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<ul><li><p>T e n t h E d i t i o n</p><p>Instructional T e c h n o l o g yand</p><p>Media for Learning</p><p>Sharon E. SmaldinoNorthern Illinois University</p><p>Deborah L. LowtherUniversity of Memphis</p><p>James D. RussellPurdue University</p><p>Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River</p><p>Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto</p><p>Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo</p></li><li><p>Senior Acquisitions Editor: Kelly Villella Canton Senior Development Editor: Max Effenson ChuckEditorial Assistant: Annalea ManaliliSenior Marketing Manager: Darcy BettsProduction Editor: Gregory ErbEditorial Production Service: Omegatype Typography, Inc.Manufacturing Buyer: Megan CochranElectronic Composition: Omegatype Typography, Inc.Interior Design: Omegatype Typography, Inc. Photo Researcher: Annie Pickert Cover Designer: Elena Sidorova</p><p>Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on the appropriate page within text or on page 334.</p><p>Copyright 2012, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999, 1996 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Allyn &amp; Bacon, 501 Boylston Street, Boston, MA, 02116. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 501 Boylston Street, Boston, MA, 02116, or email </p><p>Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data</p><p>Smaldino, Sharon E. Instructional technology and media for learning / Sharon E. Smaldino, Deborah L. Lowther, James D. Russell. 10th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-800815-4 (pbk.) ISBN-10: 0-13-800815-9 (pbk.) 1. Educational technology. 2. Audio-visual education. I. Lowther, Deborah L. II. Russell, James D. III. Title. LB1028.3.H45 2012 371.33dc22 2010051005</p><p>10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CIN 15 14 13 12 11</p><p>ISBN-10: 0-13-800815-9ISBN-13: 978-0-13-800815-4</p></li><li><p>iii2</p><p>About the Authors</p><p>Sharon E. Smaldino Sharon holds the L. D. and Ruth G. Morgridge Endowed Chair for Teacher Education in the College of Education at Northern Illinois University (NIU). She was a professor of educational technology at the University of Northern Iowa for many years prior to moving to NIU. Sharon received her PhD in 1987 from Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Prior to that she received an MA in elementary education and served for more than a dozen years as teacher, speech therapist, and special educator in school districts from Florida to Minnesota. At Northern Iowa she taught educational media courses for undergraduates and graduate majors and served as coordinator of the educational technology program. Sharon also taught graduate courses in instructional development, technology integration, distance education, and professional standards and ethical practice. She has received several awards for her outstanding teaching. In </p><p>her current role, she is focused on working with faculty and PK12 teachers to integrate technology into the learning process. Presenting at state, national, and international conferences, Sharon has become an important voice on applications of technology in the classroom and in distance education. In addition to her teaching and consulting, Sharon has written articles for state and national journals on her primary research interesteffective technology integration in learning. She worked on a teacher quality enhancement grant that identified technology as an important aspect of ensuring quality learning environments. She also served as the editor of TechTrends, an AECT publication.</p><p>Deborah L. Lowther Deborah has been an educator for 30 years. For the first seven years of her career she taught middle school science and was highly engaged with providing professional development to teachers within and beyond her district. Because of her desire to work with teachers, she received her PhD in educational technology in 1994 and accepted a faculty position at the University of Memphis in 1995. At the University of Memphis, Deborah serves as the senior technology researcher for the Center for Research in Educational Policy, through which she investigates PK12 technology integration issues. She has personally conducted observations in PK12 classrooms and interviewed students, teachers, and principals in numerous schools across the country. She has used the knowledge and experiences gained through engagement in applied research to develop the iNtegrating Technology for inQuiry </p><p>(NTeQ) Model with Dr. Gary Morrison. This model has been the foundational approach for several high-profile technology initiatives, including Michigans Freedom to Learn program and Tennessees EdTech Launch program. With regard to scholarship, Deborah has coauthored several books, chapters, and refereed journal articles; presented at numerous national and international conferences; and has provided professional development to educational institutions across the nation.