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Intercult ICommuicatiEverett M. RogersUniversity of NewMexicoThomas M. SteinfattUniversity ofMiamiWAVELANDPRESS,INC.Prospect Heights,IllinoisJ)ContentsPreface XlllAcknowledgments xvChapter 1 Context and ContactWhy Study Intercultural Communication? 2Collective Cultural Consciousness 3Increasing Intercultural Contact 4The Spread of Islam 7The Crusades 8Genghis Khan and the Mongols 12Ogadai Khan 14Kublai Khan 17Marco Polo 19Colonialism 21Case Illustration:Cortes and Montezuma 22The Slave Trade 23The Early Missionaries 28The Opium Wars 29Native Americans 31Summary 38Chapter 2 The Study of Intercultural CommunicationThe Roots of Intercultural Communication 39What Is a Stranger? 40The Stranger and Scientific Objectivity 43The Concept of Social Distance 44The Concept of Marginal Man 45The Concept of Heterophily 45Cosmopoliteness 46vii139viii CONTENTSCritical Concepts in Intercultural Communication 47Ingroups and Outgroups 49Case Illustration:The Left-Handed Ingroup 49Ethnocentrism 50Cultural Relativism 55Prejudice andDiscrimination 55Stereotypes 58The Authoritarian Personality 58Intercultural Communication after World War II 59Development Assistance 60The Ugly American 61The Foreign Service Institute 62Edward Hall,Founder 63Time Talks and Space Speaks 67Forming a Paradigm of Intercultural Communication 70Non-Western Perspectives on Intercultural Communication 74Summary 76Chapter 3 Culture 79What Is Culture? 79Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values 81Cultural Beliefs 82Case Illustration:Hmong Spirits versus Western Medicine 82Cultural Values and Cultural Attitudes 84Norms 85Collectivistic versus Individualistic Cultures 86The Nature ofthe Self 89Independence versus Interdependenceat the Individual Level 90High-Context versus Low-Context Cultures 90High/Low-Context Communication Problems 92Are You High-Context or Low-Context? 95Within versus Between Cultural Variation 95Cultural Clash 96Cultural Identification 97Case Illustration: Female Genital Mutilation in theUnited States 98Case Illustration: AIDS Prevention in San Francisco 99Cultural Markers 100Language and Cultural Identification 102Cultural Differences 103Case Illustration:The Homeless and PEN in Santa Monica 104The Continuum ofIntercultural Differences 105Overcoming Cultural Differences 107CONTENTS ixCase Illustration:The Cultural Shareability of Elvis Presley 109Summary 111Chapter 4 Communication 113What Is Communication? 113A Model of Communication 114Case Illustration: Navajo Code-Talkers 117Initial Contact and Uncertainty among Strangers 120Uncertainty and Information 120Initiating Conversation with a Stranger 122Case Illustration:Don't You Want toGo to the Rat? 124Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Communication 125Signs and Symbols 126Language 126Case Illustration: The Rosetta Stone 127Creating Meanings 128Levels of Meaning 129Attribution 131Case Illustration:From Intercultural Interactionto International Incident 132Power. 133Summary 133Chapter 5 Verbal Communication 135Linguistic Relativity 135Examples of the Whorfian Hypothesis 138Importance of Language 141Case Illustration: The Language Police in Quebec 142Perceptions Count 144Perceptions versus Objective Reality 145Case Illustration: Perceptions of Body Weight byAfrican-American and White Adolescent Girls 145Symbolic Interaction 148Code-Switching 148Cultural Factors in Interpersonal Communication 149Talk and Silence 150Speaking Style 151Turn-Taking 152Self-Disclosure 152Content versus Relationship 153Face 154Case Illustration:The Guest Who Came to Dinner, in Japan 155Listening 157Summary 158x CONTENTSChapter 6 Nonverbal Communication 161Importance of Nonverbal Communication 162Case Illustration: The Meaning of Feet in InterculturalNegotiation 165The Evolution of Nonverbal Communication 167Charles Darwin 168Edward Hall at the FSI 170Raymond Birdwhistell 170Cultural Factors in Nonverbal Communication 171Types of Nonverbal Communication 172Body Movements 172Space 176Time 181Touch 182Voice 184Artifacts 184Physical Appearance 185The Truth about Lying 186Cultural Misunderstandings in Nonverbal Communication 186Summary 187Chapter 7 Assimilation, Mass Communication, and Sojourning 189Assimilation and Acculturation 190Early Research on Mass Communication and Culture 190The Continuum from Assimilation to Cultural Maintenance 191Case Illustration: Maintaining a Distinctive Culture:The Gypsies 193Changing Demographics 194Case Illustration: Ethnic Media in New York City 195Ethnic Groups in the United States 196The Role of Language in Cultural Maintenance 199Networks in the Assimilation Process 201Contemporary Migration to America 202The Policy Issue of Immigration 204The Role ofthe Media 207Bias in the Media 208Impacts of the Mass Media 210The Sojourner 211Culture Shock 212The U-Curve of Cultural Adjustment 214Reentry 217CONTENTS xiCase Illustration: You Gotta Have Wa 217Summary 219Chapter 8 Becoming More Intercultural 221Intercultural Competence 221Overcoming Ethnocentrism 223Experiential Training 224Cultural Relativism 225From Ethnocentrism to Ethnorelativism 226Overcoming Stereotypes 227Derivation of Stereotypes 227Stereotypes as Codes 228Overcoming Prejudice and Discrimination 230Prejudice 230Discrimination 231Case Illustration: A Navajo Perspective on Prejudice 232Overcoming Conflict 237Toward Multiculturalism 238Summary 240Chapter 9 The Global Village 243Development Programs in Third World Countries 243What Is Development? 