Introduction to Design for Six Sigma

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  • 1. 2 ndAnnual Design for Six Sigma Conference Introduction to Design for Six Sigma James M. Wasiloff, MBB September 14, 2006

2. Driving Success Using DFSS in the Development of Battle Ships @Raytheon Jon Mckenzie, Director of Six Sigma at Raytheon says,in early phases of product development we use DFSS in modeling and simulation of how these products will work.After the contract is awarded and we have firmed up exactly what we are going to build and what the system is going to look like, then we use DFSS to derive requirements from the customer, and all the way to the critical design elements that a design engineer will need to put the parts together and make it work McKenzie explained thatDFSS is embedded in Raytheons Integrated Product Development System(IPDS), which he said governs everything we do in the company.If you follow IPDS, you are going to get DFSS along the way. 3. Driving Success "Boeing Picks McNerney as Chief" - Wall Street Journal, July 1, 2005 Jim McNerney has left his post at 3M Company where he had been the top executive for over four years to take the job as chairman, president and chief executive of the world's largest aerospace company.McNerney is globally recognized as a strong advocate for the deployment of Design for Six Sigma.The following are a sampling of quotes from McNerney while serving at 3M: "Six Sigma is totally changing 3M.Many of the things that had driven the success of our company for the past eighty years no longer apply" "Six Sigma is not a program.It's our game plan.It will challenge all of us. individually and collectively, to be the very best we can be" "Major goal is to have for the first time, common approach to problem solving, new product development, and measurement across entire company" "McNerney preaches Six Sigma to Clients...It changes everybody's lives in the first year.We're betting our performance on Six Sigma.This is something that, if Six Sigma doesn't succeed, the company doesn't succeed." "At 3M, Six Sigma is driven by our executive management teams, who are fully engaged in critical business processes and actively deploying Six Sigma methodologies throughout the organization" 4. Driving Success Subir Chowdhury, author of the book The Power of Design for Six Sigmastates in his book: Most companies spendonly 5% oftheir budget on design, when design typically would determine 70% of the cost of the product- partly because 80 % of all quality problems are unwittingly designed intothe product itself. In fact, in government contracts, 30 to 40 % of the budget is set aside for testing and correcting the product. Imagine!So they are admitting in advance that one-third of the budget must be devoted to correcting the problems they plan to create with the first two-thirds of the budget. My gut says, any time testing and fixing are planned for up front, it is a virtual certainty that testing and fixing will be performed. Plan for Failure and youll get it 5. Six Sigma:High Level Perspective DEFINE PROBLEM / ISSUE Prevent defect(s) Eliminate defect(s) CHARACTERIZE DEFINE OPTIMIZE VERIFY MEASURE ANALYZE IMPROVE CONTROL DMAIC Black belt project to improve mfg. capability Mfg. process cannotprovide sufficient improvement. Need DFSSproject to reduce product sensitivity to mfg. noise. DFSSDMAICNew products Existing products ? Strategy 6. Introduction to Design For Six Sigma

  • Across private industry and government/defense sectors, Design For Six Sigma is a Product Development process that:
    • Effectively translates the Voice of The Customer into a design
    • Models and quantifies the designs performance and risk
    • Applies statistical tools to understand, optimize, and control key factors (or develop countermeasures to)that deliver critical customer attributes robustly in the presence of noise
    • Quantifies risk and facilitates business discussions regarding product delivery quality and reliability early in the Product Development process

7. A Historical Perspective on DFSS

  • Six Sigma developed at Motorola and adopted by GE and others (Steps: DMAIC)
  • DFSS concept originally developed at GE in late 90s
  • GE approach requires enhancement in the DFSS concept for successful application to automotive industry product development:
    • More focus on achieving Customer Satisfaction by improving Robustness and High Time in Service performance
    • Aligned to defense product development practices
    • (e.g., DVP&R, Kano Model, Robust Engineering, Reliability & Robustness checklist, etc.)

