Information Architecture. Card Sorting

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1. INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE. CARD SORTING TECHNIQUE Grau en Enginyeria Informtica User Centred Desig 2. Index Introduction: the value of organized knowledge Information design: Card Sorting The technique Advantages and disadvantages Tools Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 2 / 41 3. The value of organized knowledge Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 3 / 41 4. Information overload (infobesity or infoxication) Difficulty for a person to have understanding and making decisions caused by the presence of too much information During last years a hug amount of information overloads people. In general, this is beneficial, BUT, such amount of overload of information can have negative effects. We cannot solve the amount of information, we can help users facilitating the finding of this information. Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 4 / 41 5. Possible Causes Information Multiplicity: electronic news, email, databases, Web pages, stored documents, social networks, ... Incompatible formats Unawareness, ignorance of new tools Altavista study: 80% couldnt/wouldnt build a working Boolean search Altavista study: 87% used less than 3 words POOR Schemes and Information Architectures Users do not understand how information is structured That information is available does not mean it is "achievable" Out of sight, out of mind [D. Norman] Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 5 / 41 6. Information Architecture (IA) IA is about helping people understand their surroundings and find what they're looking for in the real world as well as online. Definition The art and science of organizing and labeling web sites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design http://www.iainstitute.org http://www.iainstitute.org/documents/learn/What_is_IA.pdf 6 / 41 7. Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design http://www.slideshare.net/StasKremnev/lana-voynova-crash- course-in-ux-design?next_slideshow=1 7 / 41 8. Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design http://cmsresources.windowsphone.c om/devcenter/en- us/downloads/IA_sample.pdf 8 / 41 9. Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 9 / 41 10. The trunk test (for testing a IA) What site is this? (Site ID) What page am I on? (Page name) What are the major sections of this site? (Sections) What are my options at this level? (Local navigation) Where am I in the scheme of things? (You are here indicators) How can I search? Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 10 / 41 11. Top 3 IA Questions about Navigation Menus 1. How Many Categories Should We Have? fundamental principle: the number of categories should be determined by what makes it easiest for people to discover and access information not by some preordained decision that we should only have 4 categories 2. Should Categories Be Listed in Alphabetical Order? 3 key factors to consider: Is there another organizing principle that would be more meaningful? Will visitors already know the exact category names? How many categories are there? 3. Should Hover-Activated Menus Be Eliminated Since Touch Devices Dont Allow Hovering? Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design by K. WHITENTON on January 4, 2015 http://goo.gl/dm4LFC 11 / 41 12. Some good references on IA (also in the virtual campus) http://semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/00001 0.php http://prezi.com/aafmvya6bk7t/understanding-information- architecture/ http://www.slideshare.net/petervandijck/everything-i-know- about-information-architecture-mostly-categorization-in- 90-minutes http://www.uxabilidad.com/experiencia-de- usuario/arquitectura-de-la-informacion.html http://www.nngroup.com/articles/intranet-information- architecture-ia http://uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2014/02/adopting-a- professional-compass-for-information-architecture.php Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 12 / 41 13. CARD SORTING Traditionally, User-Centered Design techniques are used to develop the Information Architecture of websites. The typical one is Card Sorting, where users are given a set of cards labelled with the main topics of the site and they group these cards following their own criteria Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 13 / 41 14. What is Card Sorting? Technical knowledge acquisition based on a constructivist approach that serves to: Understanding how users envision the organization of information Explore how the concepts are grouped by people Understanding users' mental model provides concrete data that can be instantiated Moreover, is: Cheep, quick, involves users, democratic, Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 14 / 41 15. Benefits Why sort? To better understand a problem and users view of it Source of concepts, terminology and organisation How is it done? Participants given objects, photos, cards or similar and are asked to group them What are the results? Qualitative: concepts, terminology, understanding Quantitative: how frequently items are grouped together; how groupings compare with a reference set What methods can be used? Face-to-face: in-depth individuals sessions, pair sorting, with observer, larger sessions with emphasis feedback Online: much larger sample sizes possible, using images or words (little qualitative information though) Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 15 / 41 16. Card Sorting in UCD CS has wide application in UCD answering questions such as: How do users think about this problem? What words do they use? Are menu items or form fields grouped the way users expect? Is there anything weve forgotten? Paper-based sorting in particular can be very helpful No technological barriers Participants can write comments on cards, change terms, create new items or groups (good qualitative results) Cards can appear in more than one group Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 16 / 41 17. Method 1. Determine the list of topics (content) 2. Create cards 3. Selecting participants 4. Make the sorting sessions 5. Analyse the results Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 17 / 41 18. 1. Determine the list of topics Each topic should be neither too generic or too specific. It must represent a piece of content or functionality that needs to be organized. The sample card to order should be "manageable" Avoid giving "clues" that lead users to organize topics in a (pre) defined. topics that include "grouping terms" (File, Edit, FAQs, ...) And, (perhaps) the most important The topics should be meaningful to the participants Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 18 / 41 19. Fruits Grapes Lemons Apples Vegetables Oranges Potatoes Carrots Tomatoes Grapes Fruits Vegetables Lemons Apples Oranges Potatoes Tomatoes Carrots Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 19 / 41 20. 