approp-riate for the Jan-Feb weather were provided quickly to families.
38 EXAMPLE OF EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE (continued)Medical teams, each consisting of a doctor and paramedic, were rapidly mobilized to the field to provide medical assistance in the areas hit the hardest.. EXAMPLE OF EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE (continued)Beginning in February, the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) implemented an 18- to 24-month reconstruction program to provide earthquake-resistant housing in Bhachau, Anjar, Rapar and Bhuj.A PARADIGM SHIFT TOWARDS EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE A THREE STEP PROCESSTOWARDS EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE IN INDIA Step 1: Integrate Past Experiences Into Books of KnowledgeStep 2: From Books of Knowledge to Innovative Educational Surges to Build Professional and Technical CapacityStep 3: From Professional and Technical Capacity to Disaster Resilience Step 1: Integrate Past Experiences Into Books of Knowledge NOTE: A book of Knowkedge is everything we know or think we know about Indias earthquakes
BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE - Perspectives On Science, Policy, And Change44BOOKS OF KNOWLEDGEAre TOOLS to facilitate Indias continuing commitment to minimize the likely impacts of the inevitable future earthquake, thereby preventing another disaster EARTHQUAKES CENTERED IN OTHER COUNTRIES HAVE ALSO IMPACTED INDIA The October 8, 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake disaster that caused 1,200 deaths in India is one example. EARTHQUAKES CENTERED IN OTHER COUNTRIES HAVE ALSO IMPACTED INDIA The December 26, 2004 Banda Ache, Indonesia earthquake/tsunami that killed 15,000 in India is another example TSUNAMI WAVES KILLED 15,000 IN INDIA
FIVE UNCONTROLLABLE FACTORSThe severity of a disaster is exacerbated by five uncontrollable factors: 1) the time of day, 2) the day of the week, 3) the time of the year, 4) the magnitude and shallow depth of the quake, and 5) the poor soils and mountainous terrain of the region.TWO CONTROLLABLE FACTORSThe severity of a disaster is exacerbated by two other factors that tend to happen gradually over time: 1) the poor quality of construction of buildings and infrastructure, and2) the loss of capacity to anticipate and prepare for kinds of socioeconomic losses that occur in a disaster.Step 2: From Books of Knowledge to Innovative Educational Surges to Build Professional and Technical Capacity in India to Minimize Likely Impacts in the Next Earthquake DisasterNOTE: Step 2 is a task for a Nations Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine, its educational institutions at all levels, and its electronic and print media that provide public informationINADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKINGEARTHQUAKESSOIL AMPLIFICATIONPERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE)IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTSCAUSES OF RISKCASE HISTORIESGOAL: MINIMIZE THE DOMINOE EFECTS OF THE NEXT DISASTER
Step 3: From Professional and Technical Capacity to Science-based Decision-making for a Paradigm Shift from the status quo to Disaster Resilience in India NOTE: Step 3 is a task for a Nations decision-makers, (i.e., its political leaders, stakeholders, and leading professionals) who have a basis for deciding on the nature and scope of a national paradigm shift LIVING WITH NATURAL HAZARDSINCREASED DEMANDS ON COMMUNITYA DISASTER:INSUFFICIENT CAPABILITIES OF COMMUNITY57LIVING WITH NATURAL HAZARDS DEMANDS ON COMMUNITYMINIMIZED IMPACTS OF THE NEXT EARTHQUAKE:CAPABILITIES OF COMMUNITY58
INDIAS COMMUNITIESDATA BASES AND INFORMATIONHAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKSNATURAL HAZARDS MAPSINVENTORYVULNERABILITYLOCATIONRISK ASSESSMENTRISKACCEPTABLE RISKUNACCEPTABLE RISK POLICIES TO MINIMIZE IMPACTSPREPAREDNESSPROTECTION/PREVENTIONEARLY WARNINGEMERGENCY RESPONSERECOVERY/RECONSTRUCT.