8. Key Elements of DFSS

  • Should be viewed as anenhancementto thecurrent design process :
    • Bundles existing product development tools
    • Teaches tools just-in-time at appropriate development phases
    • Provides common 6-sigma based language for PD
    • Not a locked-in process that requires the use of specified tools at every milestone
    • Each program may select tools according to the ability to fulfill key DFSS elements
  • Is a stage-gate process
  • Is a team and project driven process
  • Score Card driven process
  • Integral part of IPS and CMMI

9. Gate Reviews and Project Reviews Characterize Optimize Gate Review Gate Review Define Gate Review GateReview Project Reviews Project Reviews Project Reviews Project Reviews Verify 10. DFSS Scorecard Summary:Gate review tool and project summary Project Team/BBs Rate Deliverables Separates how well the team has done from the answer they got Key Phase Schedule: J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J Concept Design Design Development Optimize Verify Capability Phase Deliverables: Owner Date Risks/Issues 1. Critical Parameter Database G G G 2. G G G 3. G G G 4. Subsystem & Subassembly Reliability TestPlans & Current Data/Results Summary G G G 5. Say/Do Contract book Update G G G 6. Marketing Plan Update / Final G G G 7. Issue management G G G 8. Updated Risk Mitigation Plan G G G 9. Updated Integrated Schedule G G G 10. Customer Requirements Validation G G G 11. G G G 12. SA Checklist Complete/Approved G G G 13. Business Case Update / Final G G G 14. Post-Launch Product Control Plan G G G Total Score Gate Approval G 2006 Confidence Score Performance Score Gate Review score System / Sub-system Robustness Verified Optimized Design Performance Verified Mfg. & Supply Chain Capability Assessment 2005 Decision by Gatekeepers Phase-Gate Deliverables Gate Reviewers Rate Deliverables 11. Project Categories

  • New programs or technologies with large design space and some constraints (not usually a clean sheet design, but hopefully allows concept selection)
  • New product applications (beyond conceptual phase) for which design does not meet customer wants/functional requirements; usually, limited design space
  • Current model applications with very small design space and many constraints (high degree of optimization tuning)
  • New model applications with very aggressive Reliability Requirements
  • Project examples:New products with 10 x Reliability of legacy design

12. Project Prioritization Scheme Critical to GDLS Critical to Customer LowHigh LowHigh High Low Low Low High High Low High 13. Proposed Project Selection Criteria

  • Impact on customer satisfaction
  • Impact on reliability
  • Design degrees of freedom
  • Estimated cost avoidance
  • Impact on maintainability
  • Project duration
  • Project complexity/scope
  • Manufacturing location
  • CAE model availability

14. DFSS Key Focus

  • Developing a QFD or otherrigorous identification of customer needsto greater depth than is current practice
  • Defining or enhancing atransfer function , y=f(x) that mathematically describes critical to satisfaction metrics in terms of design variables
  • Better leveraginganalytical meansto identify & optimize critical design, manufacturing, and assembly elements
  • Summarizing design risk in ascorecardthat captures design & manufacturing capability and enforces process discipline
  • Assessing fieldrobustnessand using that assessment to guide verification planning & implementation

15. Design for Six Sigma:DCOV Understand Customer - and -Understand History Identify Critical to Satisfaction Drivers (CTSs) and Related Functional Targets

  • Flow Down to CTSs to lower level (ys)
  • Relate CTSs (ys) to CTQ design parameters (xs)
  • Characterize robustness opportunities including high mileage
  • Characterize capability/stability and select robustness strategy

Design for Producibility Design for Robust Performance Minimize processsensitivity to product & mfg. variations Minimize product sensitivity tomfg. & usage conditions Test & VerifyAssess Performance, Reliability & Manufacturing Not OK OK Perform tradoffs to ensure all CTSs are met D efine CTSs C haracterize System O ptimize Product/ Process V erify Results DFSSAssess-ment Estimate for process capability and for product function over time Capture data in scorecards Understand System - and -Select Concepts 16. DFSS (DCOV) Flow of Analysis & Tools Function Modeling Concept Generation& Selection DoE Robust Design & Tolerance Design Functions VOC KJ QFD Customer Needs/ Statements Customer Requirements FMEA Technical Requirements Reliability/Robustness Demonstration Concepts D C O V 17. DFSS- D COV Process Map 4.0Verify 5.0 Verify Functionality Define Characterize O ptimize What are the customer requirements? What approach/ system architecture would best meet customers requirements? How can weoptimize for Robustness? How can we ensure that the customer needs will be consistently met in various environments and situations? How can we design to meet the customer needs? What measurablesystem requirements support the customer needs? How will we demonstrate robustness/ reliability? How can we verify that thisproduct is reliable and robust? V erify 18. DFSS ( D COV) Flow of Analysis & Tools Function Modeling Concept Generation& Selection DoE Robust Design & Tolerance Design Functions VOC KJ QFD Customer Needs/ Statements Customer Requirements FMEA Technical Requirements Reliability/Robustness Demonstration Concepts D 19. Define Phase

