information literacy skills: research skills
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Information Literacy Skills:Research Skillshttp://library.unikl.edu.my
Example:Break down the topic into its main concepts.List synonyms, broader terms, narrower terms. Is global warming leading to more extreme weather?
Chapter 15 steps research skillsDefine your topic (1)
Is global warming leading to more extreme weather?
ConceptsSynonymsBroader termsNarrower termsglobal warming-greenhouse effect-climate change-global temperature changeextreme weather-natural disaster-meteorology-flood-drought-storm-snow
Chapter 15 steps research skillsDefine your topic (2)
Printed SourcesDictionaryEncyclopediaTextbookMagazineJournalNewspaperThesesConference paperResearch paper
Audio-visualCD-ROMOnline databaseInternet / Websites
Chapter 15 steps research skillsSelect your sources (1)
Chapter 15 steps research skillsSelect your sources (2)
Type of searchesKeyword searchSubject searchUnderstanding the difference between these will help students do a better job of searching.
Chapter 15 steps research skillsSearch for information (3)
Keyword SearchingAll databases provide keyword searching. When we select a keyword search, we are actually requesting the computer to scan all words in the database.For example:Author:Abstract:Title:J.R.R. TolkienThe Lord of the RingsHobbit/s
Chapter 15 steps research skillsSearch for information (4)
Subject SearchingSearch using standardized words or phrases chosen by experts in the field. A subject search reads only the subject field of a record, so you will get more precise search results. Subject searching is a strength of library databases that search engines like Google don't have. EngineeringIndustrial--Manufacturing--SystemIndustrial DesignFor example:ComputerOperating SystemWindows Vista
Main SubjectMain DisciplineSub-Discipline
Chapter 15 steps research skillsSearch for information (5)
Three search techniquesConnecting search terms with Boolean operators (and, or, not)
Using truncation to increase retrieval
Using wildcards to cope with spelling variations
Chapter 15 steps research skillsSearch for information (6)
Boolean ANDFor example:Scotland AND Wales The database will only retrieve documents in which both terms are found. Linking keywords with AND will find pages which contain all of the search terms entered.ScotlandWalesS&W
Chapter 15 steps research skillsSearch for information (7)
Boolean ORFor example:Scotland OR Wales The database will produce a list of all documents which contain either the "Scotland" or "Wales" search term.Using the OR command when searching will retrieve documents containing any of the search terms entered.ScotlandWalesWales
Chapter 15 steps research skillsSearch for information (8)
Boolean NOTFor example: - Scotland NOT Wales The databases will retrieve all of the documents containing the word Scotland only. It will remove all documents that contain the word Wales.NOT is used to exclude a particular term from your results.WalesScotland
Chapter 15 steps research skillsSearch for information (9)
TruncationThe truncation symbol is usually an asterisk (*) but may be a question mark or an exclamation mark
Chapter 15 steps research skillsSearch for information (10)
WildcardSymbol may be a question mark or an asteriskIt varies from database to database
Chapter 15 steps research skillsSearch for information (11)
(CRAAP acronym used courtesy of Meriam Library, California State University)urrencyelevanceuthorityccuracyurposeCRAAP
Chapter 15 steps research skillsEvaluate retrieved info (1)
Clue 1: CurrencyCurrency is important because information can quickly become obsolete. Supporting a topic/thesis statement with facts that have been superseded by new research or recent events weakens its argument.These are the questions to ask yourself to evaluate currency in your information When was the information published or last updated? Have newer articles been published on your topic? Are links or references to other sources up to date? Is your topic in an area that changes rapidly, like technology or popular culture?
Chapter 15 steps research skillsEvaluate retrieved info (2)
Clue 2: RelevanceRelevance is important because students are expected to support their ideas with pertinent information. How to know if the source is relevant? Does the information answer the research question? Does the information meet the stated requirements of the assignment? Is the information too technical or too simplified to use? Does the source add something new to students knowledge of the topic?
