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Optimization of Biodiesel Production From Sunflower Oil Using Response Surface Methodology .U.P “Santiago Mariño” Made By: Wuenses Jose Larez Vasquez

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Post on 30-Jul-2015




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1. Optimization of BiodieselProduction From SunflowerOil Using Response SurfaceMethodologyI.U.P Santiago MarioMade By: Wuenses Jose Larez Vasquez 2. Biodiesel is defined as a fuel comprised ofmono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acidsderived from vegetable oils or animal fatsBiodiesel produced by transesterification of triglycerides with alcohol,is the newest form of energy.It is not toxic, biodegradable and available, has a high heat value,high oxygen content (10 to 11%) and does not contain sulfurs andaromatic compounds.It is a better fuel than fossil-based diesel in terms of engineperformance, emissions reduction, lubricity, and environmentalbenefits.The current feed stocks of production of biodiesel or mono-alkyl esterare vegetable oil, animal fats and micro algal oil. 3. Vegetable oil is one of the renewable fuels which havebecome more attractive recently. It has too high a viscosityfor use in most existing Diesel engines as a straightreplacement fuel oilTransesterification consists of a number of consecutive,reversible reactions. Triglycerides are first reduced todiglycerides. The diglycerides are subsequently reduced tomono-glycerides. This method is used to reduce oilviscosity in the biodiesel industry 4. TransesterificationThree variables central composite designis used to analyze the interaction effectof the transesterification reactionvariables such as temperature, catalystconcentration and molar ratio ofmethanol to oil on biodiesel yield.The conventional catalysts used fortransesterification are acids and alkali, bothliquid and heterogeneousMaximum yield for the production ofmethyl esters from sunflower oil waspredicted to be 98.181% under thecondition of temperature of 48C, the molarratio of methanol to oil of 6.825:1, catalystconcentration of 0.679 wt%, stirring speedof 290 rpm and a reaction time of 2h. 5. Materials EquipmentsSunflower OilMethanol with a purity of99.5%Potassium Hydroxide(KOH)EUROSTAR reactor powercontrol-visc P7 overhead stirrer.The reactor employed was a LR2000P modularly expandablelaboratory reactor.A mixer with 8 to 290 rpm modelEUROSTAR Power control-ViscP7 Overhead stirrer for mixing themedium of reaction was used. 6. Experiments and MethodsTwo liter of sunflower oil poured in the reactor and allowed to equilibrate to the temperature ofreaction at 290 rpm.Hot water circulated in the jacket of the reactor provided the necessary heat for the reaction.Variable quantities of catalyst were dissolved in various amount of methanol. After attaining arequired temperature, the potassium methoxide was added to the reactant and was maintainedfor 2 hours for completion of the reaction.After 2 hours the transesterification reaction was completed and mixture was withdrawnfrom the reactor and poured in the funnel separator to separates biodiesel from glycerol.Separation of two phases which is performed by gravity requires at least 4 hours.CONTINUE 7. Glycerol and biodiesel have a deep red and bright yellow color.The biodiesel was washed out 10 times.One liter of warm distillated water was used per 1 liter of biodiesel. At the nexttimes, the washing procedure can be done more quickly until the color of watershifts to white.Finally, biodiesel was dried completely bysilica jell. 8. Physical Properties of biodieselThe flash point is 170Kinematic viscosity at 40It has a copper strip corrosion of 1a which indicate that this fuel is notcorrosiveHeating value was 39.58 MJ/KgCloud point is -5Saturated fatty acids be higher in the oilCarbon residue was lower than that of petro-diesel which is about0.002 wt% 9. Comparison chart of Biodiesel and Petro-Diesel 10. Response Surface MethodA central composite design of the RSM is the most commonly used inoptimization experiments. The method includes a full or fractionalfactorial design with center points that are augmented with a group ofstar points.The operating variables are: temperature, catalyst concentration andoil to methanol ratio 11. Response surface analysisWith increasing temperature of reaction, yield of biodiesel increased quickly tonear the boiling point of alcohol. At low temperatures, relatively lowconversion to methyl ester evident due to the subcritical state of methanol. Athigher temperature than boiling point of methanol, alcohol evaporates and theyield was decreased.With increasing molar ratio of methanol to oil, OH group present in the alcoholreacts with triglycerides and lead to hydrolysis reaction which in turn leads tosoap formation.The interaction of these variables is interest which that in the optimum valueof temperature variation of methanol to oil ratio changes the reaction yieldgreatly. With higher molar ratio of alcohol to oil, triglycerides convert to fattyacid methyl ester. Hence reverse reaction performed which leads to formationof soap which is difficult to separate and yield of ester decreased. 12. ConclusionsResponse surface methodology was successfully applied fortransesterification of methanol.The ANOVA implied that molar ratio of alcohol to oil; reactiontemperature and concentration of catalyst have the great significantfactor affecting the yield of biodiesel.At the optimum condition we can reach to yield of 98.181%.Biodiesel will be a suitable alternative for replacement of petro-dieselwithout any modification in engine.