</p><p>James D. Russell Jim is professor emeritus of Educational Technology at Purdue University, where he taught for 38 years. Jim also worked part time for Purdues Center for Instructional Excellence, where he conducted workshops on teaching techniques and consulted on instructional improvement. During fourteen spring semesters he was Visiting Professor of Educational Psychology and Learning Systems at Florida State University. There he also worked part time for the Center for Teaching and Learning. A former high school mathematics and physics teacher, Jims teaching career spans 45 years. He has won numerous honors for his teaching at Purdue, including his departments Outstanding Teacher Award and the School of Educations Best Teacher Award. He is also the recipient of AECTs Diamond Mentor Award. He was selected as a member of Purdues Teaching Academy and has been inducted into the Purdue Book of Great Teachers. </p><p>His specialty areas, in which he has achieved national prominence through his writings and presentations, are presentation skills and using media and technology in classrooms. Through his teaching, workshops, consulting, and this textbook, Jim has made a significant impact on classroom teaching practice.</p></li><li><p>1 iv</p><p>Award-Winning Book</p><p>Instructional Technology and Media for Learning has received the following recognition in past editions:</p><p> Outstanding Book in Educational Technology and Teacher Education from the Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) Teacher Education Division</p><p> The James Brown Award for the Best Non-Periodic Publication in the Field of Educational Technology from AECT</p><p> The Outstanding Instructional Communication Award from the International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI)</p><p> The Visual Design and Layout Award from the Design Society of America</p></li><li><p>v2</p><p>Brief Contents</p><p>Chapter 1 EXPLORING 21ST CENTURY LEARNING 1Chapter 2 UNDERSTANDING 21ST CENTURY LEARNERS 18Chapter 3 INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY AND MEDIA INTO INSTRUCTION: </p><p>THE ASSURE MODEL 36</p><p>Chapter 4 ACHIEVING 21ST CENTURY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS 68Chapter 5 ENGAGING LEARNERS WITH COMPUTERS 96Chapter 6 CONNECTING LEARNERS USING WEB 2.0 TOOLS 124Chapter 7 CONNECTING LEARNERS AT A DISTANCE 144Chapter 8 ENHANCING LEARNING WITH VISUALS 174Chapter 9 ENHANCING LEARNING WITH AUDIO 208Chapter 10 ENHANCING LEARNING WITH VIDEO 232Chapter 11 USING MULTIMEDIA TO ENGAGE LEARNERS 254Chapter 12 PREPARING FOR TOMORROWS CHALLENGES 282</p><p>Appendix A Lesson Scenario Chart 297</p><p>Appendix B Equipment Safety and Setups 299</p></li><li><p>vii2</p><p>Contents</p><p>Preface xv</p><p> 1 EXPLORING 21ST CENTURY LEARNING 1Introduction 1</p><p>Framework for 21st Century Learning 1</p><p>Technology 1Status of the Technology Gap 3</p><p>Media 4Media Formats 5Instructional Materials 5</p><p>Teacher Use of Technology and Media 5The Digital Teacher 6NETS for Teachers 8The ASSURE Model 8</p><p>Student Use of Technology and Media 8The Digital Student 9NETS for Students 10</p><p>Todays Literacies 10General Literacy 10Text Literacy 10</p><p>Computer Literacy 11Distance Learning Literacy 11Cyberlearning Literacy 11Visual Literacy 11Audio Literacy 11Video Literacy 11Media Literacy 12</p><p>The Classroom Continuum: Traditional to Digital 12</p><p>The Changing Role of Media Centers 13</p><p>Copyright Concerns: The Copyright Law 13Educators and the Copyright Law 13Fair Use 13Seeking Permission to Use Copyrighted Materials 14Term of Protection 14Changing Materials Format 15Students with Disabilities 15</p><p>Summary 15</p><p> 2 UNDERSTANDING 21ST CENTURY LEARNERS 18Introduction 19</p><p>Characteristics of 21st Century Learners 19Multiple Intelligences 21Perceptual Preferences and Strengths 21Information Processing Habits 22Physiological Factors 22Learning Style Measurements 22</p><p>Learning Theories 23Behaviorist Perspective 23Cognitivist Perspective 23Constructivist Perspective 23Social Psychology Perspective 24</p><p>Information and Instruction 24</p><p>Principles of Effective Instruction 25</p><p>Principles of Effective Technology Utilization 26</p><p>Principles of Effective Media Utilization 27</p><p>Principles of Effective Text Utilization 27Advantages 28Limitations 28Integration 28Evaluation 30</p><p>Summary 31</p></li><li><p>1 viii Contents</p><p> 3 INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY AND MEDIA INTO INSTRUCTION: THE ASSURE MODEL 36Introduction 38</p><p>The ASSURE Model 38</p><p>Analyze Learners 38General Characteristics 38Specific Entry Competencies 38Learning Styles 40</p><p>State Standards and Objectives 40Importance of Standards and Objectives 40The ABCDs of Well-Stated Learning Objectives 42ABCD Objectives Checklist 43Learning Objectives and Individual Differences 44</p><p>Select Strategies, Technology, Media, and Materials 45Selecting Strategies 45Selecting Technology and Media 45Selecting, Modifying, or Designing Materials 46</p><p>Utilize Technology, Media, and Materials 47Preview the Technology, Media, and Materials 