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DESCRIPTIONIntercultural Communication. Issues at Home Last Updated: May 14, 2012. Home Grown Issues. Linguistic tensions in the US are primarily home grown. Not uniquely to our culture, there are more conflicts with our neighbors than people far away. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Issues at Home
Last Updated: May 14, 2012Intercultural CommunicationLinguistic tensions in the US are primarily home grown.Not uniquely to our culture, there are more conflicts with our neighbors than people far away.Our tendencies (and we will test this hypothesis) are to have more prejudice for high-contact ethnic dialects than for more distant ones.Home Grown IssuesMyth: The word dialect refers to incorrect speech.
Myth 1Myth: The word dialect refers to incorrect speech.
Fact: All forms of a language are dialects but some are labeled standard because of social prestige.
Myth 1Myth: Standard dialects are the most conservative form of the language (least changed).
Myth 2Fact: The standard dialects are influenced by media and academic standardization, which changes constantly. The language forms of non-mobile, older, rural, males (NORMs) like those in the video (slave language, Appalachian and other rural types) are in fact the most conservative.
Myth 2Myth: If I follow a style guide and the dictionary I can be sure to keep a standard language style.
Myth 3Fact: The written and spoken standards are different from one another. Speaking like a book is socially stilting. Dictionaries codify new words with no prejudice. A words existence in a dictionary does not justify it as Standard English. It does, however, mean its in popular use and shows up in print. (Video: Up North, NY)
Myth 3Myth: There is one correct pronunciation and language standard for the country. Accents can be (and maybe should be) unlearned.
Myth 4Fact: Local standards exist in every region of the country. In English, no organization controls a national standard, though regions are prejudiced against one another. Organizations like MLA demonstrate a preference toward language change as it is useful. They incorporate meaningful and clarifying changes into the rulebooks by popular (albeit academic) vote.
Myth 4Diversity in spoken English (native speakers) occurs correlating with social and geographical boundaries like: gender, education, religion, geographical barriers (lakes, rivers, mountains, etc.), neighborhoods, social groups, etc.
Myth 4 ContMyth: Differences in pronunciation, structure of sentences and word uses are evidence of a persons citizenship or nationality.
Myth 5Fact: Further diversity in English is influenced by ethnic groups and contact with other language groups. Some regions of the U.S. are non-English speaking. Many naturalized citizens speak English differently as well. Citizens living in culturally diverse regions dont have the same standards of English as non-diverse communities.
Myth 5Example-Pidgin: When language features (syntax, borrowed words, morphological structures) are borrowed based on a mutual need for communication and include mutual language compromises by two or more languages this trade language is called a pidgin. Trade languages are often used by first generation immigrants. Myth 5Example-Creole: Once a generation of children is born into families that speak a pidgin in their daily lives, if they acquire the pidgin as their native language, it is called a creole. It becomes linguistically structured and rule-based. Some of those speakers have no other variation of English and speak none of their parents native language(s) either.
Myth 5Myth: American dialectal speakers (AAVE, Southern English, Utahns, etc.) are just too lazy to follow the rules or they are ignorant.
Myth 6Facts: study of these dialects finds that all dialects (creoles or otherwise) are altered systematically by the speakers in ways that are entirely rule-based. Myth 6The human brain organizes the rules of multiple language influences into a new system. It is just a different system. These diversities make their way into Standard English as they become popular.
Myth 6Non-native adult language learners will never be technically native speakers and will not likely speak a perfect standard of English, though some may be very fluent.
Myth 6Creole and other non-standard speakers may suffer social or economic consequences if they do not build registers of English to adapt to different circumstances of language use. They do not, however, suffer from learning disabilities or language pathologies.
Myth 6-AAVE : African American Vernacular English, some know it as Ebonics, (Videos: Down South)-Chicano English: Spoken by Americans with heavy influence of Spanish language in their environment but who possibly dont consider themselves Spanish speakers at all. (Videos: Out West)-Spanglish: Spanish speakers who are bi-lingual and speak to one another in a mixed language (creole) or switch back and forth at will. (Videos: Out West, Texas)Creole: spoken by Louisiana natives. (Video: Down South)
Ethnic Dialects of English