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  • On a Layered Object−Space Based

    Architecture for Interactive Raster Graphics�������������������

    � � �

    ���������������������������������������������������������������������� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �

    door

    Fons Kuijk

    geboren op 22 mei 1955 te Haarlem

    October 13, 1995

  • Promotor: Prof. Dr. L.O. Hertzberger (UvA) Copromotor: Prof. E.H. Blake (University of Capetown) Faculteit: Wiskunde en Informatica

    October 13, 1995

    ii On a Layered Object−Space Based Architecture for Interactive Raster Graphics

  • Contents��������������������� �

    ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� � � � � � � � � �

    Contents iii

    Preface vii

    1: Introduction 1

    1.1: Graphics and Human-Computer Communication................................... 1 1.2: Background ............................................................................................. 3 1.3: Towards a New Architecture .................................................................. 5 1.4: The STW Research Project on Interactive Raster Graphics ................... 6 1.5: Outline of the Dissertation ...................................................................... 8

    2: Graphics Systems and Interaction 9

    2.1: Interactive Graphics: Concepts and Nomenclature ................................ 9 2.1.1: Scene Specification..................................................................... 10 2.1.2: Image Synthesis .......................................................................... 10 2.1.3: Graphical Input ........................................................................... 12 2.1.4: Graphical Interaction .................................................................. 14

    2.2: An Overview on Interaction Tasks ......................................................... 16 2.3: Temporal Aspects of Interaction............................................................. 19

    2.3.1: Animate Response ...................................................................... 20 2.3.2: Computer Animation .................................................................. 22 2.3.3: Discussion................................................................................... 24

    2.4: Dealing with Motion ............................................................................... 25 2.4.1: Temporal Anti-aliasing............................................................... 25 2.4.2: Adaptive Image Generation........................................................ 25

    2.5: Conclusions ............................................................................................. 29

    3: Raster Graphics Hardware 31

    3.1: Introduction ............................................................................................. 31 3.2: An Overview on Hardware Elements ..................................................... 32

    3.2.1: Display Device............................................................................ 32 3.2.2: Display Controller....................................................................... 35 3.2.3: Frame Buffer............................................................................... 36 3.2.4: Graphics Processor ..................................................................... 40

    October 13, 1995

  • 3.3: Concurrency and Graphics Systems........................................................ 41 3.3.1: Introduction................................................................................. 41 3.3.2: Architecture Based Classification............................................... 42 3.3.3: Distribution Based Classification................................................ 43 3.3.4: Discussion................................................................................... 46

    3.4: Conclusions ............................................................................................. 48

    4: A Layered Object-Space Based Architecture 49

    4.1: Introduction ............................................................................................. 49 4.2: Abstract Computational Model ............................................................... 51 4.3: Output Representation............................................................................. 54 4.4: A Multilayer Computational Model........................................................ 56 4.5: Discussion ............................................................................................... 58

    4.5.1: Hidden Surface Removal............................................................ 60 4.5.2: Illumination and Shading............................................................ 61 4.5.3: Display Controller....................................................................... 62

    4.6: Conclusions ............................................................................................. 62

    5: Dealing with Geometry 65

    5.1: Introduction ............................................................................................. 65 5.2: Representation of Geometry: the Domain .............................................. 68

    5.2.1: The Use of Extents...................................................................... 68 5.2.2: Area Representation.................................................................... 70

    5.3: Efficient Storing of Domains................................................................... 78 5.3.1: Slice-List Structure ..................................................................... 79 5.3.2: Grid-List Structure...................................................................... 82 5.3.3: Results......................................................................................... 85 5.3.4: Conclusions................................................................................. 103

    5.4: Exact Incremental Hidden Surface Removal .......................................... 105 5.4.1: Binary Operations ....................................................................... 106 5.4.2: Basics of the Algorithm .............................................................. 108 5.4.3: Reducing Complexity ................................................................. 109 5.4.4: Referencing................................................................................. 109 5.4.5: Adding a Domain........................................................................ 110 5.4.6: Removing a Domain ................................................................... 110 5.4.7: Distributed Hidden Surface Removal......................................... 112 5.4.8: Results......................................................................................... 113

    5.5: Scan-Conversion ..................................................................................... 113 5.6: Conclusions ............................................................................................. 114

    6: Illumination and Shading of Polygonal Models 115

    6.1: Introduction ............................................................................................. 115 6.2: Illumination & Shading........................................................................... 116

    October 13, 1995

    iv On a Layered Object−Space Based Architecture for Interactive Raster Graphics

  • 6.2.1: Illumination Model ..................................................................... 116 6.2.2: Shading Methods ........................................................................ 118 6.2.3: Discussion................................................................................... 120

    6.3: Interpolation Across Polygons ................................................................ 122 6.3.1: Vector Interpolation.................................................................... 122 6.3.2: Angular Interpolation.................................................................. 124

    6.4: Evaluation of the Intensity Components ................................................. 131 6.5: Discussion ............................................................................................... 134

    7: An Object-Space Display Controller 137

    7.1: Introduction ............................................................................................. 137 7.2: Unfolding the Scan-Conversion process ................................................. 138 7.3: Architecture of the Display Controller.................................................... 140 7.4: The X-Processor Array — or Difference Engine .................................... 141

    7.4.1: Basics of the X-Processor Array ................................................. 142 7.4.2: The Command Set ...................................................................... 143 7.4.3: Implementation of the Difference Engine .................................. 145 7.4.4: Structural Simulation of the Difference Engine ......................... 149 7.4.5: Features and Estimated Performance ......................................... 152 7.4.6: Virtual Arrays ............................................................................. 155

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