internal roof and attic thermal radiation control retrofit strategies

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  • Internal Roof and Attic Thermal Radiation Control Retrofit Strategies for Cooling-Dominated Climates A. Fallahi, H. Durschlag, D. Elliott, J. Hartsough, N. Shukla, and J. Kosny Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems

    December 2013

  • NOTICE

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof.

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  • iii

    Internal Roof and Attic Thermal Radiation Control Retrofit Strategies

    for Cooling-Dominated Climates

    Prepared for:

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energys Building America Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    15013 Denver West Parkway

    Golden, CO 80401

    NREL Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

    Prepared by:

    A. Fallahi, H. Durschlag, D. Elliott, J. Hartsough, N. Shukla, and J. Kosny

    Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE)

    Building Energy Efficiency Group

    5 Channel Center Street

    Boston, MA 02210

    NREL Technical Monitor: Chuck Booten

    Prepared under Subcontract No. KNDJ-0-40345-02

    December 2013

  • iv

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  • v

    Contents List of Figures ............................................................................................................................................ vi List of Tables ............................................................................................................................................ viii Abbreviations ............................................................................................................................................. ix Acknowledgment ........................................................................................................................................ 1 Executive Summary .................................................................................................................................... 2 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 4 2 Field Testing .......................................................................................................................................... 8

    2.1 Instrumentation ..................................................................................................................13 2.2 Radiation Control Technology Installations ......................................................................17

    2.2.1 Radiant barrier with enclosed airspace ..................................................................17 2.2.2 Interior Radiation Control Coating (IRCC) ...........................................................18

    3 Experimental Data Analysis .............................................................................................................. 20 3.1 External and Internal Air Temperature Comparisons ........................................................20 3.2 Experimental Attic Air Temperature Comparisons ...........................................................29 3.3 Experimental Heat Flux Comparison.................................................................................44

    4 Energy Modeling ................................................................................................................................. 47 4.1 Model Description .............................................................................................................47 4.2 Calibration of Whole Building Energy Model ...................................................................50 4.3 Prediction of the Cooling Energy Consumption ................................................................53 4.4 Modeling Results ...............................................................................................................53

    5 Cost Effectiveness Analysis .............................................................................................................. 56 6 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................ 58 References ................................................................................................................................................. 60 Appendix A- Historical Energy Consumption Data ............................................................................... 62

  • vi

    List of Figures Figure 1. Location of site. ........................................................................................................................... 8 Figure 2. Location of thermistor arrays and heat flow transducers inside the tested attics (Right);

    Bird view image of the duplexes in Austin, TX (Left). ....................................................................... 9 Figure 3. Estimated brick wall construction: 2 in. brick, 1 in. air gap, in. OSB, 24 stud wall with

    batt insulation, gypsum wall board (left); Estimated clapboard siding: clapboard, battens, in. OSB, 24 stud wall with batt insulation, gypsum wall board (right). ............................................ 10

    Figure 4. Existing insulation conditions in Duplex 1. Note the inconsistent levels of loose-fill insulation. ............................................................................................................................................ 10

    Figure 5. Existing insulation conditions in Duplex 2. Note the inconsistent levels of loose-fill insulation. ............................................................................................................................................ 11

    Figure 6. Existing insulation conditions in Duplex 2 (left) and Duplex 1 attic over living space (above right) and over garage (below right). ................................................................................... 12

    Figure 7. Visible gaps around ducts entering attic. .............................................................................. 12 Figure 8. Location of the vents for attics over living spaces in Duplex 1. .......................................... 13 Figure 9. Location of the vents for attics over living spaces in Duplex 2. .......................................... 13 Figure 10. Diagrams of the attic sensor distributions for a RB combined with an enclosed

    reflective air space (upper diagram), and IRCC and baseline (lower diagram). .......................... 15 Figure 11. Thermistors installed on interior, exterior and attic to capture surface temperatures. .. 16 Figure 12. DAQ Components. .................................................................................................................. 17 Figure 13. Installation of RB with enclosed airspace from Fi-Foil Company (Silver Shield). ........... 18 Figure 14. Installation of IRCC from Solec-Solar Energy Corporation (LO/MIT-II MAX) (left) and

    from STS Coating, Inc. (HeatBloc-Ultra) (right). .............................................................................. 19 Figure 15. Measured exterior air temperature on one of the test houses. .......................................... 21 Figure 16. Average daily roof surface temperatures recorded during the April measure period. ... 22 Figure 17. Average daily roof surface temperatures recorded during the June/July measure period.23 Figure 18. Average daily roof surface temperatures recorded during the July/August measure

    period. .................................................................................................................................................. 24 Figure 19. Maximum roof surface temperatures recorded during the April measure period. .......... 25 Figure 20. Maximum roof surface temperatures recorded during the June/July measure period. .. 26 Figure 21. Maximum roof surface temperatures recorded during the July/August measure period.27 Figure 22. Average interior air temperatures recorded during the April measure period. ................ 28 Fig

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