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    introduceren

    nouLteStAMent

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    D. A. CARSON & DOUGLAS J. MOO

    DINU MOGAEi

    GHEORGHE DOBRIN

    Ei FCLIA2007

    introducere

    n nouLteStAMent

    E D I I A A D O U A

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    Oigilly pblih i U.S.A. h il:A i h nw tsamCpyigh 2005 by d. A. cas dglas J. MPblih by pii Zv, G Rpi, Mihig

    Ei Fli pbli l lb Ei Uiviii Eli O. pil p iii lib vi Eiii Fli. Niip i pbliii p i p i b ii i pi iiijl pii i iii.

    Pi ii lib p ill:i nl tsam d. A. cas dglas J. MISBN: 978-973-8448-36-0Cpyigh 2007, Ei Fli, O p pz S. Flii N. 36D, O 410181, Bihl./ Fx 0259 419.318; 0722 609.746E-il: [email protected]

    www.li.

    R: LAURA NEMUC: ESERA CIOBANUh i ig p: ANDREI BOGDAN MOGA

    hi bk h b pblih wih h pp Slvi Gpl Aii, UK

    dsa ciP a Bbl naal a rm

    cArSon, d. A.i nl tsam / D. A. C

    i Dgl J. M ; .: Di Mg ; . .: .

    Ghgh Dbi. - O : Fli ; Ei UiviiiEl i O, 2007

    Biblig.IxISBN 978-973-7791-28-3ISBN 978-973-8448-36-0

    I. M, Dgl J.II. Mg, Di (.)III. Dbi, Ghgh (.)

    225=135.1

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    Di li Jy i Jy

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    cuPrinS

    Prea ..................................................................................... 9

    Abrevieri .................................................................................131. C gl l il Nli ......... 232. Evghliil Sipi ...................................... 853. Mi4. M5. L6. I

    7. Fpl Aplil8. Epill Nli 9. Pvl: pl i lg10. Ri11. 1 i 2 Cii12. Gli13. Ei14. Filipi15. Cli16. 1 i 2 lii17. Epill pl18. Fili19. Evi20. Iv21. 1 P

    22. 2 P23. 1, 2, 3, I24. I25. Aplip26. Cl Nli

    Index al numelorIndex al subiectelor

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    Spl piipl l i li i lbi v liz pl ii lg

    pi il, iii l, l l bz l, pll, iii i l bi. Ml i lil l i l pi i pl i li-, ii i i pllil ii. N iiliz ip- bi, i l ii i bil p l ip . Ci , xpii , l bi biiz liz ili il xgz, pil xgz z i-

    p. Mi l hi, iii xg bi il lizl iilpi i i p il Nli xl l ii, i p i zbil ip -p pil l l Biiii i. A p - i ii l l pi. zb i pbl- p l p Ppi pixpi I pzbil, l l l i

    i liz pjl z p ii p bv igi pl i ( bi i!) l zbii.C l i vl p li bi

    l iii , g i hi p-z p i l Nli , i i pz i il - i p l. i z i xplii iil l p p-ivi i i i p ibii lgi p

    i l Nli l gl l Sipil.Pp bz giil i i l l-gi b i i b lg Cvli li Dz.

    PreFA

    9

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    Introducere n NOUL estament10

    A i vl p ii l I i II iil i lil lgi. S vii , l i l zi,ill v i pl pii li. Uii i

    i v i l ill l l i pzii ( xpl b pill p Mi, M i L i b pilli p vghliil ipi). Bibligi p p i li lib glz, p lg i li lib g, z i lv libi . Bibligiil l ii jz i ii piz pi xg ill. Pii p piz lil l i i-p i li p xl piv.

    L l ip i pl ii ili p p i li l i. Al ii xi, i i pi i l i -il. A p l pibili l i il i gi i Nl .C ii i vl xl iiil lil l i bil p i i l zb, p liiil p i l- ip i v vl p bi

    l l.Di p v il, i i i vghlii. A-

    i - i l bz ipil , (p) i l ili i li i lgiNli i l lgi. Chi vi bil, i vi i p li -i pbl i pibilii vi p i lii. A ii ii pz-

    iv i- i vi li l, i i liiiil, i li g b bili ii.Ai v i - p l lziv, l hi ii.

    Uii iii v i l liz vl l l i (1992) li il, i i i C,M i L Mi. l pivi, vl liz

    vlli i. i, - v hibi ip: (1) D

    ii v i, L Mi i p ibi l lizi vl, l h, l , i i ipl

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    11PREFA

    pi pill l i. i, i i i ipxiiv j i l. N- vizi ppiil li i p vizi i pill pl l

    L Mi. (2) Cpill p pll Pvl xi g--i- liz zbil p ii ppiv.(3) S- g i pil plii, pzi z iipivi l iii l ii l i , li Nl , l il p l i. Chi ip z l j, pl -l j p llizz il pz - i iii i zbi ii. (4) Si p pii i -pill z Epill Pl p pil iizvl iiiv. E g i ii lip Epill li Pvl p pil, Epill Nli

    . (5) i pil il z i bil lili il bibli i ii p , l zl, v i l i bi li i i-iiiip ip Nli .

    A hibi ibi l xi pzli vl, p- l ii p p i l

    p, i i l il gii i.Fi i i i gii i iii l lil l lgi. A

    l ii il il i i.C v li, iil x z iili, l pzi l i hip.Ciiii p p l iii v p iii lil - hib pl v pivi i pbl.

    S p i li Jh Dvi i li Mihl h

    p li ixil.Soli Deo gloria

    D. A. C i Dgl J. M

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    AB Ah Bibl ABD Anchor Bible Dictionary

    Ahi / G / hpPl J. Ahi, Jl B. G, i Mi Myhp,Introducting the New estament: Its Literatureand heology (G Rpi: E, 2001)

    AGJU Abi z Ghih ik J Uhi

    AGSU Abi z Ghih Sptjudentums undUrchristentums

    AJ American Journal TeologyALGHJ Abi z Li Ghih hll-

    iih JABib Al Bibli ANRW Austieg und Niedergang der rmischen WeltAnt Jph,Antiquities o the JewsANC Abig Nw CiASNU A Siii Nii UpliiAR Anglican heological Review

    AusBibRev Australian Biblical Review AUSS Andrews University Seminary StudiesBAGD Wl B, Willi F. A, F. Wilb

    Gigih i Fik W. Dk,A Greek-EnglishLexicon o the New estament and Other EarlyChristian Literature, . II - (Chig: Uiviy Chig P, 1979)

    Bk / L / MihlGl W. Bk, Willi L. L i J. RyMihl, he New estament Speaks (S Fi:Hp & Rw, 1969)

    ABreVieri

    13

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    Introducere n NOUL estament14

    BBR Bulletin or Biblical ResearchBCBC Bliv Chh Bibl CyBDAG Wl B, Fik W. Dk, Willi F. A i

    F Wilb Gigih, A Greek-English Lexicon o the Newestament and Other Early Christian Literature, . III-(Chig: Uiviy Chig P, 2000)

    BECN Bk Exgil Cy h Nw BEL Biblih Ephi hlgi LviiBFC Big z Fg hilih TlgiBGBE Big z Ghih biblih ExgBI Biblical InterpretationBib Biblica

    BIP Biblil Ii PBIS Biblil Ipi SiBJRL Bulletin o the John Rylands University Library o ManchesterBL Bp LBNC Blk Nw Ci ( = HNC)Bk Gh Bk, he New estament: A Guide to Its

    Writings (L: SPCK, 1974)Bw Ry E. Bw,An Introduction to the New estament

    (Nw Yk: Dbly, 1977)BR Biblical ResearchBS Bibliotheca SacraBB Biblical heology BulletinBU Biblih UhgBWAN Big z Wih v Al N

    BZ Biblische ZeitschritBZNW Bih z Zihi i lih

    Wih. iCAH Cbig Ai HiyCBE Cibi Biblil Exgi hlgyCBQ Catholic Biblical QuaterlyCBQMS Chli Biblil Qly Mgph SiCEB Ci vgliq l BiblCGSJ China Graduate School o heology Journal

    CGC Cbig Gk CyChil Bv S. Chil, he New estament as Canon: An

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    15ABREVIERI

    Introduction (Phillphi: F, 1984)CIL Corpus Inscriptionum LatinarumCJ Canadian Journal o heology

    Clgg Fk B Clgg,An Introduction to the Newestament(L: Uiviy P i H &Sgh, 1940)

    CN Ci Nv CBN Ci i Ci bibli: Nw

    SiContra Ap. Jph, Contra Apion (Agi Api). iDvi W. D. Dvi,Invitation to the New estament(L:

    DL, 1957)De Vita Contemp. Phil, De Vita Contemplativa (h Cpliv Li)DBI A Dictionary o Biblical InterpretationDibli Mi Dibli, A Fresh Approach to the New estament

    and Early Christian Literature(L: Iv Nihl &W, 1936)

    DJG Dictionary o Jesus and the GospelsDLN Dictionary o the Later New estament and Its Developments

    DL D, Lg i DPL Dictionary o Paul and His Letters EBC he Expositors Bible Commentary Ebib Etudes bibliquesECC E Ciil CyEFN Ei Fillg NiEGGN Exgil Gi Gk Nw EG Expositors Greek estamentEh B D. Eh, he New estament: A Historical Introduc-

    tion to the Early Christian Writings, . III- (Nw Yk:Ox Uiviy P, 2004)

    EKKN Evglih-khlh K z N -

    Elli E. El Elli, History and Interpretation in the New esta-ment Perspective, BIS 54 (Li: Bill, 2001)

    Eli M S Eli, Christian Beginnings (Nw Yk:Hp, 1936)

    EphLov Ephemerides heologicae Lovanienses EQ Evangelical Quarterly

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    Introducere n NOUL estament16

    ER Evangelical Review o heology EstBib Estudios bblicosE Eglih li

    EuroJh European Journal o heology Exp he Expositor Exp im Expository imesFRLAN Fhg z Rligi Li Al

    N Fs. FestschritGBS Gi Biblil ShlhipGNC G Nw CiGp Eg J. Gp,An Introduction to the New estament

    (Chig: Uiviy Chig P, 1937)GP Gospel Perspectives: Studies o History and radition in the

    Four Gospels, vl. 6, . R. . F, Dvi Wh iCig Blbg (Shil: JSO, 1980-1986)

    G Rb M. G, A Historical Introduction to the New es-tament(L: Clli, 1953)

    Ghi Dl Ghi, New estament Introduction, . IV-(Dw Gv, Ill.: IVP, 1990)

    Hi Ev F. Hi, Introduction to the New estament, .v. (G Rpi: E, 1971)Hk E. Hk, ., New estament Apocrypha, vl. 2 (E

    L: Lwh, 1963-1965)Hi Hi A Ciil Hiil Cy

    h BiblHN Hbh z N HNC Hp Nw Ci (= BNC)HKN H hlgih K z N

    HR Harvard heological ReviewHS Hv hlgil SiH A. M. H, Introducing the New estament(L:

    SCM, 1954)HU Hih Uhg z hlgi IB Interpreters Bible IBS Irish Biblical StudiesIB Ipig Biblil x

    ICC Iil Ciil CyICE Ii Chii Ei

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    17ABREVIERI

    IDB Interpreters Dictionary o the Bible IDBSup Interpreters Dictionary o the Bible Supplement Int Interpretation

    ISBE International Standard Bible Encyclopedia ISCAS Bulletin Bulletin o the Institute or the Study o Christianity inan Age o Science and echnology

    IVP IViy PIVPNC IVP Nw Cy JASA Journal o the American Scientiic Ailiation JB Jl Bibl JBL Journal o Biblical Literature JBR Journal o Bible and Religion

    JCE Journal o Christian Education JES Journal o the Evangelical heological Society JNES Journal o Near Eastern Studies Jh Lk . Jh,he Writings o the New estament, . v.

    (Mipli: F, 1999) JPSS Jl Pl hlgy Sppl Si JSN Journal or the Study o the New estament JSNSp Jl h Sy h Nw : Sppl

    Si JSO Journal or the Study o the Old estament JC Journal or heology and the Church JS Journal o heological StudiesJlicher Al Jlih, An introduction to the New estament

    (L: Sih, El, 1904)KBW Khlh BiblwkKEK My Kiih-xgih K b N

    KJV Kig J ViKlij A. F. J. Klij,An Introduction to the New estament, . v.