Chapter 15 steps research skillsEvaluate retrieved info (3)
Clue 3: AuthorityWhat are the author's credentials? Is the author affiliated with an educational institution or prominent organization? Can we find information about the author from reference books or the Internet? Do other books or articles cite the author? Authority is important in judging the credibility of the author's assertions. In a trial regarding DNA evidence, a jury gives far more authority to what a genetics specialist has to say compared to someone off the street.These are the questions to ask yourself to evaluate authority in your information
Chapter 15 steps research skillsEvaluate retrieved info (4)
Clue 4: AccuracyAccuracy is important because errors and untruths distort a line of reasoning. When students present inaccurate information, they undermine their own credibility.Is the information reliable check for grammatical, spelling and typographical errors?
Is there an editors or someone who verifies the contents?
Are there citations or references listed to check accuracy?These are the questions to ask yourself to evaluate accuracy in your information
Chapter 15 steps research skillsEvaluate retrieved info (5)
Clue 5: PurposePurpose is important because books, articles, and Web pages exist to educate, entertain, or sell a product or point of view. Some sources may be frivolous or commercial in nature, providing inadequate, false, or biased information. Varied points of view can be valid, as long as they are based upon good reasoning and careful use of evidence. How to determine the purpose of a source? Why did the author or publisher make this information available? Is there an obvious bias or prejudice? Are alternative points of view presented? Does the author omit important facts or data that might disprove a claim? Does the author use strong or emotional language?
Chapter 15 steps research skillsEvaluate retrieved info (6)
Online DatabaseAn electronic database of either full-text documents or citations and abstracts, contains comprehensive collection of information and organized for quick retrieval. It is available through the Internet or an organization's Intranet.
Chapter 2Library Online ResourcesIntro to Online Database
Electronic Resources: e-booke book - An electronic version of a book that is found and read on the Web.For example
Electronic Resources: e-journalAn electronic journal that provides its content over the Internet. Some are accessible to anyone, but many others require purchase.
EngineeringComputerAviationScienceSpringerACMebraryAccess EngineeringBook 24x7WileyFrost Sullivan
What is a Citation?A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source.
How to Cite?Students should write references in 2 places: - in the text (in text citation / parenthetical references) - at the end of the text (bibliography / references / works cited)
In Text CitationStudents can do it in 3 ways: - quote - paraphrase - summarize
All three should contain author's name, year and page number(s).
All three should also be included in the bibliography.
Example of In Text Citation
Example of Bibliography
Elements of Citation Book - Author(s) - Editor(s) - Title - Publisher - Place of publication - Year of publication - Edition (if any) Journal article - Author - Title of article - Title of journal - Volume & number of journal - Date of publication - Pagination Website - Author - Title - Publisher - Place of publication - Date of publication - URL - Date of accessed
Why is it such a big issue?How would you feel if someone copied your exact words without your permission and without acknowledging you?Copying from published materials (without acknowledgement) is illegal as it contravenes copyright law.People in high places have lost their job because they were found to have plagiarised.Plagiarism
Chapter 4Copyright & Intellectual Property IssueIntro to copyright & IP (1)
8.16 Academic IntegrityA student must adhere to the academic integrity. Students are prohibited from indulging in any form of academic cheating like copying or allowing others to copy, plagiarism or similar activities and so on during examination, lab work, essay or research paper, thesis and so on. Please refer to the Academic Offense under the Examination Rules and Regulations.(see UNIKL Rules & Regulations Handbook: Rules)22.214.171.124 RULESPlagiarism
11.0 DISCIPLINARY ACTION For misconduct classified as a minor offence: a. Warning or Final Warning b. Reference to Counselor For misconduct classified as a major offence:b. Payment for cost of damages caused to the universitys facilities or to third party that is claiming from the university f. Expulsion from UniKL e. Suspension from the UniKL academic programmeWhat are the consequences of plagiarism for students?(see UNIKL Rules & Regulations Handbook: Disciplinary action)Plagiarism