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Mass Media To Multimedia-UCTI

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[BM013-3-1] MASS MEDIA TO MULTIMEDIA

Individual AssignmentUC1F1103MP[TP025217] TRAN DINH TRUONG THINH

Lecturer : Miss RAHILAH BINTI AHMAD Due date : 1st Dec 2011

Asia Pacific University Of Creative Technology

Mass Media To Multimedia

Table of Contents ***Cover Page .............................................................................................................................................................01 I, The history of newspapers ..........................................................................................................................03 II, Factors contributed to the adoption, growth and acceptance of newspapers .......................05 III, A challenging time, is press industry dying? .....................................................................................07 IV, Journalism, an honorable profession ....................................................................................................09 Reference................................................................................................................................................................10 Marking Scheme ..................................................................................................................................................11

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Asia Pacific University Of Creative Technology

Mass Media To Multimedia

I, The History Of Newspapers ***

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hat is news? Barrett and Rantanen (1998, p.1) said that News represented the reformulation of information as a commodity gathered and distributed for the three

purposes of political communication, trade and pleasure. To put it simply, news is anything that interests a large number of people and has never brought to attention before. Among the media being used to produce, distribute and present news, newspaper is considered as one of the most popular and oldest media forms. The history of newspaper begins its very first page in 1690 when Benjamin Harris published the first American newspaper, Publick Occurrences both Foreign and Domestick. But the paper was shut down by Puritan officials of the colony right after issuing an article related to an affair between the King of France and his sons wife. In 1704, Boston Newsletter was put out by a local postmaster named John Campbell. By strongly supporting British Empire, the paper was rejected by the audience since it lacked of interesting and sensitive items. A few years later, James Franklin published another Boston paper called New England Courant. And later it was taken over by James brother, Benjamin. Under Bens leadership, the paper soon gained its leading position in the society. In 1729, he stated the Pennsylvania Gazette, the most successful colonial newspaper during this time. Thanks to his endless commitment, journalism achieved a memorable step in the history and was considered as an honorable profession. During the Revolutionary War, there was an increasingly large number in the newspapers. The so-called political press began to emerge in the society. During this time, most of the newspapers were partisan, propagating views of a particular party, or entity. In 1777, the Continental Congress assigned Mary Katherine Goddard, publisher of Maryland Journal to print the first official copies of the Declaration of Independence. From 1790 to 1833, the constitution of the United States marked another achievement of the journalism with the First Amendment: Congress shall make no lawabridging the freedom

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Asia Pacific University Of Creative Technology

Mass Media To Multimedia

of speech or of the press. The newspapers target during this time was not only the majority of people in the society but also the minority groups. Freedom Journal, for example, was the first one that served the concerns and interests of the black, reflecting serious instabilities in the US itself, such as: unequal treatment, social gap, sex bias, slavery, etc. Due to the rapid growing of the press, the year 1830 was marked as the birth of the mass newspaper (Vivian 2011, pp. 83-84) by the manufacture of a steam-powered press that could produce 4000 copies per hour. It allowed increasing the number of copies while offering a more affordable way for both of the publishers and audience. The penny press period began in 1883 with the launch of New York Sun. The paper was sold for only a penny. The owner of it, Benjamin Day, mainly focused on local news, such as sex, violence, and human-interest stories. After the success of the Sun, there were various number of penny newspapers being launched. Among of them were New York Herald in 1835 (James Gordon Bennett), New York Tribune in 1841 (Horace Greeley) and the New York Times in 1851 (Henry Raymond). When the Civil War came in 1884, a new method of delivering news came on the scene, it was called lightning news, allowed eager readers to get news through the use of telegraph. This period also marked the rise of a new convention in writing news, the inverted pyramid. It was considered as one of the most efficient in development of the press because it allowed readers to learn what was most important at a glance. Also, the method helped editors to fit stories into the limited confines of a page. However, in the 20th century, the press industry faced a general decrease in the number of daily newspaper even though circulation and profits went up. So what happened? There were many explanations but the most relevant and acceptable was the cost of new technology (which was too much for many marginal papers), smaller-circulation papers found it hard to compete with major ones in term of generating revenue from advertisement, and the great impact from the Great Depression in 1930s. The gloomy economy knocked down those marginally profitable newspapers which were unable to make profits. The total income dropped about 20 percent and more than 66 dailies went under in this decade (Dominick 2011, p. 87).

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Asia Pacific University Of Creative Technology

Mass Media To Multimedia

II, Factors Contributed To The Acceptance, Adoption, and Growth Of Newspapers ***

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ow, lets take a look at the factors that contributed to the acceptance, adoption, and growth of newspapers. As being mentioned before, the task of newspaper is passing along

information about everything from wars and economics conditions to social customs and human interest features. That is the main root explained the growth of newspaper. Looking back to the history, before the age of printing, royal edicts, police regulations and important events, such as the birth and marriages of princes, war news, treaties of peace and alliance were communicated to the public by the town crier. This could be considered as one the first forms of delivering news. Hence it is doubtless to say the invention of printing gave wings to the news. We had gained a big step which provided us an easier way to adopt information. The 16th century was full of religious wars in Germany, France and the Low Countries; of formidable invasion of the Turks in Eastern Europe; of voyages of discoveries or commercial enterprise. Hence news from distant countries was an object of curiosity among all classes and the rapid and regular spread of news became a public necessity. The big books, too long to write and especially too long to be read, gave place to little tracts which were easy to spread. In 19th century, the industrial revolutions, which totally changed all aspects of American life and society, dramatically affected newspaper. With the invention of steam-powered machine, press industry had gained a memorable achievement, allowed to increase copies of newspaper and deduct printing costs. It became more and more common among citizens and played as one of the must-read in their everyday life. Another element that led to the development of the mass newspaper was the increased level of literacy in the population. Public education in that time was only meant for upper classes of people on the society, such as royal members, clergy, etc., but thanks for the democracy process, the public school system then became attainable for the middle and lower socioeconomic groups. This importantly increased emphasis on education made newspaper more and more popular in the society, creating a reading habit among people. Besides, it was again the democracy itself which played as a key unlocked the barriers of society, therefore led to the remarkable transformation of newspaper. The mass press appeared during an era that historians call the age of Jacksonian democracy, a political movement toward

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Asia Pacific University Of Creative Technology

Mass Media To Multimedia

greater democracy. It encouraging equal political policy, and opposed the idea of a monopoly government by elites. In other words, ordinary people were first recognized as a political and economic force. Property requirement was no longer relevant to voting. The candidates who collected the most popular vote became presidential electors. The trend toward democratization of business and politics fostered the creation of a mass audience responsive to a mass press (Vivian 2011, p.84).

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Asia Pacific University Of Creative Technology

Mass Media To Multimedia

III, A Challenging Time, Is Press Industry Dying? ***

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o one deny the dominant role of newspaper nowadays. But the survival question of it is being pondered. The problem of the newspaper industry became apparent during the

1990s and intensified as the new decade processed. The invention of Internet sure bring human to the new horizon of knowledge, but ironically, it is also a big threat to press industry. Readership started a slow but steady decline. Thomas Jefferson once said that Were it