    (Li: Bill, 1967)Kl W Gg Kl,Introduction to the New estament

    (Nhvill: Abig, 1975)Lk Kipp Lk i Silv Lk,An Introduction to the New es-

    tament(L: Chiph, 1938)LCL Lb Clil Liby

    LEC Liby Ely ChiiiyLLC Literary and Linguistic Computing

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    Introducere n NOUL estament18

    LuovStud Louvain StudiesLSJ Hy Gg Lil, Rb S i Hy S J,

    A Greek-English Lexicon , ii IX-, (Ox: Cl,

    1940)LW Luthers WorksLXX SpgiMDl / P

    L Mi MDl i Sly E. P, Early Chris-tianity and its Sacred Literature (Pby: Hik,2000)

    MNil A. H. MNil,An Introduction to the Study o the New es-tament, ii II-, vizi C. S. C. Willi (Ox-

    , Cl, 1953)Mi Rlph P. Mi, New estament Foundations: A Guide or

    Christian Students, vl. 2 (G Rpi: E, 1975-1978)

    Mx Willi Mx, Introduction to the New estament (Phil-lphi: F, 1968)

    Mzg B M. Mzg,A extual Commentary on the Greek Newestament(L: UBS, 1971)

    MNC M Nw CyM J M, An Introduction to the Literature o the Newestament, . v. (Eibgh: . & . Clk, 1918)

    Ml C. F. D. Ml, he Birth o the New estament, ii III- (S Fi: Hp & Rw, 1981)

    MS(S) ip()NA26 Nl-Al Gk Nw , ii XXVI-NA27 Nl-Al Gk Nw , ii XXVII-NABPRDS h Nil Aii Bpi P Rligi

    Dii SiNAC Nw Ai Cy NAG Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaten in Gttingen,

    philologisch-historiche KlasseNCB Nw Cy BiblNCBC Nw Cbig Bibl CiNClB Nw Cl BiblNEB Nw Eglih Bibl

    Neot Neotestamentica NewDocs New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity

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    SBE Scottish Bulletin o Evangelical heologySBG Si i Biblil GkSBL Siy Biblil Li

    SBLDS Siy Biblil Li Dii SiSBLMS Siy Biblil Li Mgph SiSBS Sg BibliSB Si i Biblil hlgySh E. Sh, he History o the Jewish People in the Age o Jesus

    Christ, vl. 3, . , (Eibgh: . & . Clk, 1973-1987)

    SD Si DSE Studia Evangelica

    SIL S Ii LigiiSJLA Si i Ji i L AiqiySJ Scotish Journal o heologySN Si NiSN Si z N SNSMS Siy Nw Si Mgph SiSNU Si z N I WlSP Shl P

    SPB Si PbibliSR Studies in Religion = Sciences religieusesS Studia TeologicaSUN Si z Uwl N SWJ Southwest Journal o heologyDN heological Dictionary o the New estamentTeol Teology

    HN Tlgih Hk z N TR Teolocische Rundschau

    LZ Teologische Literaturzeitung NIV y Nw Iil Vi NC yl Nw Cy OC yl Ol CyrinJ rinity Journal

    SAJ x Si z ik JSK Teologische Studien und Kritken

    U x Uhg

    ynB yndale BulletinUBS Ui Bibl Sii

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    21ABREVIERI

    UBSMS Ui Bibl Sii Mgph SiUPA Uiviy P Ai

    v Uik W. C. v Uik,Te New estament (L: Clli,

    1964)Wars Jph, History o the Jewish War WBC W Biblil Cy WC Wi Ci WF Wg Fhg WEC Wyli Exgil Cy Wi Bh Wi,A Manual o Introduction to the New esta-

    ment, 2 vl. (Nw Yk: Fk & Wgll, ..) WH B. F. W i F. J. A. H,he New estament in the

    Original Greek (L: Mill, 1881)Wikh Al Wikh i J Shi,Einleitung in das Neue

    estament, . VI- (Fibg: H, 1973) WMAN Wihlih Mgphi z Al N

    WJ Westminster heological Journal

    WUN Wihlih Uhg z N -

    Zh h B. Zh,Introduction to the New estament, 3 vl.(Eibgh: .&. Clk, 1909)ZNW Zeitschrit r die neutestamentliche WissenschatZK Zeitschrit r heologie und Kirche

    ABreVieri i trAduceri ALe LucrriLor unorAdintre Prinii BiSericeti

    chyssmHom. in Matt.Homilies in St. Matthew

    clm AlxalQuis div. Quis dives salvetur (Cine este bogatul care va i mn-

    tuit?)Strom. Stromateis (Colecii)

    epfa

    Haer. Panarion Haereses (Cutia medical de erezii)

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    Introducere n NOUL estament22

    esbH.E. Historia Ecclesiastica (Istoria Bisericii)

    iga al Ah Eph. Pros Ephesious (Scrisoare ctre Ees) Magn. Magnesieusin (Scrisoare ctre Magnesia)Phil. Philadelpheusin (Scrisoare ctre Philadelphia)Rom. Pros Romaious (Scrisoare ctre Roma)Smyr. Smyrnaiois (Scrisoare ctre Smyrna)rall. rallianois (Scrisoare ctre ralles)

    i Adv. Haer. Adversus Haereses (mpotriva Ereziilor)

    imDe vir. ill. De viris illustribus (Despre oameni ilutri)

    is Mal Apol. ApologiaDial. Dialogue with rypho

    ogComm. on Matt. Commentary on MatthewComm. on John Commentary on John

    PapasLogion Kyriakon Exegesis (Greac)Exegesis o the Dominical Logia (Latin)

    (Expunere asupra Prorociei Domnului)

    PlapPhil. Epistle to the Philippians

    tlaAdv. Marc. Adversus Marcion (mpotriva lui Marcion)

    Vs Apoc. Commentary on the Apocalypse

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    Oii p i i iz Nl lpl xii l l. Chi i i i

    l 27 i i l Nli , ii i- ip l xi i -i (vzi il p li 2 P 3:15-16 il Pvl). Cl ilii , i ihibil ligvi, ll i ii, ii i. Ab ii, ii i i -lgl ll, p l l zi z l Nli , i i

    lii i i iil li ip. E p xi i ghii i j i il; ivi vll il, i vi i, v, il li ii, x iii p l p iz Nl .

    A pil p i p ii p-lii, ii, bi i bi il Nli

    . Sl i pp lg bil -

    p il Nli ivibili ii vi pli i iipli ( xpl:ii xl, ii ii, hi), ilgi -il i i ( xpl: ii l, ii -il, liz ili, ipi p) i pliipi ( xpl: F. C. B, J. B. Ligh, E. P. S).Sii pi igii i v ii ip-ibil jg pi lil Nli ii

    l i pli; l l b li, ipi i pbbil . pl, xl iiii, i iiii l- i ip ilii.

    cu GnduL LA StudiuLnouLui teStAMent

    23

    C a p i t o l u l u n u

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    Introducere n NOUL estament24

    A, pl ig ii- b p l vlli , i l l i p Nl

    , vi p i l.

    trAnSMitereA teXtuLui

    L pl vghlii l, L li lii - p i iiii p I (L 1:1-4). C ii lgi g- lg pi iii l p - j i v p I p Bii pi, xi vzi pivi g: l - I li.1 Di-- ppiv, xi l z lNli i pi.

    A i igi p li p.Exi vzi ii l i - jl, pii vi i pi . hi ipli l l ili i j p, piil pli l. i, i bi vi pii pi-ii: - p i pil p pi il, iivi i l viz i, iv ibi i

    i i l p vii i pi p- igill,li l l ii p il.A g lipli pil piil lii i pi - ii. Cl i l i piil ipii l lNli il lii bi bi l i li Pvl l l p vi, l, i vi li I. Di z, pl : iii i iipl p -i ppiil pii, i ll i vii

    pl i bi ibil piii. P l p, pipil li i i bi ii i p ii l gli i l g piil i

    vii - p i piii il. pill il l i i i p l

    li l Nli . P ii b-v , p l piil l Nli , - i p i hibi . pil ,

    ll p i li x, i lg i1Vzi bi Al Mill, Reading and Writing in the ime o Jesus (Shil:Shil Ai P, 2000).

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    25CU GNDUL LA SUDIUL NOULUI ESAMEN

    l i pi i zill , pi iiil pi i pj, i bligi l p lgi . l il , jll (piliii l

    il) p i li (i xliv) iiv l i giji, liz l i p. i, l il, Bii pi, hi i Ipil R, lii gpi iv, - l ip p Nl , p g Bibli, l libi. A vii l Bibli-i ( i il) - bi l li.2 vpiv xi lg pyigh i ii ii l, - p vii li, ii i ll, p iivil i biii ll p li - p ppii l ggii.

    zill , ipgiil p p ii pii identice. D i pi i , l ii bi-l, i pi v i bi ll i z glil ili pi pi iv v p li l. Pv p pi i p il igilli lipli ip. U ii pi pii l i zi i-ii l i i gli il i l i l

    z li pi. Di ii , pibil l li p l l- consideratgli p igil. D xpl, bi i Aplip xi l lii gil. Mivl i-p; xi i ii j i l v i. E pibil pii- pi i zi i z ii pii ii li i gli p i l- - gi ll i l gli.

    Al i ii i ggi ibi l i-

    iii il - i. pil , Ipil R - pi p Ri i Ap (g h pli Ci i bil pili il l Cipl), - pl i Bii. il i Ap, lib iil Ri g, i ipl- p i libi i lingua ranca, - bii pi lib li. Iiil, xi l viili, p il lli l IV-l, D, pip l Ri,

    l- i p J pg vi li iil 2Cl i b i l l li B M. Mzg, he Early Versions o theNew estament: heir Origin, ransmission and Limitations (Ox: Cl P, 1977).

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    Introducere n NOUL estament26

    i lg pi i i hi ip biiil i Ap. Avi li, vizi i l i, vi b l Vlg i vi pi i Ap ip ili.

    hib, il i Ri i lib g, i ii vi l i Ipil Bizi. ivibil,il gi li i pi l i b i ligvii li Ap, p Cipll z iil il li l 1453. v gi Ap li lgi i-i, i il gi vli j l pgi Ri, i Rii.

    l il , ill p i i(hivll hii zi) i l li li p l pi. Cil l i p i- ppergament, pil il . Pgl lipi i vellum. Ai, il ipapirus, pl i b l Nilli. P-pil i lpiii li bb. S ppi p pl ii lgi pi p

    i lill p li ppi. C pgl l i zi ppil, bl il gi i lbil, pil i zl. Pi , piz l i bxpl i i pvi i iipil ibii i lEgipli.

    Pi , l vzi xl - i p zill -? Exi pxiiv ii ii i pi i i(l i l ipl g) l gli N libg l i pi i i pxiiv p ii i- pi i i l viil. vzi p i lii- i l li. D xpl, iv l p lii p gii il i (pg ppi). Mi ip, il uncialel Nli g (l i li jl) ipi i , ip xi pxiiv i ii minuscule(-i i jl). pl, xi p ii citiri i biii i lii i xl bibli p i ii

    i l zil l li lii.Al il i i Bibli i iil piil Bi-

    Existaproximativcinci mii demanuscrise

    sau pri dinmanuscrise

    (unele dintre

    ele simplefragmente) alentregului NouTestament n

    limba greac saudoar ale unei

    pri din acesta.

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    27CU GNDUL LA SUDIUL NOULUI ESAMEN

    iii pi i pj i iil Nli p bli l i ostraca (bli l li ii i il i) i l3, p i ll l IV-l i l XIII-l.

    C i p i il pvi i pi i i i ii 500 .C i 1500, l i ipii g pvii pi j lli l II-l.

    E ip bv , i lil - i i pi lii i, Nl l i pl vzi xl. D xpl, p pil Ci l Ana-lelor, i il ii i, xi ig -i z i ll l IX-l. Lil li Eipi,

    l i bi giil gi, p 54 ppii i 276 i p pg, l i pvi pp li ipi bizi. Ii Ri Vlli Pl - i- ig i ipl - pi ll l XVII-l, pi i. pi, bgi i g lg il piji Nl lib g pli.

    ipi il pi i pl lii.Pi ii ipi Nli lib g p l

    10 ii 1514. A ii vll 5 l i Biblii pligl, Cill pi l Spii, Fi Xi Ci(1437-1517). ipi l All i li Cpl, l j i b l Bibli Cpli Pligl.Vll 5 pi i pil gl g ipi, pll lxi pbli p .4 C Bibli Cpli i pil N libg tiprit v, pi i publicat (i

    ipi i i p pi). A pivilgi vi iii pgi Dii E (1469-1536), ii lz i R.E i ilizz piv ii i pbli 1516. V-ll, - gli ipgi, - bz pil

    3 All li p i jl gli p p hill. Ul l ipl pi gi bi , ll l i i gi i p ppi, vll, ibi l l.Al pii pp i i, ivibil, l i i bibli. Evi ii i ii ll p ig vzi p

    pj i i.4 P l pli, vzi Jh A. L. L,A History o New estament Lexico-

    graphy, SBG 8 (Nw Yk: P Lg, 2003).

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    Introducere n NOUL estament28

    p i ii i ll l XII-l p -i i Bl.

    E i pg iii i - l

    i glil ipgi i, iii - bz p i li gi. Cl i b i il i -ll l X-l. A i b lll i li l,ii pi i il ipi, i z b l l lll i i pi li, E - bz p l l. C- - p ii il (1527) pgi p E l Bibli Cpli. A p i l: lib g, Vlg i ppi li E li. C -i ii (1535) b vi Vlg, pivxl g, p - bi - - p ii li.

    iiil ipii l Nli lib g pii pi l lii li E . Rb Ei (l i li p i liiz, Sph) pbli p l iiil Nli lib g, i l Pi (1546, 1549, i 1550), ili l Gv (1551), i- p liii i i li p-. Pil iii l l iii i

    i pli; - i ii li (1550) - i l iiil p i i li E i il, p pi , aparat critic, li liv, ipi p giil ii, l lpipz i gi bz li l, l -g li i Pligll Cpli.5 C - i ii i xi i l li. l 1553 ip-i J Cipi Gv, i i v hibi xl g. h Bz (Bz), l li Clvi Gv,

    pbli iii l Nli lib g. A iiipi v vzi xl i, li Bz i, l iiil i i p li Sph. -ii viii Kig J (1611) - bz l p iiil li Bzi pi 1588-1589 i 1598.

    Uli, l 1624, ii Bv i Abh Elzvi pbli- l Li ii pl Nli lib g pl p i ii li Bz i 1565. C - ii ilElzvi, 1633, l ( zill - i p

    5Ul i l 14 i Cx Bz, pz ii -i piipl p xl Ap.