244What Is Development Communication? 244Change Agent/Client Heterophily 246Case Illustration: Introducing Water-Boilingin a Peruvian Village 247Sustainability of Development Programs 248Empowerment 249Case Illustration: Thrown Out on the Edge of Asia 251Mass Media and Development 253The Ethics of Changing Someone Else's Culture 254Rise of the Megacity 255Case Illustration: Los Angeles as a Cultural Mosaic 257The Global Business Village of Today 258Case Illustration: Nemawashi:Digging around the Roots 259Case Illustration: Gift-Giving around the World 261Toward a Global Culture 263Glossary 265References 271Name Index 285Subject Index 289,PrefaceLearning how others think about their lives and the world they live in is fas-cinating. Intercultural communication is the process through which we gainthe insight provided by different perspectives andexperiences. Few othertopics can match the human interest inherent in intercultural communica-tion. Students are naturally curious about how to develop personal relation-shipswith individuals different fromthemselves inreligion, socioeconomicstatus, gender, or sexual orientation.This book seeks to build on the fascination that intercultural communica-tion naturally holds for everyone. The United States is increasingly diverse ina cultural sense.We include numerous case illustrations of communicationdifficulties encountered because the participants in a communication situa-tion did not share certain cultural assumptions. Many of us have experiencedthe difficulties of communicating effectively with an "unalike" other person,perhaps even a friend or a partner.We think a historical approach to intercultural communication providesthe foundation necessary tounderstand barriers toeffectiveinterculturalcommunication. Webegin this book with a history of intercultural contact. Wethen explore the evolution of the field of intercultural communication fromits sociological roots to its founding by the anthropologist Edward T. Hall andothers at the Foreign Service Institute in the U.S. Department of State afterWorld War II. The reader can better understand such important concepts asnonverbal communication, assimilation, ethnocentrism, prejudice, and indi-vidualism/collectivism by becoming familiar with the circumstances in whichthese concepts were created.This book seeks to raise consciousness about cultural differences and tohelp students become more competent in intercultural communication. Ourown way of eating, talking, gesturing, behaving, and thinking is not the onlyxiii!}xiv,PREFACEway, nor necessarily the best way (if such a thing exists). AB you read this book,and discuss it with others, we hope you will learn to put yourself in the roleof others who are unlike you and to see the world more through their eyes.Competence inintercultural communication is important tosuccess inmeeting life goals. Wehope that our book helps you to achieve this success.Everett M. Rogers Thomas M. SteinfattAlbuquerque Coral Gablesl--------------AcknowledgmentsThis book benefits from the inputs made by several intercultural communi-cation scholars. We thank Professor Jack Condon, a distinguished scholar ofintercultural communication at the University of New Mexico, for his adviceand encouragement inwriting this book. So also do we acknowledge themany useful inputs fromDr. Arvind Singhal, Associate Professor intheSchool ofInterpersonal Communication at Ohio University. Dr. Brad Hall atthe University ofNewMexicoserved as a guide to us in planning and writingIntercultural Communication. Professor YoungYunKim at the University ofOklahoma read andreacted to a near-final draft of this book. Bill Hart, atOld Dominion University, who is the ultimate information-seeker, also readearlier drafts of this book and madehelpful suggestions. Kathyrn Sorrellsand Sheena Malhotra, colleagues in intercultural communication at the Uni-versity of New Mexico, called our attention to voices that we might not oth-erwise have heard. YumikoYokochi at the University of New Mexico advisedus on our many examples involving Japanese culture. Kathyrn Sorrells andanother colleague atthe University of New Mexico, Professor Miguel Gan-dert, provided many of the photographs that illustrate the book. Dianne Mil-lette, Gonzalo Soruco, and Edward Dreyer of the University of Miami offeredvaluable intercultural insights. We also thank the students in ourintercul-tural communication classes at the University of New Mexico and the Uni-versity of Miami who read and reacted to previous drafts of this volume.xv",Chapter 1Context an

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