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  • International Law

    This new edition of International Law confirms the text’s status as the definitive book on the subject. Combining his expertise as both academic and practitioner, Malcolm Shaw’s survey of the subject motivates and challenges both student and professional. By offering an unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour, he ensures both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. The text has been updated throughout, to reflect recent case law and treaty developments. It retains the detailed references which encourage and assist further reading and study.

    Professor Malcolm N. Shaw, QC, is a practising barrister at Essex Court Chambers and Senior Fellow at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law at the University of Cambridge. One of the world’s leading international lawyers, he is an Associé of the Institut de Droit International, Trustee of the British Institute of International and Comparative Law and a founding member of Curatorium, Xiamen Academy of International Law, China. He has been awarded the decoration of ‘Officier de l’Ordre de la Valeur’ by the Republic of Cameroon.

    www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-04086-1 - International Law: Seventh Edition Malcolm N. Shaw Frontmatter More information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9781107040861 http://www.cambridge.org http://www.cambridge.org

  • www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-04086-1 - International Law: Seventh Edition Malcolm N. Shaw Frontmatter More information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9781107040861 http://www.cambridge.org http://www.cambridge.org

  • International Law

    SEVENTH EDIT ION

    Malcolm N. Shaw QC Barrister at Essex Court Chambers and Senior Fellow at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge

    www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-04086-1 - International Law: Seventh Edition Malcolm N. Shaw Frontmatter More information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9781107040861 http://www.cambridge.org http://www.cambridge.org

  • University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom

    Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge.

    It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence.

    www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107040861

    C© M. N. Shaw 2014 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

    Sixth edition published 2008 Seventh edition published 2014

    Printed in the United Kingdom by CPI Group Ltd, Croydon CR0 4YY

    A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

    ISBN 978-1-107-04086-1 Hardback ISBN 978-1-107-61249-5 Paperback

    Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

    3rdiprinting 2015

    www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-04086-1 - International Law: Seventh Edition Malcolm N. Shaw Frontmatter More information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9781107040861 http://www.cambridge.org http://www.cambridge.org

  • For my wife Judith

    www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-04086-1 - International Law: Seventh Edition Malcolm N. Shaw Frontmatter More information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9781107040861 http://www.cambridge.org http://www.cambridge.org

  • www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-04086-1 - International Law: Seventh Edition Malcolm N. Shaw Frontmatter More information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9781107040861 http://www.cambridge.org http://www.cambridge.org

  • Contents

    Preface xix Table of cases xx Table of treaties and selected other international instruments xliv List of abbreviations lxxxiii

    1 The nature and development of international law 1 Law and politics in the world community 2 The role of force 3 The international system 4 The function of politics 8 Historical development 10

    Early origins 10 The Middle Ages and the Renaissance 13 The founders of modern international law 16 Positivism and naturalism 18 The nineteenth century 19 The twentieth century 21 Communist approaches to international law 22 The ‘Third World’ 27

    Suggestions for further reading 30

    2 International law today 31 The expanding legal scope of international concern 31 Modern theories and interpretations 35

    Positive Law and Natural Law 35 New approaches 39 The fragmentation of international law? 46 Conclusion 47

    Suggestions for further reading 48

    3 Sources 49 Custom 51

    Introduction 51 The material fact 54 What is state practice? 58

    Opinio juris 60

    vii

    www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-04086-1 - International Law: Seventh Edition Malcolm N. Shaw Frontmatter More information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9781107040861 http://www.cambridge.org http://www.cambridge.org

  • viii Contents

    Protest, acquiescence and change in customary law 63 Regional and local custom 65

    Treaties 66 General principles of law 69

    Equity and international law 75 Judicial decisions 78 Writers 80 Other possible sources of international law 81

    The International Law Commission 84 Other bodies 86 Unilateral acts 86

    Hierarchy of sources and jus cogens 87 Suggestions for further reading 91

    4 International law and municipal law 92 The theories 93 The role of municipal rules in international law 95 International law before municipal courts 98

    The United Kingdom 99 Customary international law 101 Treaties 106

    The United States 113 Other countries 119

    (i) Other common law and related legal systems 119 (ii) Civil law systems 123 (iii) Conclusion 127

    Justiciability, act of state and related doctrines 129 Executive Certificates 139 Suggestions for further reading 140

    5 The subjects of international law 142 Legal personality – introduction 142 States 143

    Creation of statehood 144 Self-determination and the criteria of statehood 149 Recognition 150 Extinction of statehood 151 The fundamental rights of states 153

    Independence 153 Equality 155 Peaceful co-existence 156

    Protectorates and protected states 157 Federal states 158

    Sui generis territorial entities 162 Mandated and trust territories 162 Germany 1945 164 Condominium 165 International administration of territories 166 Taiwan 169 The ‘Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus’ (TRNC) 170 The Saharan Arab Democratic Republic 171

    www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press

    Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-04086-1 - International Law: Seventh Edition Malcolm N. Shaw Frontmatter More information

    http://www.cambridge.org/9781107040861 http://www.cambridge.org http://www.cambridge.org

  • Contents ix

    Kosovo 171 Palestine 172 Various secessionist claimants 174 Associations of states 175 Conclusions 177

    Special cases 178 The Sovereign Order of Malta 178 The Holy See and the Vatican City 178 Insurgents and belligerents 179 National liberation movements (NLMs) 180 International public companies 181 Transnational corporations 181

    The right of all peoples to self-determination 183 The establishment of the legal right 183 The definition of self-determination 186

    Individuals 188 International organisations 189 The acquisition, nature and consequences of legal personality – some conclusions 190 Suggestions for further reading 193

    6 The international protection of human rights 194 The nature of human rights 194 Ideological approaches to human rights in international law 196 The development of international human rights law 197 Some basic principles 199

    Domestic jurisdiction 199 The rule as to the exhaustion of domestic remedies 199 Priorities of rights 200 Customary international law and human rights 201 Evolving principles 201

    The United Nations system – general 202 The protection of the collective rights of groups and individuals 205

    Prohibition of genocide 205 Prohibition of discrimination 208 The principle of self-determination as a human right 210 The protection of minorities 212 Other suggested collective rights 218 The United Nations system – implementation 219

    Political bodies – general 219 The Commission on Human Rights (1946–2006) 220 The Human Rights Council 221

    Expert bodies established by UN organs 222 The Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights 222

    The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 222 Expert bodies established under particular treaties 224

    The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination 224 The Human Rights Committee 226 The Committee on the Eli

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