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    29CU GNDUL LA SUDIUL NOULUI ESAMEN

    pblii) pl iil i l textul primit i, i l p: vil bliipvi i lil textus receptus, i- l x p

    l i vi l x . A il x pii, i l i pi, pl il Biblii lib glz p l 1881. A ii xl bzzp v piv ii - i il, p i- pi zi.

    Sll l li i v vxl i j p . Sljb iili xl v i iiii pi vi i ppi igill p , ig, l i. 6 Ciiiixli giz v v i tipuri de text:l li p - z l ii xl ii lii. Ivibil, i p - ll i - pi li- il p, i -il i gi - p, pibil gz pi ipi . U gp i i iii i ipi, bii v v i p i, ii amilie.

    C iipli, ii xl p l li Rih Si, p z i i i l il lli l XVII-l.Mi pi, l 1707, Jh Mill, lg gli, iliz, pi i , ii li g-, pl ii l ( i p il bgii iil li Rih Si). A p hib xlpii, pl, p i l pi p i pgi xl ppi-zi, il i pj pll, i i vi l -

    il ipibil, vii i iii ipi. A ii il iz l iiil p igi i xl ii i i l Nli , p i ii

    6U i iii xli gz pp gi igil-li pzi xii iil: xpl, D. C. Pk, he Living ext o the Gospels (C-big: Cbig Uiviy P, 1997). ii il li, ii, pi igill iil. Mi , l ig -i l i lil p i l p ii iii xl p giBii ii pi ip i li. Pk i pz libiii xl, z l p iiii pli p i

    a existat igil. Fpl p p igil ii vip i v viiz li i vl i pl i , i , lizbil.

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    Introducere n NOUL estament30

    l il Nli v ii ip, l g iil p il.

    i pivi , ig l pziv p ii

    xl Jh Albh Bgl, pii vb. Eii liz l Nli lib g, pbli l 1734, i i x b pj xl pii( l i l hibi lipi ip), i i p ii bil. l, Bgl pz l iip vi xl ii gp, pi l ip l( pi - bi iiii l li g i zill ). Ml vl i - p i pbbil igil p - - pl iil bi zill . Bgl lgli piipii p i- bz iziil i, - , - - p - lgl ipli.

    D xpl, Bgl l i p-z vi pii ip lii. L i,il l i l - p i zii pi xlivi i i iii xl. E ip i cnd i il i ipi x pi-

    ji i l ( bii pz iii xl iii pi l lii). Bgl l b i ipp bi i- p ii x : ii i l i g p lll? pl, ii pl gl ibii v i lii iilil vi, Bgl l gl: C i iiil ii pii li i iii (Proclivi scriptioni praestat ardua).

    E lip ii i gli bl. D l p

    bi bi il ii l piil i hi-bil ii. Shibil ii l i iv i bi xl, pp- ib i gl. P l i ppi, glli Bgl iz bi: i i iil ii i i i igil. D l xi ii xpl, ll ibl vi i i i gl ivi i- i, i pi i i i gl i iz. Cii i iiil ii ixpli-bil, hi i iiil, i i igil.Cplxi iii iiii xl p i i i ii

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    p pi lg ip l i, -vi x iliizi iil, glil i i-l iivil l il. Diipli ii p p

    i. E pi v, i j .7

    Spii g i zvl pgiv ipl -li l iiii. pil , bi -bi v x ( il piji i l-i) i v i ( gl l x p i l p i i ipi). l il , pivv i, iiii xli j bi pbbili- ii ( l i pbbil i i l, j pil l ) i pbbili i ( pbbil il piii, i - hib ii, i ii).

    A pz i l iiii xl - p i i p ii - pl gi p x pii, ii li x-pl: Bi Wl (1600-1661), Rih Bly (1662-1742), Jh J-kb Wi (1693-1754), Ew Hw (1729-1794), Jh JkbGibh (1745-1812), Lbg Fiih Ci v ih(1815-1874), p i l lb li Bk F W

    (1825-1901) i F Jh Ahy H (1828-1892). zill ,l i ip liz ii xli Nli , p lg bzi , i p i pli x igil, Ii x Fhg iM.

    Mji iiil xli pi plz - pzii -i eclecticism. A p i ipl i aleg(vl libg p vbl lg eklegomai) vi p i

    i pivi p g i vzi, i i x, vl i. D iii l gpi ii.O gp i piji xl pii, pbli ii Elzvi, i l pi b xli ji, i l

    7Cl i izbi ii bi i i lil li B Mzg,he ext o the New estament:Its ransmission, Coruption and Restoration, . III- ii(Ox: Ox Uiviy P, 1992), i K Al i Bb Al, he ext o the

    New estament: In Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the heory and Practice o Modernextual Criticism, . Ell F. Rh (Li: Bill; G Rpi: E, 1987).

    D l v, ii - bz p il pz - i il iB Mzg,A extual Commentary o the Greek New estament, . II- (L/NwYk: Ui Bibl Sii, 1994).

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    Introducere n NOUL estament32

    vi pijii l i i.8 Cll- gp ii pvz -il eclecticismradical. Mbiii gp i v x (i ip

    i gl pi i gpi i piji i ii); g l i p p vzii i.9

    Ii i ipl, zill iiii i-ii vi i iipli l ipzii iii -li i x x viil ipi l Nli - lib g. C i p Nli g pi. Al iiii, ip piz ii ii i. E pibil i vixl i p ii p b ii i ii pijii i pj, i ii xi pibili pl l pj pll pi p l -l gl pbli, i i, i ii. piv l l g lg vzi x-l, i ll pii i i ll l

    XIX-l i l XX-l, l - pzii l i b - gi

    8 Pbbil i b g p i p v vi ip li Wilb N. Pikig, he Identity o the New estament ext II, . III- (Eg:Wip Sk, 2003). C i i liz i i pziii, i pl v l liili bz, pbbil li K Al, h x hChh? rinJ8 (1987): 131-144. P liz i ppl, vzi D. A. C, he King

    James Version Debate: A Plea or Realism (G Rpi: Bk, 1979); J R. Whi, heKing James Only Controversy (Mipli: Bhy H, 1995); Dg Kilk,J. Frank

    Norris and His Heirs: he Bible ranslation Controversy (P: Pilgi, 1999).9

    i pivi, i liiz l ii i pl lbi lii. C i b pz i g l liz J. K. Ellii i i bi i i i (i i vi i p il ii xl i G. D. Kilpik). Vzi, xpl J. K. Elli, ., he Principles and Practice o Newestament extual Criticism: Collected Essays o J. D. Kilpatrick, BEL 96 (Lv: LvUiviy P, 1990); i Essays and Studies in New estament extual Criticism, EFN 3(Cb: Eii l Al, 1992); K D. Clk, extual Optimism: A Critique othe United Bible SocietiesGreek New estament, JSNSp 138 (Shil: Shil AiP, 1997). Cl i b p liili il i (i ii iiipii p i) i pi i pil i l iiiixl bz, pz xl i . 7.

    Cea mai mareparte a Noului

    Testament ngreac are un

    fundament foar-te puternic. Aco-

    lo unde rmnincertitudini,

    este importantde precizat c

    acestea nu suntn nicio situaiede natur doc-

    trinar.

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    i i - lgl pp 1900 i.10 D , p ,i i g l p, vi li Dz hii bi v igill, p pp ig l- i

    v il - i l p pli ii p jli i il piv.

    trAdiii interPretAtiVe SuSinute de-ALunGuL tiMPuLui

    Ul i pill p l l iz zi Nl - l v ii i lii ii i zbii i ipii 27 i. Cg i l zi

    vli li p, l g bl i lii il lli l XXI-l v iv,b hi i, i pii iil pi b v lgil p l v zi l iii ii. pl, iii vi, i i libli lii, i ii iv, z p lil -l. Di p v, li (i pii vghlii) iipiii gi lgi i p R

    i , i lizz i xgi , xi pl v l lgi ii. Di p libl, li zpi pg Iliili p li piiil iipii iiii, b i gi vil l i v p l i pz.11

    Evi, i i pill i i p pi p lg ii. C z i lg

    10Pzii i Pk, he Living ext o the Gospels ii xl

    pp ppi i l pibil xl igil, i ipl x-ii hi - pl vbil. Vzi zi x i Mi Silv WJ62 (2000): 295-302.

    11 D x., W. G. Kl Te New estament: Te History o the Investigation o Its Problems(Nhvill: Abig, 1972), 13: E ipibil vbi p p v ii-ii pivi l Nl p Nl vi p li bil i ivigi iiii ip i i pp i i ii, li ii p i l i p Vhil i il i g ii i. Di p v p pvlz i ll l XVIII-l, iiili p gi Nli p i i pii iii Nli

    . E pi pbbil iv l liii ivibil i p-ili toiipii i ipi vigil p xli i p i lil zill .

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    Introducere n NOUL estament34

    phiv l pgl i il ipii gi -lgl i ili i j, i x liv v pz i i i ii ip -

    vi v il ip Nli i v ipl p l- v l Nli -lgl iii.

    1. U i l i ip lizi giz -l Nli gp ( p b iil pli, i v i l, il v p?C.. 2 P 3:15-16) i l Nli . Civ i piii l p i lil pil l i i i, , i -i pz ii. S vi i zbil i pil l l Biiii l bi il v v pbl b i i p Nl . D xpl,piii Biiii z p i p i--pseudonymous (x. l ipi i i Pvl, i li l l i), z g iii lg pi il. P , l p il Biiii - p pbll ip, i i p pbll hi

    lg i.2. l pil l, iil vi i,

    l pi pi p, v v l vi ii pv-l pil l. A i il p zi iii ivi i ppi, p ii pii-pi l i l i i - i , iil pili l x ivii, i l il l pig l iiii l i,

    ii i p. C , ii pl p liil xi- iil ipi i ii plx.

    Dig, li i piii ii vi. P Biiiii g i Ni i ip piii iilg i l liz Dz pi i vili I Ci, - ivibil i ii i p bi (vzi Fpl Aplil 15 i Gli 2:11-14).Dl Nli giz v i pg

    ipii, iii j , I igbz iii, i i pilii iii iili, p-

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    iizi l lg pi ii i phibi-iil hi kh, i p i ip iiil. Mi l,

    j li I zlv pbl pli il, i jl l

    pl i p v ii li l. l, iii ii iz l li p v lgl -zi. D Dl I liz pl i lg glLi (L 22:20; 1 Cii 11:25; . 2 Cii 3:6; Ii 31:31-34),lgl zi bi i lg vhi (. 2 Cii3:6; Evi 8:13).

    A lii, g p pgiil Nli , zbi vii i iii i ll l II-l.C i lv i ii b il li Ii Mil(. 100-165) Dialogue with rypho(Dialog cu ripo). A

    vb p vi v Ii v v p ip i iv i piii li. Dilgl ilz i ili Ii -i ig p vi i p Ni l Ci, i i l plg i i ll l II-l ipz Vhil li Nli , p i lgi bibli pl.12

    3. li ip, piii ii i p -i ig pi i Ni l Ci. C Fpl Aplil lz

    xpi, iii Aihi ii l pi bii pi l i xi ix i i p v iiibil (Fpl Aplil 11:19-30; 13:1-3; 15:1-35). Pvl - vzp i pl l Nil (Gli 2:7-10). El pbil -ivghlizz p vi i p ii l ilii piip lljbl i iggil ll (vzi pil pl p vgh-liz i igg Aihii Piiii, Fpl Aplil 13:16-43), Pvl pil h vghlizz il pg, i

    vb i biii i i ii (Fpl Aplil 14:8-18), i iii l (Fpl Aplil 19), i

    vb illi (Fpl Aplil 17:16-34). x,Pvl - ivibil iil ilzii: Fpl Apli-

    12Dialog cu ripo pzi pbbil p li l iiil v IiMil vii. Nivll i l i bi lv i biiv, p bi l i zi. App i ii i ip i pil ii l i piv iili il g bil g l li, i i li ii lziz ip i vi gl

    li li p p ii li Ci i iili. Vzi pilJlv Plik, he Christian radition, the Emergence o the Catholic radition (100-600)(Chig: Uiviy Chig P, 1971), 1:15-16.

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    Introducere n NOUL estament36

    l 17:18 ii piiii i iii, xi l l - ilzi. L v piv, pi vlilozoie lg iipli zi -i li p i z bil

    pii p i iv. l i, ilzi l lg i zi pi p v p l.Dlii i -i pzi pl v p l,i iii i i vghlizz p i piji- p v pg p l.

    - i , l i pil i l l i -i plli. P p p ipi, l p-gi i pl i pl i i gl

    vi pp . D plli ligiil i pl v p l lii l pi ig pivi: Aligii iv z p pli l Dz jgp i l i. v i ii xi g pip pz xi lii gi i p - g (ilz-i p zi), p i hibbil.Ai p l i. E p i pii13. i, i i li gi i i -i i big i g. Al, pgl Cl ii

    p gli vliii ivl i i biii vhi p -lzi p Oig ii p piiii i ii-li. Pphyi i l: bili ii v p i l ivl p lib lli.14 U li xpi ll :

    i iiii ii i iili i i xi ig p ivi R i, zi g iii

    p pllil ligi lipl piil i i-l ligi; l iili, i iil l pCi i p Il ... Apl l ii pii iili Dz, giii ii l viil gvii lgi iviliz i Aihi.15

    13 E. A. Jg, Ai Cii i h Ali Sl, ISCAS Bulletin 33(Wi 2001): 8.

    14Ci Agi, City o God10.32.15R. L. Wilk, Rligi Plli Ely Chii hgh, Remembering the

    Christian Past(G Rpi: E, 1995), 42-43.