47Prepare the Technology, Media, and Materials 48Prepare the Environment 48Prepare the Learners 49Provide the Learning Experience 50</p><p>Require Learner Participation 52Practice 52Feedback 55</p><p>Evaluate and Revise 55Assessing Learner Achievement 55Evaluating and Revising Strategies, Technology, and </p><p>Media 59</p><p>Summary 63</p><p> 4 ACHIEVING 21ST CENTURY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS 68Introduction 70</p><p>21st Century Learning Environments 70</p><p>Teacher- and Student-Centered Strategies 70Teacher-Centered Strategies 70Student-Centered Strategies 72</p><p>Presentation 73Advantages 73Limitations 73Integration 73</p><p>Demonstration 74Advantages 74Limitations 74Integration 74</p><p>Drill-and-Practice 75Advantages 75Limitations 75Integration 75</p><p>Tutorial 75Advantages 76Limitations 76Integration 76</p><p>Discussion 76Advantages 76Limitations 77Integration 77</p><p>Cooperative Learning 77Advantages 78Limitations 78Integration 78</p><p>Games 78Advantages 79Limitations 79Integration 80</p><p>Simulations 80Advantages 81Limitations 81Integration 81</p><p>Discovery 81Advantages 82Limitations 82Integration 82</p><p>Problem-Based Learning 82Advantages 83Limitations 83Integration 83</p><p>Learning Context 84Face-to-Face Classroom Instruction 84Distance Learning 84Blended Instruction 85</p></li><li><p>Contents ix2</p><p> 6 CONNECTING LEARNERS USING WEB 2.0 TOOLS 124Introduction 126</p><p>Cyberlearning Literacy 126</p><p>Web 2.0 Tools 127Online Audio and Video 127Collaboration Websites 129Mobile Broadband 132</p><p>SocialEthical Issues 133</p><p>Security 133Student Interactions 133</p><p>Using Web 2.0 Tools in the Classroom 133Advantages 133Limitations 134Integration 134</p><p>Summary 135</p><p> 7 CONNECTING LEARNERS AT A DISTANCE 144Introduction 146</p><p>Distance Learning Literacy 146</p><p>Distance Learning 148Audio Technology 148Video Technology 148Online Technology 152</p><p>Teaching at a Distance 152Strategies and Approaches 154Critical Issues 155</p><p>Using Distance Learning in the Classroom 156Advantages 156Limitations 156Integration 157</p><p>Networks 160Types of Networks 160The World Wide Web 163</p><p>Summary 165</p><p> 5 ENGAGING LEARNERS WITH COMPUTERS 96Introduction 98</p><p>Using Computers in the Classroom 98Computer Literacy 98Strategies and Approaches 98Advantages 101Limitations 102Integration 102</p><p>Types of Computer Resources 103Information 104Communication 104Word Processing and Desktop Publishing 104Creativity 105Presentation Software 106</p><p>Graphing Calculators and Spreadsheets 107Games and Simulations 107Computer-Assisted Instruction 108Computer-Managed Instruction 108</p><p>Software Selection 108</p><p>Computer Hardware 110</p><p>Computer Access 112One-Computer Classroom 112Multiple-Computer Classroom 113Laptop Cart Classroom 113Computer Laboratory 114</p><p>Summary 116</p><p>Independent StudyStructured 85Informal StudyNonstructured 85</p><p>Integrating Free and Inexpensive Materials 86Advantages 86Limitations 86</p><p>Sources for Free and Inexpensive Materials 86Obtaining Free and Inexpensive Materials 86Evaluating Free and Inexpensive Materials 87</p><p>Summary 89</p></li><li><p>1 x Contents</p><p> 8 ENHANCING LEARNING WITH VISUALS 174Introduction 176</p><p>Visual Literacy 176Decoding: Interpreting Visuals 177Encoding: Creating Visuals 178</p><p>Types of Visuals Used in the Classroom 178Pictures 178Drawings 179Charts 179Graphs 179Posters 179Cartoons 179</p><p>Purposes of Visuals 181Provide a Concrete Referent for Ideas 181Make Abstract Ideas Concrete 182Motivate Learners 182Direct Attention 182Repeat Information 182Recall Prior Learning 183Reduce Learning Effort 183</p><p>Categories of Visuals 183Realistic 183Analogical 183Organizational 183Relational 184Transformational 184Interpretive 185</p><p>Viewing Visuals 185Presentation Software 185Digital Images 187Overhead Projection 189Printed Visuals 190Advantages 190Limitations 190Integration 191</p><p>Visual Design Guidelines 192Arrangement 192Balance 192Color 193Legibility 194Appeal 194Universal Design 195</p><p>Creating Visuals 195Planning Tools 195Lettering Techniques 196Drawing, Sketching, and Cartooning 197Clip Art 197Designing Visuals with Computers 197Creating Presentation Graphics 197Creating Overhead Transparencies 198</p><p>Capturing Visuals 199Photography 199Scanners 200</p><p>Summary 200</p><p> 9 ENHANCING LEARNING WITH AUDIO 208Introduction 210</p><p>Audio Literacy 210Hearing and Listening 210Developing Listening Skills 212</p><p>Audio in the Classroom 213How Teachers Can Use Audio 213How Students Can Use Audio 214</p><p>Audio Formats 215Digital Audio 215Analog Audio 216</p><p>Accessing Audio 217Streaming Audio 217Podcasting 217</p><p>Internet Radio 218Portable Digital Audio 218Audio Recorder 218</p><p>Creating Audio 219Musical Instrument Digital Interface 219Digital Synthesizer Software 219Advantages 220Limitations 220Integration 221</p><p>Summary 223</p></li><li><p>Contents xi2</p><p> 10 ENHANCING LEARNING WITH VIDEO 232Introduction 234</p><p>Video Literacy...</p></li></ul>