into the ice the story of arctic exploration by lynn curlee genre : narrative nonfiction

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Into the Ice The Story of Arctic Exploration By Lynn Curlee Genre : Narrative Nonfiction ( Recounts a series of events ). Fridtjof Nansen – Great pioneer in search of the North Pole Wrote about the Aurora Borealis Also called “northern lights” – strange atmospheric effect in the sky. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Into the IceThe Story of Arctic ExplorationBy Lynn CurleeGenre: Narrative Nonfiction(Recounts a series of events)

Fridtjof Nansen Great pioneer in search of the North PoleWrote about the Aurora BorealisAlso called northern lights strange atmospheric effect in the skyOrganized his 1st expedition in 1888 across GreenlandHe & 5 companions were dropped of by ship & Had no choice but to ski west to civilization.Only had provisions for the one way journeyNO TURNING BACK NOW to his starting point!!!Nansen carefully planned every detailDesigned his own equipmentKnew how to improvise off the landUsed Inuit methods like the use of dogSledges, kayaks & snow housesVery scientific, planned well, adaptable & daring !!!

Nansen had an interesting ideaSail a ship directly into the ice off Siberia, Then let it be frozen into the ice & let it drift with the ice across the top of the world. The ship would penetrate the heart of the Arctic

Nansens small ship was named the FramSpecially designed with a special hull

Fully equipped with scientific equipment & supplies for 5 yearsHad workshops, a smithy (held coal), & a windmill that helped produce electricity!Ship so comfortable they eventually got restless & boredNansen decided to go further out into the ice when only 360 miles from the North Pole!!

In March, 1895 Nansen & his companion, Hjalmar Johansen, set out on another adventure.

For -3- weeks, they struggled north over immense ridges of broken ice.Drifting ice quickly carried them south faster than they could go northProvisions were running low ----- so they reluctantly headed for land

Over weeks, sun rose higher & the ice became slushyMade traveling over ice treacherousTook over 4 months to reach land!They survived by hunting seals & training weaker dogs to become strong

In the spring, the ice broke up. Nansen & Johansen set out in their kayaks.1 year & 4 months after leaving the Fram, they were picked up by an English expedition.

*The crew broke free of the ice in the ocean east of Greenland more than 1000 miles from their starting point!

This expedition was considered a triumphant success because they had gone farther north than anyone had before.

Race to the North PoleDuring this time explorers thought that reaching the Pole would mean that most of the planet had been mastered/discovered.

Salomon Andree Swedish engineer who built a large hydrogen filled balloon with a passenger gondola to hold -3- men, supplies and a small boat!

(Balloons were still the only means of flight during this time (1890s)

* Serious limitationsCant be steeredand sensitive to temperature changes

Andree tried to solve the steering problem but ignored the temperature problem.

The result was disastrous!

1897 Andree lifted off again in a balloon.By the 3rd day, the balloon went down due to the gas leaking out of it. It took 3 months to get to the nearest island! They were inexperienced, unprepared & unable to survive the winter.

-33- years later their frozen remains were found along with Andrees journal and undeveloped pictures in their camera..EERIE..

Physically the North Pole is nothing more than a theoretical point on Earths surface.BUTReaching it was a landmark human achievement!Robert E. Peary for -20- years he conducted expeditions to NW Greenland looking for the best route. Not really interested in scientific discovery or mappingHe just wanted to be FIRST not really focused on the scientific parts!!!He was vain & arrogant but ran his expeditions like a military assignmentUnconventional & innovativeMost enthusiastic supporter was President Theodore Roosevelt

His wife was the 1st white woman in the Arctic & gave birth to their daughter while on the expedition!Polar Inuit were the key to his successInuit women made his furs & the men used their own dogs to pull his sledges, build his snowhouses, & did his hunting in exchange for tools & other goods.

Robert E. Peary (cont)In 1906, Peary made a full-scale assault upon the North PoleHis plan was to go as far north as possible & stay the winter in Greenland or the Canadian Islands. He wanted to go to the Pole in late February, before the ice started to break up.HOWEVER the Arctic did not cooperateExpedition was delayed several days, there was a blizzard & supplies dwindled.

He ended up settling 175 miles from the Pole.

Other ExplorersDr. Frederick A. Cook was a veteran of both Arctic & Antarctic explorationHe was the physician on Pearys earlier expeditions

* Peary refused to allow Cook to publish an article about his experiencesThey had an argument over this.In March 1909, Perry set out to find the North Pole again. He carefully planned & calculated the trip. In April 1909, after 23 years of planninghe reached the Pole first.Or did he??????

When Peary came back home, he was stunned of the news that Dr. Cook had already returned from his trip to the Pole. Peary was furious!!!He accused Dr. Cook of lying.

In the investigations that followed, it was found that Peary was unable to verify his own claim! * Peary was a sloppy navigator and didnt take clear notesHis carelessness in his documentation led to his claim to be the 1st at the Pole as false & rejected.Commander Robert E. Peary was finally given the credit & was made Admiral However, he felt his reputation was tarnished & died an embittered man.

In recent years.Researchers have determined neither man actually stepped for at the North Pole!

Classic Era of Arctic ExplorationEnded with PearyAttention then shifted to the Antarctic & the South PoleAround 1914 the world was at war & focused on that- exploration was postponed

Balloons were no longer the only means of flightSeveral attempts were made to fly to the North Pole in small airplanesThe 1st person to stand at the North Pole (whose claim remains undisputed - is Joseph Fletcher.

U.S. Air Force pilot who landed there in 1952

Maps ( like the one on p. 425 ) help us to imagine distances between the North Pole and nearby land masses. ?s to think aboutThink about Pearys nature & give examples on how he was,

The story has several facts, but find one or two opinions of the author.