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    37CU GNDUL LA SUDIUL NOULUI ESAMEN

    Al, l p iii i- lgi ppi i ip l l l i i i i xl lgil, iiii, iii ll i i-

    iil l.4. pl, hi i l i i ii i- pii i l pziii b, -i p liii ii i viiil i vi i i ili i, ii pi iii l. Al, l i l l i ipii l Nli , Pvlvizz piv i l vghlii p ii zvghli i pi i i p i i v(Gli 1:6-9); p l p, l i l i zii l Nli , I i pl pi Bi-iii, - p i z pbl i i i, p v, i pii plii l, i - p ii i ppl li Ci p , i p, - i pl (1 I 2:19). Bii pi ip xi- p i z l p il bi gv (1Cii 5:1-13), i p i ii i hlii (1 ii 1:20).

    C ipl i i i j Bii -i lii

    l p gi, i gii, i i pi pijii ll, - vi i i . Pil i l i ii (ii ii l p-gii) ii p i xl -i v i l i zi l Nli 16, i j l pg ll l II-l i l III-l. C iip gi p i lib -glz i Ng Hi.17 Cv i l lx

    li v l ivl l l ii Nli. Dl gi pp ii p igiil - p l p i l pzi Nl gBibli. D bii, i pz i ii ; i ig pi- biiv j, i pi ppii iii; i ilil ii pz i b.

    ii, , plgii ii i ll l II-l il III-l - vz vii z vil i i l-

    16Vzi pill 23 p pill ii.17 J A. Rbi, ., he Nag Hammadi Library in English, . III- (S F-

    i: Hp, 1990).

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    Introducere n NOUL estament38

    Sipil i p b , i- ppivx, l zii ilbil i pil. Pbbil li i plgi Ii, pip Ly, li

    il ii vl i piii i lii iil - gii. C l i p il li l II-l l, vil iii l l l p Plip, l l li i l li I.

    P pil , ip i bi il ii, i i p li. Pil ipl , b il li Wl B18, pii gl li vig Bii pi - iii l -xi i zi. Al ii ipi ii b i piz vi iiii, i zi p iiii giv, i l pli l xi i pli Ci i - pi pii ii- pz gl l. A g pi i li. i B - lii xi i xl p ll lII-l. P lg pl l i iii gi pivi l l -lil l, B v vii i pi pl pl -l il l l ll iil cel mai timpuriu19

    ip vzil liz j p z p i l iipii i l Nli , iii i i i pbili bi v v i l.

    A pbl i ip pzi he Jesus Seminar(Sil p I) l i i, i l p l (vzi pil l pil), ii -i.Ci i li i iii lg he Jesus Seminar i p z li B, i g p l gz i

    ipi v i piji p giil i 18Wl B, Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity (Phillphi: F

    P, 1971 [ig. 1934]).19 L l i I. Hw Mhll, i l g i i p -

    i p: Ohxy Hy i Eli Chiiiy, Temelios 2/1 (1976): 5:14. Alli il p i bi i il p Dil J. Hig, T Rpi Wl- B Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity Dig h L D, HR 77(1980): 289-299; Hl O. J. Bw, Heresies: Te Image o Christ in the Mirror o Heresyand Orthodoxy rom the Apostles to the Present (G Ciy: Dbly, 1984); Gh N.S i Gy G. S, ., olerance and Intolerance in Early Judaism and Christianity

    (Cbig: Cbig Uiviy P, 1998); Cig L. Blbg, T Nw Dii Hy ( Wh D J h Apl Rlly G M?), JES 45(2002):59-72, , i illi lg, i pz.

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    l pzi p I ii i gb pi ii ii. Ii-l Philip Jki :

    Pbl ii gi xil, igiil gl vhi i iii vli p i-il l i ipi, p v. C vi p-l v x l ii pil l i ig l i ipii piii l iii li I; , lipibil p pl v gi z i- pi li zi, i i viiz i ii xi.20

    5. Ui, ii pi l lg pl g-i ii i p Nli pvi liv. A i l i p , lil 20 l,l i x gi ii - ii pp p-, gl b i l zll pilgi i ll l

    vii. D xpl, iii - vii p p ll lXVIII-l p p i li i vghlii. ll lII-l, i (. 110-172) liz Diatessaron, pzi

    l p i xi l p vghlii i. L- vi Biiii ii p ghi p lighi i p ll l V-l.

    6. A i p lbi hi ip Nli i i lg pii ip. L i, vll i ii Biiii. C ,i z zi Nl ip i lii il Nli , i p i

    l p ip Nli i -i ziiil, ipl i pl i vi ibi ipiv.

    L il lli l III-l, i l i il i p Biblii g l Alxi i Aihi. coala Alexandrin bi zi ilzi i ll plgiii -i, pil ilzi zl l Pl. Ai, g l lgi xgz l, lxiii h pl vp ii ppi ii (i i Dzi).

    20 Philip Jki, Hidden Gospels: How he Search or Jesus Lost Its Way (Ox: OxUiviy P, 2001), 115-116.

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    Introducere n NOUL estament40

    , coala Antiohian viz xgz l i li, ili ii. A i- ii p pli l pi iSip vl i i piil i ll i

    i xg vl i pil lSipii pi pl l lgi. gl, i b bil pilgi p v i li Ci. Aip i i-l ihiil li -L v p Ci Dz-, i li Dz.

    Pi pii pz i l ipl lgii gii ii i- l iiiil bz liiBiblii. Cv i ibiil li Ii Mil, Ii i Ii j i. Cl i v p l ilgii x Atanasie(. 296-373), gip i , i g.El p plgii lgi, i p p ivii -pli li Ci, i l ii p il bibli. Conciliulde la Niceea (325) - l Crezul Niceean, - pivi vii liAi i Lgl (Cvl i I 1:1) , iip iii Ci i l.Ioan Hrisostom (. 344-407) pip Cipl, i p pi xpziiv,i- lgi li il pi pbli pii

    l i p li l ii pi i vil ipxiiv 236 ii. N l l i vi vbp iil l Oig (. 185-254), lg lx-i xi. Cl i l i lil li - p pp v , v i iii p iilj i l, pl lil plgi, li ii xl (iil- i, i Bgl, pil iiii xl Nli ), i i pil lgii ii. C l i ll

    l lgi i zi i i (x. Si-l l Cipl i l 543), i li l lgii ip lxi p p l ihi ( i vbi l i zi), xi iil l vig -i gi.21Eusebiu de Cezareea (. 263-339) i i

    21 C i liv i i l oeuvrepvii, v ilil l ip ibil p i i i i lib glz. Cil v l li Oig p ii Ri, i g, - pi, li i pi Ri (345-410), i li i

    li glz li v h P. Shk: Commentaryon he Epistle to the Romans, 2 vl. (Whig: Chli Biblil Aii Ai,2001-2002).

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    pil Iii Biiii. Di bi i l Historia Ecclesiastica, ig l l v il pi ip. P lg iil l ii, Ebi

    i i i plgi.C i vbi pAugustin de Hippo i Ai N (354-430), i i l ig i pil p l p pli. Exp-il l p Plil i p Evghlii p I p i ii l bii, i Conessions (Cii) pl i li ip lgi i- lil i li l v-il. L Ipili R p Ri l 410 . C., l li Agi iil he City o God(C li Dz) ii pig zi-il pg i iii pbili pzl Ri, i ip iii i i pi xi i, pi , p ibiil i pil i, i , li Dz, ig ii vi. A iplgi l i iii p- vi biliz x p ii

    p bzl iii pb.Spl i pzi iii l p

    i p i x: l l l ii i i l Pi pi ii i p i l pi x.Vhil p Ci; Nl vb pCi. A, vii i pii ii - i -ili , i ii p l i l - i l p. A l piii Biiii

    - i p gi; ii ii i v p. D pzi p ipi iii p i- i l Nli i p i, ip i v pl 27 .

    7. U i ii bi bv ll p l- jCi, pil p i (iil).

    pil i l, Bii pi p Dhli, - -

    i pi pi i i pi li viii p i bii i.Bii b piji vj gvl; l i

    Cretinii au fost

    de la nceput

    oameni profund

    ancorai n text:

    accesul lor la

    istoria unic i

    la Persoana uni-

    c prin care au

    fost mntuii a

    fost mai presus

    de orice unul

    textual.

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    Introducere n NOUL estament42

    v i b pig ipil. P ii, ii - g, i bii, p i i- ii Ali v pli p , i i ii

    bii pi vi. pl, i i- ii El i- v Czli l Czli i li Dz li Dz(M 12:17; . Mi 22:21; L 20:25). i pi,i ligi i l - lg l i ,i pi-. Ill i , l pi i, i.D I bili pi , l viii i, v pi i p p, , p i, v i p. Ppl Li p p v i i i i li-b, ii i i. D l v i i gi ggi ii pp. Ciii i i pii i bi -ipli i : li Cz i bi i vi li Cz; i li Dz bi -I I vi Li. DCz i p lii i pi i l i vi, iii i l Dz i l ii .

    i, piipi bili Dl i: i pii, i i i bi il

    vi p i, hi p l , p l ilizii pii

    li Dz.Ii p ig lpi piv li Mxi l 312 b-

    li l Pl Milvi, i l Ri, Ci liblgl pli p ii. Bii p b bviipil. Ppiil i i bi, xil xpii p lii, iil li - i piji ii, i iipipi p b jiii ivil. Epipl Ri, j ig pi pipi, ig l i pi

    i j. iil i i ivil i lii- ip ii, i i -i hib ipl il i i, p ii hi i ppi -vi i x bili i ili. C , i -l piil li Cz i piil li Dz, p Pvl vb p -i j p iii i lg ili bili Dz ( pil Ri 13:1-7), i I -i j p ii pip l p i ii-il v il (vzi Aplip), i xi i l i l ii vi p i xi-

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    Bii i .22 A zvli , ii li, i i ligi, i i p plii i l i - b bil ii. Rliil plii

    i ligi pi iiz p i , hi p i h, l iiiil i Nl.

    8. U i zvlil il v l ipl pilv l pii pipil hii. pi i l Nli , iil p ( - p), pzbi/b i pip (i i pv-gh l vii l Biblii) - i l ii i,i l i pbili ggiil ll. Lpl li -l II-l l (i ii l pii i hi i v), ii pipi pi j i ii p alte ggii ll. Ci bi l pv-gh pii l pipi, ip lii - v i i -i pz i pzbi i p.Mivl l bz piii pipil hii plx,i l i pziiv, hi zll j il bi. Nl iil p, i pl

    i biii vi p v, p l ivlli pgi lii ii. P plii vi i l l pii ii iii li i bii bii.23 D i p izz iii? Ivibil, p i piii, vbl ligi l, pi l ljb l p i b, hi v ii lii

    22 Fli xpi vii ii l Bii i l li-z l ll i l. Sp i Bii i li

    l, xpl, F, M Bii i Sl Ui. D xpi i i -i ig pivi, plxi i vi l, pii i l, pil. Dp Mh pl p l Mi,iil ligi i ivil . Pil i l il pi pi ii ili. Il gi bl ii xpi ii p bzl li I: Di Czli l Czli i li Dz li D-z. , Ill - p ii pl i- l Apl,ii - v v lii liii ii.

    23 Sil - zvl p p piii i pii iii pz bii l . Ci i li i i i b p i pii. Ai i ig ii pl p pivilgil

    pj vli. l zi, i pii iii i ivi- i bil - l , i hi i l. P i xiiiii iviil .

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    Introducere n NOUL estament44

    p p pi. Alii ii iiil l i z vi jl biiil, p p v p pll l li. Uii ii i. i i , l

    iii, liii biiii ll ii pgii i i p bi i l p vi j i i ipi hi pili. D , i pi pl i ll l II-l pzi iii pi bil i piii pii iii bi pi iiii i bi pii. Ai ii l - ig l, bi i i v p i ii-i il i (. Didachexi).

    Ivibil, i ii i pii lli pl li i vi pipi/pzbii/pi i ppi, l i v p h i pi v i pi i bii l, i g z i p i.C pl ig p jl bii-il, l i pipii pivi bi li i iii Nl .

    A p ip p pil , lg l p iil pipil i zil -

    iil l vi v i g lg l Bii- pi j i zlv ipl g v plil.Apii ip i l v pipil i igi ipili ilii i, i pipi vii ig l (), -zi oikoumen. Cl p ilii p ii li ii l i v i, p i bil zb l l, l: Ni I (325),ii; Cipl (381), pliii; E (431), ii;

    Cl (451), ihii; Cipl II (553), v ipil; Cipl III (680-681), lii; i Ni II (787),il.24

    9. A ilii ii jl i l ii l bil vl pivi l i bi.C Cilil l Ni (325) h ii piviip i p ivii li Ci, Cilil l Cl- (451) bili ii i vi iiil

    24 N v p i pi i ii b l iiiBiiii. Ex. F. L. C i E. A. Livig, he Oxord Dictionary o the Christian Church,. III- (Ox: Ox Uiviy P, 1997).

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    45CU GNDUL LA SUDIUL NOULUI ESAMEN

    p ii, piipii l ilii - gi ll p iv lgi p pi v i Bibli p ii l- i i. Mi gb, i i

    l j ipil lil ibi jlii i lz i bibli l, gz pii bigiii ii vi l i.

    iil, ii i ll l XVI-l - ii pi lz i jiiii p v li Pvl i gii Biblii, - li ii ii jii p i z lg ip i i. p i pi pii.25 D ipl p v Ri l i p li x li. Mivl gz v i p i pl i , Dz S l l i v p - vig lgi i li vizi i l lgpii ppli S. Pi , v vi p i iii ipii Nli i p gii Biblii.