2. Create the cards Materials Needed Paper cards, cardboard, Post-it, ... A notebook for notes Pencil and rubber A large surface to spread the cards Each topic is written on a card On certain occasions it is necessary a small description Must be "readable" We must have empty cards users can need to create groups Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 20 / 41 21. 3. Select participants Aim to have participants representing all possible potential users NOT your fellow designers, friends, relatives, be sure that the participants are familiar with the vocabulary of the cards 15 to 20 participants should be successful Perform separate card sorting sessions for different groups Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 21 / 41 22. 4. Make the sorting sessions Explain the process A written explanation ensures that everyone has the same level of understanding Types Open Card Sorting Sorting without pre-established groups Useful for new architectures Closed Card Sorting Predefined groups For existing architectures Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 22 / 41 23. 4. Make the sorting sessions Practical recommendations for participants READ ALL labels before sorting Awareness of the range of items to sort Arrange the cards using a common approach and according to its own principles Allow a Im not sure" group Explain only when needed (not at the beginning) In an open card sorting session participants should label the groups in their own way Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 23 / 41 24. 4. Make the sorting sessions The UX expert Watch and listen Do NOT GUIDE the participants Take note of anything that may be of importance questioning comments Suggestions Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design Sorting N 1 Date 20/09/13 User Maite Criteria Flavour Groups Sweet: 1,4,8 Bitter: 3,5 Salty: 6,7,2 24 / 41 25. 5. Analyse the results Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design http://uxpunk.com/websort http://www.conceptcodify.com http://www.userzoom.es/articles/o nline-card-sorting-what-how-why http://www.usabilitest.com/ CardSorting http://www.usabilitest.com/CardSorting http://www.simplecardsort.com https://sites.google.com/a/ uxsort.com/uxsort http://sourceforge.net/projects/ca rdsword http://www.optimalworkshop.com 25 / 41 26. 5. Analyse the results CardSortingGRIHO.jar + Analitzador_Clusters(GRIHO).jar Based on: http://www.cardzort.com/cardzort/download.php Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 26 / 41 CardSortingGRIHO.jar Manage cards: create, modify, save, print cards Run individual card sorting sessions Analitzador_Clusters(GRI HO).jar Analyse the results Provide dendogram 27. RUN a sorting exercise CardSortingGRIHO.jar Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 27 / 41 28. Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 28 / 41 29. Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 29 / 41 NAME of the user who is doing the sorting 30. Step 1: sorting the cards Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 30 / 41 31. Step 1: sorting the cards Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 31 / 41 32. Step 2: giving names to the groups Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 32 / 41 33. Analitzador_Clusters(GRIHO).jar Cluster analysis with data obtained from CardSortingGRIHO.jar Cluster Analysis Algorithms based on similarity measures Exploratory method that identifies homogeneous groups of objects (clusters) Many choices on the nature of the algorithm for combining groups (based on similarity) Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 33 / 41 34. How we measure the similarity between two cards? Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design Suppose we analyse the card sorting for a user u The distance between a pair of cards i and j is defined as: du(i,j) = 0 when i and j are grouped du(i,j) = 1 otherwise du(i,j) = du(j,i) And for N users final distance between i and j is defined as N jid jiD N u u 1 ),( ),( 34 / 41 35. Distances matrix 1 2 3 4 5 1 X 2 0 X 3 0 0 X 4 1 1 1 X 5 1 1 1 0 X 1 2 3 4 5 1 X 2 0 X 3 1 1 X 4 0 0 1 X 5 1 1 0 1 X 1 2 3 4 5 1 X 2 0 X 3 0 0 X 4 0 0 0 X 5 1 1 1 1 X 1 2 3 4 5 1 X 2 0 X 3 0.340.34 X 4 0.340.340.66 X 5 1.0 1.0 0.660.66 X + = 3 User 1 User 2 User 3 + [1,2,3], [4,5] [1,2,4], [3,5] [1,2,3,4], [5] 2 4 3 5 1 Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design Items 1 and 2 were together in all exercises. Items 1 and 5 did not appear together in any exercise 35 / 41 36. Obtaining the Clusters 1: One of the pairs with minor distance is the cluster 1 2 3 4 5 1 X 2 0 X 3 0.34 0.34 X 4 0.34 0.34 0.66 X 5 1.0 1.0 0.66 0.66 X 2: The cluster becomes a single entity (1,2) 3 4 5 (1,2) X 3 ? X 4 ? 0.66 X 5 ? 0.66 0.66 X 3: repeat this process: D[(1,2),3] = AVG{d(1,3), d(2,3)} Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 36 / 41 37. Analitzador_Clusters(GRIHO).jar Perform cluster analysis on data obtained with CardSortingGRIHO.jar Visualization of the user preferences for labelling clusters The distance reflects the number of matches between people who have done the exercise How many users have put a couple of cards together? A greater number of people who have joined a pair of cards shorter the distance between them. Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 37 / 41 38. Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 38 / 41 Managing card sorting exercises from users Card sorting exercise corresponding to selected participant 39. Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 39 / 41 distance Suggested groups & their labels participants 40. Analitzador_Clusters(GRIHO).jarNombr es de los grupos With the resutls the UX professional can: Decide the most appropriate Information Architecture Naming the groups from users point of view (mental model)!! Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 40 / 41 41. References Jakob Nelsens Web: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/card- sorting-how-many-users-to-test The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction: http://www.interaction- design.org/encyclopedia/card_sorting.html Usability.gov: http://www.usability.gov/methods/design_site/cardsort.html Blog No Solo Usabilidad: http://www.nosolousabilidad.com/articulos/cardsorting.htm Kelly, G.A. (1955). The Psychology of Personal Constructs. New York: W.W. Norton. Lamantia, J. (2003). Analyzing Card Sort Results with a Spreadsheet Template. Boxes and Arrows. Maurer, D. (2003). Card-Based Classification Evaluation. Boxes and Arrows. Information Architecture. Card Sorting - User Centred Design 41 / 41