    10. Dp Ipili R, l i zb Ap. Li, lib i v lg, p

    p i ipl l p libilgi i bi. O i Evl Mi, li i liiilli iii; i i, hi i i p, lbi ilbi. Pbbil l i i v iil, i l li lli b lz l z. i, p i l i l - pi i (hi i g l), iil, i iil i l lgi.26

    D- lgl ll, Bii i- hib i i- iiv l ii ip, i p ivi-bil l hibi i iii l li ii - pql Nl . L ivl gizil, pi hi p Bii Ap ( li) i Bii Ri ( x).E ipibil bili l p ivizi, ibi pii il bii l 1054. Lliz piipl il i Ep Ri, Bii Ox i gizz l

    25 Vzi h C. O, he Justiication Reader(G Rpi: E, 2002).26 P i i, p pi xg, lli p l v i-

    il, vzi h Chill, How he Irish Saved Civilization (Nw Yk Dbly, 1995).

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    Introducere n NOUL estament46

    ivl il ( ii i i Bii Ox G, BiiOx Sb, Bii Ox R .) i i -ii pihli Cipl. N zl b ii i-

    l i piliil i ii.27

    Ap, i p ibi pipli R. Bii R-Cli p ii ivi ibil i - i, i ii i l i, i ipi j p i hi ipl Ri.

    E bi ip lg Biiii R--Cli p i zi - p pp. D xpl, giil p i p jl li300. ill M li Dz Mii p pi Cilil l E (iiil p p ivii li Ci), igiil Mii, iil i gil j p ip- i pi l 600, ip g p l Mii i l i p l plg g ( vp liii i bi ) l 1950. Pipiii p pi i biv p p jl li 850. Clgil Cilil ii l 927. C-iz ii iii i plii p pi

    Pp I l XV-l l 995.28 Di biii pl g Pp Ii l III-l l 1215 ( pi i igiil l p). Bibli izi liil i pl ixl Cil Izi C-ilil l Vli l 1229. Pgil, v Gigi I l 593, plg g Cilil l Fl l 1439. Zili il Mi pl Pp Pi l IX-l l 1854, i iilibili ppi piv lj-

    b v pbl i i li plg Pil Cili l Vi i l 1870.29

    27 P pi l bi, vzi Dil B. Cli,Eastern Orthodox heo-logy: A Contemporary Reader(G Rpi: Bk, 1995); I,Easter Orthodox Cristianity:

    A Western Perspective(G Rpi: Bk, 1994); i pil h G. Sylipl,he New estament: An Orthodox Perspective, vl I: Scripture, radition, Hermeneutics (Bkli-: Hly C Ohx P, 1997). C. Bly Ni, E Ohxy Evglili: h S Egig Glbl Dilg, SBE18 (2000): 21-55.

    28 i, ipl ii l, Pp I Pl l II-l iz 64 ii, pzi i iz ppi liii 400 i. -

    il v izi l pz.29 Vzi pli i M. Fil i L. Rbb, ., Rome has Spoken: A Guide to ForgottenPapal Statements, and How hey Have Changed hrough the Centuries (Nw Yk: C,

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    47CU GNDUL LA SUDIUL NOULUI ESAMEN

    Ul i l i v p ii iii piiiii Nl . D i i pl. O ll piv vi ix i bili xi, l -

    xi l vi xl iv i Nl , l z igzi iz ilgi iv, iii, i p, i ig iil il biblii. A l i lil p ipl i ii .

    11. C bi, Evl Mi pi i i l iv iplx, glizil p p i p iililiizi pi , . P p, Evl Mi- i Cil i li xi ill. Ci i ili ppi,pil vl M Ng (Plg Bbi), lbi iii-liz l l i pii l i pli pii( i bi p liv i pigi i pii ili ilg). P l p, Evl Mi- i v i l i gli i, v i l ip ili l li Dz (l pi ii l), iv lgi z i i-, i, p il i pi, iv i lpi i ji

    i ii l p Bibli (x., J H[1373-1415] Chlvi, Jh Wyli [. 1329-1384] Agli), i pii i i iizi.

    C il gliz, bi piz pl lgi lEvli Mi - iz l il iilp, i gb l ii. pil , pi lg p i iii (x. B Civx[1090-1153], Jli Nwih [. 1342 p p 1413]). O p i

    iii - pp ibil biivi, i l ib z - i lg ii i i zi, -. B, xpl, i: O S H Nw W, J,

    h Vy hgh h, i J, h Jy Lvig H). l il , i hi i ip p pil ,

    vb p i lgi pi Al Cby, PAbl, Willi Okh, Aqi i D S.30 Cl iil i i Aqi (1224-1274), i i -

    1998).30 P l pli, vzi G. R. Ev, ., he Medieval eologians: In Into-

    duction to heology in the Medieval Period(Bkwll: Ox, 2001).

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    Introducere n NOUL estament48

    l Summa heologiae, pzi li ip pi ii ii p vli i

    l- l, vizi pilgii gi pivi g-

    iii ili i l vghliz p p -li. i ili , l i, pil, xliv lii, i giil lpi i l ili ilzi i ii, i x-gzi ig. I xpl : C lgii ii i ipii, g p l pipii, i bii lg l, ivil iil, i Aqi l zvl ivizi ipi lgii Vhili p bili l ii i iii Vhil i Nl

    . A ivizi ipi, pl i zvlli i J Clvi i lii l, l iiiil, pzi gii bil, iiii Nli pz i lz l ii i iii i v-hil i l lg. bil vizz l bi i p liil i l ,

    bil, p, i il li Aqi ii ii p ii Nl .

    A i j pil l l Biiii p zb ip l Alxi i l Ai-hi ip pi i lgii xgz( l lgi v v iiil i lxibil i l ii l lizp), i - ii p i xgz

    l i i lil. Evl Mi - ii l-ii l i ii iil ipbibli. N pi i iiii l piiliii.31 Ivibil, bi v i l i Bibli hi, zv xlivi xpil, p i ip i i bii i iibil p i ili lii ( p, ipi iv).

    12. R, pi i ii Epi p iiii ibi gl ll XIV, XV i XVI, i xpi i i

    31 Vzi ip l li Hi Lb,Medieval Exegesis, 2 vl. (G Rpi:E, 1998 -2000).

    Trebuie s deo-

    sebim patru ni-

    vele de interpre-

    tare biblic (i

    autorii de spe-

    cialitate le dis-

    tribuie n ordini

    diferite): sensul

    literal, care

    ne nva ces-a ntmplat;

    sensul alegoric

    (numit uneori

    tropologic), care

    ne nva ce s

    credem; sensul

    moral, care ne

    spune ce s fa-cem; i sensul

    analogic (oca-

    zional numit

    i escatologic)

    care ne spune

    ncotro ne n-

    dreptm.

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    49CU GNDUL LA SUDIUL NOULUI ESAMEN

    ( p renatere) l li. ipi i-v, i i l i l gii. 1453 Ci-pll lil i, ii i li ii

    Ap, i il l gi. Al p p ip- vli i ii ivii p iglhii ad ontes l . Sil libii gi i bi vi pi; i libii li lbi i l. Riili p l bz i i p l pg -piv g i ii bi ii i x- vi, i l ipi ii bzl li vi pp l i ivl l Biiii Cli. gl, iiii l Epi vi ii i l xl i li(Nl i iil pii), i xl pg li, i i l i l i ii ii ii.Cl i il i i E R, p

    vbi j. Ci ili R j i i piii pivi l p ivl ip i lgii Evli M-i. Ai p ii igi l pi, l i i lil i l32.

    13. Cii i zb liil xi R-

    i R (ll l XVI-l). Di i l pi v iil ii ibi l iibilii i p. A p vhii zil E p l p Lh l- li. pl, li iii ii - vi l pi, i - -i p Ulih Zwigli (. 1531), Philipp Mlhh (.1560), J Clvi (. 1564), i h Bz (. 1605).

    Al Ri p sola Scriptura (i Sip) p

    pi i li il. Sp bi pl v -32 ii i, ii p h C. O (A Pii Ppiv Ep

    Chiiiy i Wl Ppiv, [ER27 2003]: 318-336), z iil pil l pil p. Evghli -pi i Ili iil zi i ( ip ili l bizi), Aiii N, Egipl, Eipi, Abi, Sii, Mpi N i pbbil p pil i l Vii I, i iiii i p Chi, i xi p R i pi p iil Fi i Spii zi.Al, i vb pii vji i iili, p ligi i, igiil i xpi i iiil, piipl p, p i ipl gl. P l p, bi pl , i z piil xpiii p illi, Ep vi v i p p, , p- i pl iili pil p Ciplli. Bil Ep p p i bz li.

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    Introducere n NOUL estament50

    li i vli pzi pzi i Biiii i i Sip pzi p, ii ii p p-li i v l v l ii i, l

    pbili, i Bibli i il. Bibli bi ii ii. A v pl: (1) il,Sip bi i lib i; (2) Sip bipi i l pibil, pgip i. l Biblii p Willi yl,(g i p g l 1536) v p p -l p bilplg Bibli bi i lii pli i Biiii. pl, ii p lgli i Sip i- i p -i iz ii Sip, i l l Apil i l Sipii. Fpl BiiCli j i (l i x ip)i-l i i i ll p, i- - ii iv ii pi p l p . D p, l , Mi Lh p bl bii hi i i ii i li Iv ( pilb i pi, li xpi i i).33

    p b il ii i, ii v

    z pii l p p i hi p l-i. A vi i ipi i i lil. Ei pbili ( p iv) l i l igi il. Bli l - p -zi i iplgi. Fpl Bibli vb l i p lil b li p i zi l- i p L-h g l Sip l litera spiritualis. Chi ii -p i pl ip liz i l i b,i x ip i ii -

    pi ii i iil b ipiv p p i pi Evli Mi, i ii ip l vizibil. Mi l, il li Lh i Clvi( g i p) i ii p ilBiblii, ip xpil i i v lgili ii Bibli. D p, l li Clvi, i l -pli,Institutes o the Christian Religion (Institutele Religiei Cretine) -i i l i il vil Biblii. A l lp i Sip, i i i plz lil -

    33 P i pii i ii li, vzi lil pill l ii.

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    51CU GNDUL LA SUDIUL NOULUI ESAMEN

    i ii i pbl ip i v i Clvi, i i gii ii i ii. p iil li Clvi,Institutelel v l gii i-ii i g. ivibil, li ii l ip i v Sipii. El lg Nl , i vbi g Bibli, viipibil plii l p li.34

    APAriiA teoLoGiei BiBLice35

    Fl p l- l hibil i il ili bibli i pil i il ili Nli ipl lil p

    l l l p plx p p g vpgii. Pi , i i z v iii i pi p z p v vi i z l vliil i xi.

    D lgi pzi i giz p Dz, -p lgi bibli pzi il giz p D-z bzz p Bibli. , p p lgi bi-bli xi i l xi Bibli i p i.

    Dp i, xpi lgi bibli p p pi - i W. J. Chi i pbli l 1607, i xi zi. ill ii Deutsche biblische heologie(GBiblil hlgy). S p vl xx i Bibli p pijii lgi ii p. -l lgi bibli i i li i i pl l i j.

    L v p i l bii l i . Pia Desideria (1675), P. J. Sp, i i zi piiii p i- il, bi theologia biblica (ppi lgi) itheologia scholastica, xi p (l) pi, -

    34 A l i pi v p C-R Cli , zi, p pii, l gpi - vii pi lzii ilii. Abl ii ipl iv l Ri.

    35 Vzi D. A. C, Nw hlgy, Dictionary o the Later New esta-ment and its Developments (Dw Gv: IVP, 1997), 796-814; p i il p p i li l p pgiil iiv i Chl H.H. Sbi, he Ways o Our God: An Approach to Biblical heology (G Rpi: E,

    2003). P i i i v, vzi Gh F. Hl,New estament heology:Basic Issues in the Current Debate (G Rpi: E, 1978); i, h N Biblil hlgy: R I,AUSS32 (1994): 203-215.

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    Introducere n NOUL estament52

    l ilil p Lh l- pi. Al, lgi bibli pl p, piz i i bibli gipi. - j lli l XVIII-l, b i-

    l ili glz i auklrung-l g (Ilii), ii lgi p gi pi lpiv ii v piili, i v ilili.Cv i li i- pp xg i Bibli vipl i i l- l, l gl, hi i l g, p -bilil lzil. Ul i i i i li lgi i gp Jh P. Gbl, l i plgi igl l Uivi iAl, In Oration on the Proper Distinction Betwen Biblical and Dogmaticheology and the Speciic Objectives o Each (1787), piv ilpvl li vi i gbi pli . Gbl i- lgi gi, hib i ip, p- p l Sip. lgi bibli p l bi i i p i i iiv p xli bibli. Ul i, ili l, i i ig lg ipi l lgil ii i vlvii i p vi li p l lgi ii. Al, piipll i l li

    Gbl - l i Bibli bi ii i i i p v ii l i bi j i ii( , iplii, i g - -

    vil l), i lgii biblii bi -i i lgi i iii i36 gi bl pl v i i- i ill pi lgii bibli.

    Pi p ppii li Gbl, ivii l il iiv l -l bibli - i p ll gi,

    pl p l ivii p; - p, i gii i i p li, p ig. -v, ii l l ivl -ipiv l p ipi p analogia idei(-lgi ii) vh ii Bibli xl -ilili ii i l iviil din interiorulBiblii vi i p. Dil i l , xpl, vi vi b l gi, l

    1796 G. L. B p lgi biblic, i lgi Vhili36 Vzi J. SyWh i L. Elg, J. P. Gbl h Diii Bw Bibli-l Dgi hlgy, SJ33 (1980): 133-158.

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    53CU GNDUL LA SUDIUL NOULUI ESAMEN

    , ii 1800-1802 l vl lgi Nli . C lil lgi biblic (x. li lgi bibli l gii Biblii) i i i v

    l i j i hi i ll l XX-l, p p l ip b. i p i gi lgi bibli i

    i ii l i iipli p zill . Al, pixpi lgi Nli , li iii l iil -lgi ii l iil ii l Nli : lgi liPvl, lgi li Mi, lgi li L Fpl Aplil i ip. A i vi i i p i v vl i i. (1) Ai p il, li i vii l l Nli pi. R-zll p lgi li Pvl, pil, bzz p p p lp i l 13 ii i l Nli p lli Pvl, ip xi lgii ii i Ei, 2 li-i i Epill pl, i i pi. (2) Mli lgi vii pibil izlz li Mi, i L, i i Q. L l li, p l - i lgi li Q (vzi pill 2 l i i). (3) O

    vii li - i p l lgii vii p i l Nli l iil hi ii, i iil ( x. vzi pill 2 i - p 2 lii i Ri). O ii iil i pli i l l l Nli . Ail i,l vi i g bv igi l i l iil l Nli ( p bibli) p li l.

    Pi , lgi bibli ii ivibil ipl iiiiii. i , i pi p pill li- l i i, v l i l p ii ii-ii ii. - , - li j bi,i v i l l p lgii bibli p i vii ii.Pbbil i ip v l p l ijll llil XIX-l. L big, l lg g F. C. B p i ixii l i Epill Pli, Fpl Ap-lil i Evghliil. l - li - l lil ilzi (x. l v vi - plli i i ii) i v i

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    Introducere n NOUL estament54

    i p iil i l Nli , bz-- p pp l iii Biiii pi . A ii pi, i l, xpi l

    Bii - ii i, pi - ii j, pi - ii pii pi pl i pii p i i Ni l l, v iii; l i ,- p ii p -i ppi vi. Dl Nli

    , g l, plz v - lgl i i-ii. Dzbil i Bii i ii - plii p p jg i i i v, p liz -li ivizii, ii zbii z p jg i l ii pi lv. P bz, xpl, Bz Fpl Aplil v ll l II-l (ip bli hi, l ii Gli, pil). C-il i li p lgii bibli bi ii 1864, lgi Nli B pbli p--. Cbii i ii igi iii Biiii pi li ii il l ii l Nli

    i p i pivi vli ivi b ii . N i p i l i lgi ;

    i gb v i vli ii i lgi, ii l : iil vi v i i p

    v ii, l ipibil i pivi. P liiv, l p i i i i p v lgi.37

    Ipll ii i pgl pi j i i -l ii ligiil (die religionsgeschichtlicgh Schule). l- i i iil i lligi p l- g l l l l ii

    i ligi, hi i p-i il , -l ii, iz piv li.

    xii i i critic istoricpbil, i gj ii iii ii z pl l zlpl p liz l z Bibli i.A p i crezutii i pil l vliii vi pl, il ii v ilpii lli I l piiiv i iv. El vlii

    37 Vzi H Hi, he bingen School(G Rpi: Bk, ip. 1990 [1975] ,- p, Sph Nill i N. . Wigh, he Interpretation o the New esta-ment 1861-1986, . II- (Ox: Ox Uiviy P, 1988), 20-34.

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    55CU GNDUL LA SUDIUL NOULUI ESAMEN

    lgi Nli j l l pbbil ii i ilii li W. W, ber Augabe und Methode der sogenannten neutesta-mentliche heologie(Dp i i -ii lgii Nli

    ).38

    W g i Nli iivil pzi bi, p l pizz p pi iii p p bili i g lgi li i. Sig pi p-bil p p i i, ibi pi, istoria ligii i lgii i ipii. Oi lgiii Nli , i vbi lgi bibli, hi.

    N bi vi l iiii li i pi ( p l ii gi) igl. ll l

    XIX-l, i i p lgi Nli bz p Vhil li J. C. K. v H.39 pi lli l XX-l, ig i pziv i ii il Al Shl.40 L l pii l i i pii,i lgi ii lNli , ii Dumnezeu i n istorie,

    i v lil ilzi p vzil . Ei i lil l ii lziil l i li iv, i pzpziii v i i p xl.

    F p l vi - vii i i l. pi-l , Kl Bh i lil i ipll iii li pl i i li i p v pl.El lii ip ivigii ii p lg Biblii i -

    p ipii lgi, pp ii i l l-gi ii lgi bibli. l il , Rl Bl l l 38 Gig: Vhk & Rpk, 1897. L lib glz

    Rb Mg ill h k Mh Nw hlgy, RbMg, he Nature o New estament heology (L: SCM, 1973), 68-116.

    39Biblische heologie des Neuen estaments (Nlig: Bk, 1886).40 Di ll l i, i ip p ii Die heologie

    des Neuen estaments, 2 vl. (Sg: Vlg Vibhhlg, 1909-1910) Sl i- vizi l iiiv - ii li. Eii i

    1923 lib glz A Cbg 2 vl ilil heHistory o the Christ: he Foundations o New estament heology i he heology o the Apostles:he Development o New estament heology (G Rpi: Bk, 1997, 1999).

    Ultimii cincizeci

    de ani s-au ca-

    racterizat prin-

    tr-o uimitoare

    diversitate n

    teologia biblic.

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    Introducere n NOUL estament56

    pi ppi i lg ii i plibili lgi. El p b li i ii li W, l lzi-z, p W, i iz lgi

    i ll, l ilgiz xl i l - i p ( pl) p- pi l z ill l i il l Nli

    i xiili. Rzll l Dz, i, vli i l ll j i ii. Li-bjl l l xii, b li Higg: D-bi il l ijll lli l XX-l41, l li Bl ii zi pil i ii ii, i p iv -i l p .

    C - i vli pz pi pii iii lgiibibli. Dii i lvi i p v lgi, ili p Bh i p V H, zbii pil RzbiMil i M Ri i l i l il RzbiMil, xpii i ii - l i l ili ii 1930 p 1950. Pbbil l i ip i i lgi O Cll, i ii p Iii Miii(heilsgeschichte) bi lll l p: i

    i ii i.Sii - il ii i ii, l

    i vlii ip pi pibili ii li ippiv ii, i p i ii i i pi iii i.42 D i lgi bibli ivi- ipi. E i il p i i vli p ip il evenimentei ii piip Sip i43, i p i p gi-

    ll heological Dictionary o the New estament i plgi i l vil.44 i, jl li 1960 i i pp pl, ii i iiii pi ivi

    41 Vzi pil l heology o the New estament, 2 vl. (E L: SCM,1952-1955 [1948-1953]). P iii pli p b , vzi l ip: h Pbl h hlgil Exgi h Nw pz E he Beginnings o Dialectical heology, . J. N. Rbi (Rih: Jh Kx, 1968),47-72 (igill p l 1941).

    42 Vzi pil l Salvation in History (Nw Yk: Hp & Rw, 1967).43 Vzi pil G. E Wigh, God Who Acts Biblical heology as Recital, SP 8

    (L: SCM, 1962).44 Gh Kil i Gh Fiih, ., heologisches Wrterbuch zum Neuen estament

    (Sg: Khlh, 1933-1974; E: G Rpi: E, 1964-1974).

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    57CU GNDUL LA SUDIUL NOULUI ESAMEN

    ligvii l i xpii i g ip gi- i p ixi.45

    Uliii iizi i - iz pi- vi iii i-

    i. Di p gpii il, lgi bibli li GhV46, - i l p Vhili , i-v p li ii i Bibli ig . Ci-bi li Gg El L47, i bi v, ii p v p lii i v ip p l bii: lgi Nli -pil p lgii vghliil ipi, lgii li Pvl, lgiiii Evi i i p, -i ili pibl p p p l. i il, D-l Ghi bz pbl igii ii lgi Nli i pp z i (x. Filli, Dz, ) i-lprin iil i l N-li .48 C - pi i lg l li l interioruli i i,p i l i l i li l.

    N v pil p i l i li p pzii p iiil lgi p

    lgiil l Nli i W Cl49, Jhi Ji50, Jhi Gilk51 i Gg Sk52, li - i l i pi l ii xi, p l i-bi li H Czl, i il -l ilp I l iii ipz l l 53, p l lgi li Bv

    45 Vzi pil Bv Chil, Biblical heology in Crisis (Phillphi: F P,1970). L l il J B,he Semantics o Biblical Language(Ox: Ox

    Uiviy P, 1961); i l i gil l he Concept o Biblical heolo-gy: An Old estament Perspective(L: SCM, 1999).46Biblical heology: Old and New estaments (G Rpi: E, 1948).47 A heology o the New estament(G Rpi: E, 1974 [. v. 1993]).48 New estament heology (Dw Gv: IVP, 1981).49 Te Teology o the New estament According to its Major Witnesses (L: [SCM, 1974

    1969]).50 New estament Teology: Te Proclamation o Jesus (Nw Yk: Sib, 1971). A

    igl vl pbli i bi vi i i l vl lgi p l i i ii.

    51 Neutestamentliche Teologie: Ein berblick (Wzbg: Eh Vlg, 1989); I, Teo-

    logie des Neuen estaments (Fibg: H, 1994).52Teology o the New estament(Livill: Wi Jh Kx, 2000).53An Outline o the Teology o the New estament(Nw Yk: Hp Rw, 1967).

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    Chil54, p l l pli igii li Gg B. Ci, i-ihipi p ii Nli zi jl i i l i ibi ii p55, i p l vli i pv-

    l li Kl Bg , g l igi i p l i, zvl, p bz ii i l i, plgi l pliv li i il i l li Bii - zvl ii lgil xliv i ipl pili l.56

    C iiiv, , lgi bibli l vli ii iiz l lll ivl i iil il. A - p i l lgi gpil dinspatelexl bibli, p hi xl bibli, ip p i gpi li- vi iii-ii i ii-li. E - p i l lgixl bibli hi il p l l l lgii piv l ( lgl bibli i i potpivi l!) - lgl i iii pl. pl, il l bibli p i pil i ii au dorit s spun xl ( i ii) lp i doresc s spun xl (i l i

    hi hibzi). A liz i ll iil li iiil p p lgi bibli i pillgi Nli .57

    Uliii iizi i li i lgii liPvl, lgii li I i i p i hi li i lg -g ii i il i pp z lgi- dintr-o ig .58 Cv i i pill z. lil i ii, il i l

    54Biblical Teology o the Old estaments: Teological Reection on the Christian Bible(Mi-pli: F P, 1992).

    55New estament Teology, . Lil D. H (Ox: Cl P, 1994)56Teologiegeschichte des Urchristentums (big: Fk, 1994).57 Vzi pil P Bll, Challenges to the New estament Teology: An Attempt to Jus-

    tiy the Entreprise, WUN 95 (big: Mh-Sibk, 1997); D O. Vi, What Is Newestament Teology? GBS (Mipli: F P, 2002); D. A. C, C Ii Biblil Tlgy: A Nw Ppiv, BBR 5 (1995): 17-41; i l ii . D. Alx i Bi S. R, .,New Dictionary o the Biblical Teology (DwGv: IVP, 2000).

    58 Ex. Bi S. R, Paul, Scripture and Ethics: A Study o 1 Corinthians 1-7, AGJU 12(Li: Bill, 1994); Dhy L, Flash and Glory: Symbol, Gender, and Teology in the Gospelo John (Nw Yk: C, 2003).

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    59CU GNDUL LA SUDIUL NOULUI ESAMEN

    iiii Nli l iil Vhili g v gii i pivi pzi i-zil v i li vii lgi bibli i Nli

    . D g l ii pbli i p il Nli 59 i lii ilpiliz, v p lg pi N-li .

    Spl i pivii bl j iii l bi lz ii pi i Nli .Pbbil - i j pi p i li p ii.

    critic iStoric, inStruMente LiterAre i iM-PActuL PoStModerniSMuLui

    A bv j , b ipl i i l ii ii,lgi bibli - iviz iipli liii 150 i v -b l pliz. Ali l - p p i p zbilp bii p iv p Nli i

    vb p pbl hi i i ( xpl: ,

    l, xl ii, l, ii), i vb p -li i ii i vli p vliil i li pi-lgi, i vb p ipl iili il pili Sipii. ii i ll iil, i iili Nli z gp i pziii i pii i zvl. A p i hi liz i ig i corpus l Nli 60; , jg l Nl

    , ivi i plxi pziiil p p i pli-

    p l bi p p li. C z, , pzi hi il li, bi ipziii il Nli , - pziiv giv, lil l.61

    59 C. D. A. C,New estament Commentary Survey, . V- (G Rpi: Bk,2001).

    60 Vzi, x., ip l li W. W Gq,A History o the Criticism o theActs o the Apostles, BGBE 17 (big: Mh-Sibk, 1995), pz pi.

    61 C l i l i pi i l ili i bi l xli Nli bil, ii i pliii pi ii.

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    Introducere n NOUL estament60

    ca isRi ii F. C. B p lii -

    l Nli i i l iil

    ii l li W. O p i i - p z-vlii i l i ii. F p , ip iiii i li Rl Bl. Cii i i -bi ii igiz. l i , i l piiii i vi vi i ii p l l Nli . Dp pbbiliil, i 2P - li I, i I - li 2 P; p pbbili-il, i ip p, p li i pi li l, i pl vghliil ipi: l ii ppi pp ipibil i i ippl, ii ip p x liii l i pi ip ( v l pil).E l L v l i i -i i xl pppi (L 1:1-4). Cii x li p Bl i vghliil ipi, i g p l, l j v hi i vi i i ii62, v l liz ppi - pl iibil,

    p i liil i; pp ipibil -i igizi p iv i p ll p i i i l pi p vghliil. i i ip pl ii i i pi i l p atemporale lll - . Migb, i , l igi, - pp l lgi ppiv i ii, iii iii, liii, pi ii ip. F il, i igi-

    g l ii i l Bl p vghliil ipi, i Evghli p I.63

    El igl i i plx i i, i vb p vghliil ipi p p vghli.Oi i pi ppli i i ii, iipl l l ii i l iii, p i j iii xpli dezvoltarea ii. Al, iii iiii l i iiii iil. Cii l

    - p i iiil p l ii i-62 Vzi pil History o the Synoptic radition (Nw Yk: Hp Rw, 1963).63 Vzi he Gospel o John (Ox: Blkwll, 1971).

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    61CU GNDUL LA SUDIUL NOULUI ESAMEN

    i l vghlii pil li p ii i ipi pbl p p i iiil hi ii i-il i l il hi l- xi-

    .64

    Cii iii i iii l p xpli zvl iii. L l , p l iiipivi ii i- p ii ili i vgh-liil ipl i lipii, i p gi ii i l bi pi ii vghliil i. C i piv i biii i i ii il. Pi - g , ii l p l- v vghliii l , i p ibi p i ipl, i l- i ( ii i xpiii il) p p vghlii i pii ii vghli. Al, vghliii i- ig pl i ii vi lgi. A i ii , g-l, l i pp, l pi l p, ii piil i l il, i I l iii p l i l il. C zl, i ii p xi i lgi pii l i ivigii bz p I l iii, pz li l

    pil. O l l ii, li, p iii i i i pil i Nl .65

    Mi i v vi l l il i li Bl, l66, i l i l vi pliz plii.67

    64 D x., p l pbll gi ii vghlii, Jhi J-i (he Parables o Jesus [Nw Yk: Sib, 1963], 113-114) zvl l i l z lgi l iii [pbll]. D l v x- i, pz v pp gi. P lizp iii ii pbll, vzi Cig Blbg, Interpreting the Parables

    (Dw Gv: IVP, 1990).65 gl, iiii i i i i - v l l li pEpill Nli p zl vghliil. Chi i z xi l viii. Pbbil l i x ii l i ii J.C. ONill, gz, xpl, Pvl i i l ii i Gli: Vzi l he Recovery o Paul s Letter to the Galatians (L: SPCK,1972).

    66 Vzi, x., G Ti i Dg Wi, Te Question o Criteria: Te Quest or thePlausible Jesus (Livill: Wi Jh Kx, 2002), i zi p li R. . F heol106 (2003): 272-273.

    67 N gi, xpl, l lil Sili p I, ii l

    vghliil pi pbbili ii i i g. Di -l i l lil Sili, pbbil l i lli i-l Rb W. Fk,Acredible Jesus: Fragments o a Vision (S R: Plbi-

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    Introducere n NOUL estament62

    li ip, hi i l bz p i ii-ii li I l iii x iili lziil l.68 Ivibil,l vi, i pi pi, i l iil pi l -

    iiii69

    , bliiz ip i iii l bi p ii li I70 ll il li iii v-ghli.71 U l gp , il, i i vzi il p vghliil i - iip p ii iivil ( i i, -i , i i p), i p l p p i ii i iii72, l p b l bii iil iii i , l, , hi vghli b bi ii l iii l l li li l i bi ii.

    g, 2002). Vzi piil giv lil ii Philip Jki, Hidden Gospels;Mihl J. Wilki i J. P. Ml, .,Jesus Under File: Modern Scholardship Reinvents theHistorical Jesus (G Rpi: Zv, 1995).

    68 D xpl, l i l vl li Jh P. Mi,A Marginal Jew (NwYk: Dbly: 1991 - ). Rzll l pil i vl iv ( l pl v-l, i li I, pi) l I ig pi pi ivi iili i ll I; i I Bzl,

    p pi li Dz i v p El gp ii i (i i I i P i); El vii i - i piii; i ii l gpi ligi ii. i bli, Mi -L pjz p Cil ii Cil iii, v ii zll ppiil l j ii, i l I l iii. Iplii, bil, l g p vl li Dzi ii l.

    69 D x., Sly E. P, Te Criteria or Authenticity in Historical-Jesus Research: Previ-ous Discussion and New Proposals, JSNSp 191 (Shfl: Shfl Ai P, 2000).S i i i i p ii-ii: x., p ii -il, vzi D. A. C, Ri Ciii: O h Lgiiy Illgiiy

    Liy l, Scripture and ruth, . D. A. C i Jh D. Wbig (GRpi: Zv, 1983), 115-142; Rll K. J. , R Dvlp i RiCiii: F Ivigi xl Phiy Bk Hiil-Gil Exg-i?JES44 (2001): 599-614.

    70 Vzi pil Big Gh,Memory and Manuscript: Oral radition and Writtenransmission in Rabbinic Judaism an Early Christianity (G Rpi: E, 1998).

    71 Ex., Sl Bikg,Jesus the Only eacher: Didactic Authority and ransmision in An-cient Israel, Ancient Judaism, and the Matthean Community (Uppl: Alqvi & Wikll,1994); i, Story as History History as Story: Te Gospel radition in the Context o AncientOral History, WUN 123 (big: Mh-Sibk, 2000). Vzi il vl p zi P M. H, h Rl Eywi i h Fi h Gpl

    ii, ynB 52 (2001): 275-294.72 Vzi pil Rih Bkh, ., he Gospels or All Christians: Rethinking the

    Gospel Audiences (G Rpi: E, 1998).

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    l v biii. D xpl, pz l i ii plxi liil ipi . - i i ibili l l i l

    iivil l ii vghlii i, i z l ii lpi i l i j l i - Ai vgh-liil i l : i p, i i-iiv.73 D hz l i p iil p p p pi ip ii ili, ii x bzi pi ii zill .

    ca laUl i pill i p i p

    i l ii-ii il i: ll p, i p l i ii lii i x i i ii ii i pl xli, p l i iiii xli ca text.

    Il l li v . Ppi -gii p i ipl, iii - p pl lil xli l . Ulil v ii p l

    i i gii z bi i ii - pvghli. D pbbil i ip lil p iil x i i. El b vghli i liz l l bigi i pil l. A lixiz iv i i li i xplil vlz i, l pj iz pi-pl pl , pl li l iii ii ppii ii. S- vibil ii jl

    iil ipi ii i ipl li Pvl i jl iii - iil l i l -. O p Aplip p li plipiii, i i l i i. F i igl i Pvl p i p -il gi l pi p pi li Ail.

    pgiil li v pz i li -

    73 Chi i ii, v glij bv N B. Sh pl-

    i v iiii i vghliil i i ii il i vi xpi ili. Vzi pil l he Witness o the Synoptic Gospelsto Christ(G Rpi: Bk, ip. 1979 [1944]).

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    bi i v i bibligi pz. Ul xpl - p i j. l 1983, R. AlClppp pbli - vi i liz iipi

    Evghlii p I. ill i, Anatomy o the Four Gospel: A Study inLiterary Design74, pi bi ipl b li i l. Clppp - i ii bil i-i. Di bi jii, l blii il z p pili li l pliil. C i bil lg l lli li,l glz l lli l XIX-l. Di g i ii giv, iil gi p l p i p:(1) Alg lli bz x i, i l pli l p - p vghli, iiz lz p vi p n istorie. (2) gl , i i iliv, vi v p v b ii g i lzi ii. xl i ca text l l ii, ii bi i xxl, i i lli, vi i ii xli, l xl p pi . (3) Cl pi v i piliilxl p Clppp l il - g li li

    iiii i ii ii-iii p jii xi- li p gz i l. D i pilii li xpli pz pi l l piv - i li, p lj i v l iv i ii lgi ii? O, , i pilii li i x lzi - p vghli li i ip bi - l i i l i gb i ii lgi ip-

    , pibil i i v pi i iii iii i ? C l vi, i l i, i bi l iiii ii i i bi l i-iii li l v xl i iii.

    S v lizl vli i, p-il ( xliv) plibili l iil li Pvl. P lgl li i v vl gil, liii z i -i i p i i i pj. Cl i l i

    li l pi p lg giil li Ail, -74 Philphi: F P.

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    ii i zvl i i i i Qiili i Ci.75Mi , - blii l l ll i i p p vi pijil oratorilor, i l il

    pgi p pz l, i p i i ii.76

    Sl i pli giil iii l i iil, Pvl p. C p, i p bi ig giil iii i iil i bi i ii pblii, pi , piipiil liii vlbil. Dzb i,ii plii pl i Pvl vbi (FplAplil 14:11-12), l i vi pii pivi iii v ipl pz pill bvghlii: I Ci i El ii (1 Cii 2:1-5).

    Abl bi li p xli Nli p gii iv pivi l ll li, gl li, - li li i l p. P l p, l l pbil i ii i v, bi ipi i pi i l lipi li. Cii i l i lg plgi l bi i vi lii li l i vi; bi li pzi i iip i , i p i i ipiv p-

    z ii i zill .

    na la aa sp ll psmDi i p v, g bili lii l

    ii li i ii li. Exi ivibil p pp i ii zii pl ih. i, iii gl ii l.

    N- i j p il li H W. Fi.77

    Fi gz p ii ii libl p75 P i piz il iii, vzi Hiih Lbg, Hand-

    book o Literary Rhetoric: A Foundation or Literary Study (Li: Bill, 1998). P - p iii li i i l i l i giil li ii Nli pivi, vzi Sly E. P, Handbook o ClassicalRhetoric in the Hellenistic Period 330 BC-AD 400(Li: Bill, 1998). P il i , vzi A. J. H i D. F. W, Rhetorical Criticism o the Bible, BIS 6 (L-i: Bill, 1994); i, i pil l iil pli, R.D. A,Ancient Rhetoricalheory and Paul, CBE 18, . II- (Lv: P, 1999).

    76 Vzi il l Sly E. P i Di E. Sp, ., he Rhetorical In-

    terpretetion o the Scripture, JSN Sp 180 (Shil Ai P, 1999).77he Eclipse o Biblical Narrative: A Study in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Hermene-

    utics (Nw Hv: Yl Uiviy P, 1974).

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    Introducere n NOUL estament66

    ll l XVIII-l i l XIX-l, ii i pi ii spuneBibli li i i ppi (i i) l n spatelexli i mai exact - pl. Apii -

    vi z i p: ii zb l ii (l igi) din spatele xli i i g gii i x. F ii g pl bi ii ip, Fi gz Bii bi x. D

    p, i pii iiii ii iii D-z i l i pi iil xli. Chii iii zill p igii i lgl ili x; i pp i pi ii, -L i p Dz i v i lg iiii ii lli l XVIII-l.

    E lip b pp Fi pi centra-t n text. D l iz pl iiii i vil ii piii l ipi ii ii i - x ( , l p: i i x, z Dz p i li l), i textulle spunea adevrul. Al, zi pivi i vii i

    liblii l il lli l XVIII-l i i ll l XIX-l i- p l i p gl pivi l li dinspatelexli i nu asupra textului nsui ipl. C-

    vii - l i dinspre textp l n spateleli, i gb jii pl v xlp vl p li xxl. Oi li ii, ig . C zl, ip pii l x, i iii l Yl, i g

    li ii iii, i l i Gg Li-bk.78

    A igl i x pi ii li. U l ip, ppl i p ii , zi pp gi v, structuralismul, iig pi pig l ii iil pivi li xpi i li l li. -v,xl vz biiv ivz i i vii

    78 Pbbil i l li Libk he Nature o Doctrine: Religionand heology in a Post-Liberal Age(Phillphi: Wi, 1984) l i i i i i ip i .

    Deconstruc-

    ionitii nu

    sunt mai puin

    centrai n textdect structu-

    ralitii, dar ei

    adaug la toate

    cele de mai sus

    un scepticism

    radical.

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    ii, ip , ii i li x. -v, i-i l i pi i ipz ll lilli i pp i l xpli l cum p li

    ib iii p ; i gli i vii ipliipz - i l.79

    A i l l i l deconstrucie.Diiii i pi i p x, i g l l i pii il.

    Cvii ii x bil , iiiigz xl l ii i, ivibil,i iii i. A l iili il i

    pibilii: i bz i gi i ii x, hivl b i l l, i pll ii i ii i iil iii (i -

    v viv) g x. N i Vhz i:Di ip, i ipil. O pz lil ii l iil ilgi.80 pi, l i ip-il xl iii li il

    l pil i igliil vizibil l bz ilgiipi i , l l l, bi i l lii. i, p liz pi gi gi i dex-, i i pi h xp ivl i x ipi ii i l xl i ipi iii. F, l , iil zi b, i pi i i i i Ai N. i z, i i g ll i l -

    l x, iii, ii iiil xl, i pi - pi gi xi x i ii. D ii ii p li ii din spatele xli, i iiliii li z p xli p xl izl i l ii, zll il l ii plz lil hib n aa xli, i pp iii.

    Al, i i ipiiil - l p-

    79 C. Blik, ., Concise Dictionary o erms (Ox: Ox Uiviy P, 1991).80 Kvi J. Vhz, h R i Nw Ipi, Hearing the New

    estament, . Jl B. G (G Rpi: E, 1995), 313-314.

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    l teorieirspunsului cititorului. A b ii ( i l i l iii li i ii li) ii x, i ii. li, pii l v ii bz p pl

    iili. U i ii ll xli pi iivil ip; xl jg l i ipl i-l. O l i pi i ii pi xli ill iiil: iiii ipz lil bz- p iiil lii ll pi gp il pii, gp i pp-iv pi gz p i il. C , xljg p li li p ii i- gp il p-ii, p pi l i l zi. U l l i pli ii z p iil xi- iivi i gpl i pvi p iiili ii i x.

    A bi, p i ll iil, i ih pipi p. l postmodern x big, bi li l. D pli i il pilgii i li jg v li i v i l il. Sp bi l modernist, i i,

    i vig iil p v vl pl ibiiv p li, ig l ii li i gi,i p l b, i pil i i pl ii. Piii vii i pii lii-ii iil , i pii ii ipi i liiii li il i, pp p i ii, ii il l i vbil, il pvizi. iiiil l i vbil l pi-

    li, g i il, ii z p i ig l biiv lii biiv. Pi l ii bi pi bigig. -v, i ppiv p, ll iv gi ii g i lii. E l i p -j i liii ipi i bi, v i l i gi, v l, - piv, il, i, l ii (lgii)

    i ii i x. Piii (i p) i pi ii bili liiil i v i i l i ppi li-

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    iil bii p l z pibiliil ipiv i l. L lipl xlzi, pil p v i pll gi, i p ilzi, hi i zl iil l

    ipibil. L pl hib pibiliil i ppivl i piv pii liil i i ii p xii zii -xii.

    li lli l XX-l, ipi bi -il Nli p i ili p Reading Sacredexts rough American Eyes81,Deconstructing the New estament82, Mark andLuke in Poststructuralist Perspectives83, Poststructuralism and he New esta-ment: Derrida and Foucault at the Foot o the Cross84, i Liberating Exegesis.85Cil i i jz piipii ipz x-l bibli p bz ppii l xpi, i pl i ip gi; -v, i i, gii z b i vhi. O iip p i gi p gp , ii p i i l i. Pi zlli p l- g ivi i ii i p ip xl i- ppiv plil86,i i , vli li ip ii.87

    O i p vl pl liplbi l ipii Nli . Ul i vliil i l v vi i i pii lv -. D xpl, ii : Slil p vi ip ii li Finnegans Wake li J Jy p

    81 Chl Mb, Reading Sacred exts hrough American Eyes: Biblical Interpretation asCultural Critique(M: M Uiviy P, 1991).

    82 Dvi Sly, Deconstructing the New estament, BIS 5 (Li: Bill, 1994).

    83 Sph D. M,Mark and Luke in Poststructuralist Perspective: Jesus Begins to Write(Nw Hv: Yl Uiviy P, 1992).84 Sph D. M, Poststructuralism and the New estament: Derrida and Foucault at

    the Foot o the Cross (Mipli: F P, 1994).85 Chiph Rwl i Mk C, Liberating Exegesis: he Challenge o Liberation

    heology to Biblical Studies (Livill: Wi Jh Kx, 1989).86 D x., F F. Sgvi, Decolonizing Biblical Studies: A View rom the Margins

    (Mykll: Obi, 2000); Hikki Ri, Elibh Shl Fiz, R. S. Sgih-jh, Ki Shl i J B, Reading the Bible in the Global Village: Helsinki (Al:SBL, 2000); R. S. Sgihjh, Postcolonial Reconigurations: An alternative Way o Readingthe Bible and Doing heology (S. Li: Chli, 2003).

    87 C ipl xpl i- g x vi, vzi i il vl ill he Feminist Companion to the Bible (Shil: Shil AiP, 1993 - ).

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    p xpil. Chi il i iil bibli ip il p ip l, i i vii lil i ii

    il p iii i.88

    P l p, pi-lgi p xi l vi i ip pi g. Niil i i ipz v i- pzii pl. P i completbiivi, bi p b i-bl iii. A ip i i iii i , l i ivl, piil bi li i p bzliiil , pil vi pg l. El bi il pl vii gi iiil -i. Pbl p i ipil l i,pil pi iz : iepi p vl biiv xhiv,ieii i z ij-ll ii p vl biiv i, pi , p v li. Di iil ii p ii v ii, i - pibili p i p. z, g pzi i il pl; ig li p p p i i i.

    Exi, ig, li pi vip: ig li p p p i i i. D pbl il : p li- p i liiz l li biiv? C lvi, hi li ii ii p bii ii, p i lgii i li l p v, hi l p, xhiv? l i , l l

    xpi : pp i i i l li i bi l- i i z pl pg . piipi, p pg p pl pbili i lgii lg (hi ii)l li v. i li p vzi ii blig hib pil, i p i bi -

    88 G J. h, llig Hwk Hw? A Evglil Rp hNw Liy Ciii, EQ 71 (1999): 48. C., P Cll i Mx , Linguistic andBiblical Interpretation (L: SPCK, 1989), 30.

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    ii, ppi v .89 Cgi, i i - iz bl: i v p, i iil iii i i l

    i il.L p plii vi g l bviipl.n primul rnd, p i - bv, i ii p p pi p liviii ii i lg p iil ppi biiv, iz - ibil il. D i blii-z pl i simpli il, i i i pli i ipli il ipl i il i i i iii ibili i iii? n al doilea rnd, xi i l ii pl li i i Nli pi ip pivll l ip p l l pilgi -i vi-g p lii p i hi igz pl v liv.P ig l xpl, Nil Elli ii p -iiii ipz l pill li Pvl, , i l, bi li i p i plii i p i i

    li Elli iviv l iil ipi l-gi l li Pvl.90n al treilea rnd, Sip i vb - ii p iil. I i i i pi Epilp iiii li p cunoate vi vi (1 I 5:13). Li p li il ivl iii l l p cunoateliii vil p l- pii (L 1:3-4). Ui, - ii pl (x. Filipi 3:10, v -L p Ci-); i li pii (x. Filipi 3:10, i -L p El i p-

    viii Li i pi il Li); i i liv (x.I 8:32, vi vl; I 20:31, - p vghli i p iiii i p clil p l pzi v). Evghli i, v b, pi il -liv bi i l ii l ll. Di z, p p p pzi i iil

    89 l p, p- libjl li Kll Ppp, l i b- ipi. Vzi D. A. C, he Gagging o God: Christianity Conronts Pluralism

    (G Rpi: Zv, 1996), 121-122.90 Nil Elli, Liberating Paul: Te Justice o God and the Politics o the Apostle (Mykll:

    Obi, 1994), 73 i l.

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    p (I 3). C Sip vl p i l v i l v liv, vl liv i ig il i. Pi , i p

    gi pli p vl p ii -ibiliil p, pz l Sip. n alpatrulea rnd, i p li iv, vil l i pi i lYl, l - j i, lb. Ci -ii pl iil ii bibli, vbl i igii vii pl , , v jg gi liv p i pzi acolo i pl Bibli v l i, vi i hi l Dz i, i Biblii, i Bibli pzi i adevratp l(hi , vi, p i xhiv p p p ii liixbibli i i p l p pgiil Biblii). Ni ii pi ideibibli: l pzi b illig. Ni ii Dz i vil bibli l se reerBibli i p i v. n alcincilea rnd, iii pil li bll p l. B W i:

    [Al pi] v vi i piliiii ii pvizii ii i p pi, v gl vi z ivl vigp p i bz ig p i i ii iiiiv pi ii lipi ip i jii gi igii.

    Ni i bz- p ili, i p iii, ii

    xpi i vzi i v vi i p i ii-. Chi i i , il iii v i l li l vhi.

    Nblig p ii ppziii li i pgiiii, b i z i li ip ii lxibil iii ii p i pii vii. Ai v i i p hilibl i ig pl i plbi i i p, pi iiz i ii - pivi xpi viii l.91

    91 B W, Kw, O N Kw? R-ig Hiil Skpii,heol103 (2000): 195-196.

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    El lg l p v iiBibli i pi giil igi i i p iil, i piii p iii i pzii ipiv vl l l

    i l. iil i zi, Bibli -i v p l v . i, n al aselea rnd, li gz b p Nli , i hi gii Biblii, i v lg pl pzi texti, pi, iiil i i l, i gl - i iii i il pbl p- l pz I i blii i l li I, i pp lz li v p Dz, ppl Li, vjii Li,igiil i il , i l , pil i, ibili l istoric mntuitoare92 pli.

    Ab baza p slaa maall fChi bil i pi i Nli

    pz p bz ll i pi i zip l iili, i i, l v gpi i i i - pl n istorie. Mli i i -

    i lg l Nli ii-l x-l i ii i pil l. il, ip i il: l i vi i ij il p Nli biii pivi l l li vil ll I i pivi l iil i ll gi iiili - ip p l. Mi l, l i bi liz, l vi il li i lip lgi

    izz l bi l i biiv. i, i zxi v p bi vi.

    n primul rnd, ll I Il l l l i ll. i l bi i pzil i(gl) i i pl pi ii plg p l, Il ii p i i

    92 l x ibil, p i liz ii. U i lizl li p li Rb W. Ybgh, h Hilghihlih Ppiv

    i M Nw hlgy (Ph. D. Dii, Uiviy Ab, 1985).O vizi i iii he Salvation Historical Fallacy? Re-assessing theHistory o New estament heology (Lip: D, 2004).

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    i l Ipi R, i lib iil i ili li i i lingua ranca pp g. F il, iiiiNli iz l i l i i i Vhil

    , Pvl i iz i p pii pgi i pi i; i, i z, Evghli pi - l p-i Nil, ivibil bil - ii i pvil bi ig pli v b p IMi v i l l v i vi-g - i. Al, bl p i p i- x lgii l Nli . Vi ipi- i il ii i vi ivibilxpi l g-, i lii l bi. F pii pzii gl bl , i l i z pi il lill.93 Mi l, hi i l ii , ii i z p illixl, pi li p hlgi i pl li; lii pl i l p hlgi, pi li i lg l xl. C ii i i ipli, i pi i ppli lli I, i Glil-, pi l bl ipii i i i

    i lll. i ii Mi Hgl l - i lv.94

    n al doilea rnd, hi i iil i gpi pi v ii, g- bi xi vi piii. Si- p g-, xpl,ii gz l i ppi x p vil li I l gi Cii. C gi , li i i p pli giil i vhi iil

    i pzi, p, i ligi i - zvl iil93 Ex., p F. Gl Dwig, Making Sense in (and o) the First Christian Century,

    JSNSp 197 (Shil: Shil Ai P, 2000), i P J. , I this be romHaven ...: Jesus and the New estament Authors in their Relationship to Judaism (Shil:Shil Ai P, 2001).

    94Judaism and Hellenism: Studies in heir Encounter in Palestine During the Early Helle-nistic Period, 2 vl. (L: SCM, 1974). Mi , li i i lEgbg-P, Paul Beyond the Judaism/Hellenism Divide(Livill: Wi JhKx, 2001), i l gii plii, xgz liiiil i l ii, i - i xi ii iii ip.

    Ul i gl gi i iz vi i gi -piv ii pii Vhil i iil ii ll li i iil.

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    l i. P xpli 1 i 2 Cii, ii i- p ll i i. pi -i l Pvl - li i giil

    i l g- . hib, pii, ii i bil lgi l Nli - i Vhil , ip lii z p ipi li i li iili li -l il pl: lil l M M, pbbil, li plipi, iil liFil, p i vl corpus l iili bii. l zi,pbl plx i pvi li lii i l piii x iv pi i p ii p i li lgii x(x. li bii).

    Al treilea p pbli bi zb l i l ii p l xli p i li lgiip li p l i Nl . C lvi, pibil pi pig ili i l Nli

    pl pi l i x p, ib l l ip . A Sl Sl i-h bili plli v ii:95 pll p-

    l xl Nli p ii l x l, ll plli i i Nl , l ipi-bil zi p li Nl . D xpl, plli H Di Bz96 p ii Gli ipz pil pp gi bz- p ll plllg- lv bil: i , iil i ppziiil i l ii-z gi li Pvl.97 R lgi Nli liz

    Gg Sk98

    , - - pl ii, ipz il-gi pli p bz xli i i gi-p pi, gi p i pi.99A-i

    95 Pllli,JBL 81 (1962): 2-13.96Galatians: A Commentary on Pauls Letter to the Churches in Galatia, Hi (Phil-

    lphi: F P, 1979).97 Vzi pil Philip H. K, Rhetoric and Galatians: Assessing an Approach to Pauls

    Epistle to the Galatians, SNSMS 101 (Cbig: Cbig Uiviy P, 1998).98 heology o the New estament. Vzi zi illi Si

    Ghl, hemelios 28/3 (2003): 40-48.99 Di ll i z bi, i l li Ewi

    A. Yhi, Pre-Christian Gnosticism: A Survey o the Proposed Evidences, ed. II- (GRpi: Bk, 1983). C j l , C. H. D, he Interpretation o

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    ppiv p li Pvl (i i zi vl), i igiil l i p, p pi-pi i E. P. S g iil ipi ii

    i Pli lli I p l ligi p l l- ii l lgli100. E ibil pl S iii- v l ip i iil lli I i vip vli gi l il ii li. D i z l pl glx bi plii lv - blpl, i xi l hgi p xgzi liPvl, pil il gl-i. Al l hgi ipi i vl, i x p li iv i gi plii ii lli I xi l ip p liii li S i l libz i x-gz li Pvl i- pig g i igi, i pl li Pvl.101 Ui, x-li ii i zi i, i z, bi l lz xgz Nli .102 Pi i ilNli lg jl ii bilii l.

    D ii i vizi l lg p

    lipi i l xl. gij bi p gl - vb pllbi plli, i vi li Dz, l Nli i il ii . E ii l, xpl, p liii - lg x-li i Aplipi 2-3 ivig