  • The Define phase begins the process with a formal tie of design to Voice of the Customer. This phase involves developing a team and team charter, gathering VOC, performing competitive analysis, and developing CTQs.
  • Crucial Steps:
    • Identify and cascade customer and product requirements
    • Establish the business case
    • Identify technical requirements (CTQ variables and specification limits)
    • Roles and responsibilities
    • Establish project Milestones
  • Key Tools:
    • VOC (Voice of Customer)
    • QFD (Quality Function Deployment)
    • KJ ( K awakita,J iro)
    • Kano Model
    • Benchmarking

20. Gather, Process & Validatethe Voice of the Customer (VOC)

  • Who our customer is
  • The wants or needs ofthe customer (Voice ofthe Customer)

KJ

  • An affinity diagram that groups similar things of qualitative nature
  • The customers wants or
  • needs translated into System Level Technical Requirements

QFD VOC 21. KJ (Kawakita, Jiro) Analysis

  • Outputs:
  • Grouped, ranked & prioritized Customer Requirements
  • Customer feedback ranked importance for each requirement, ranked strength of competitors ability to fulfill the Customer Requirements

Summary:integrate images & visualized needs from the customers with written Voice of the Customer inputs to obtain prioritized Customer Requirements.

  • KJ Questions/Guidelines
  • How are customers being selected?
  • How will you interview the customers?
  • How are you facilitating selection ofthe NUDs?
  • How are the requirements being prioritized?

Conducting KJ Analysis:create affinity diagrams that gather and group VOC wants/needs and rank needs based on what is New, Unique and/or Difficult (NUDs) 22. KJ Results Voice of Consumers Easy to use Device must have easy to use buttons Easy to navigate internet Device must have easy text entry method Few or No Dropped Calls Dependable connection, in various environments and terrains Good Imaging Device must have ability to expand memory Device must have easy picture messaging Can go 3 dayswithout Recharging Provides secure m-Commerce Must support banking solution Must provide securityregarding identity Supports High Speed Internet Connectivity The device must be able to handle data-intensive service Device should be a compelling replacement for wired high speed internet Fits lightly intoA Pocket or Purse Small size Lightweight Prefer Customizable at Point of Sale Dependable connection within building, with weak signals or strong signals Good Entertainment Device must have a good multiplayer gaming solution Device must have high quality music solution Device must have video on demandMust have confidence that phone will have enough power for urgent situations. Optimized Display Size High Resolution Max. Screen to Phone Can Email Quality Photos Easily and Quickly The device must have a push email solution. Device must have a simple email solution Camera as good as stand alone Device must have great picture quality on display 23. Cell Phone VOCs Few or no dropped calls Fits lightly into a pocket or purse Cell Phone Project Can go 3 dayswithout recharging Can email quality photos easily & quickly Supports high speed internet connectivity Provides secure m-Commerce 24. Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

  • NUDs from KJ Analysis are translated to Systemlevel Technical Requirements through QualityFunction Deployment (QFD).

System Level Technical Requirements VOC KJ QFD Customer Need Statements CustomerRequirements (NUDs) 25. QFD/House of Quality Summary:Translates the Voice Of the Customer (VOC) into New, Unique and/or Difficult Technical Requirements. Identifies conflicts / tradeoffs among Technical Requirements.Links System Technical Requirements to Subsystems, Subassemblies and Components VOC NUDs (from KJ Analysis) Conflicts / Tradeoffs among Technical RequirementsRanked Importance for Technical Requirements Technical Requirements Targets, Tolerances for Technical Requirements 1 3 2 4 5 26. DFSS-D C OV 4.0Verify 5.0 Verify Functionality Define Characterize O ptimize What are the customer requirements? What approach/ system architecture would best meet customers requirements? How can weoptimize for Robustness? How can we ensure that the customer needs will be consistently met in various environments and situations? How can we design to meet the customer needs? What measurablesystem requirements support the customer needs? How will we demonstrate robustness/ reliability? How can we verify that thisproduct is reliable and robust? V erify 27. DFSS (DCOV) Flow of Analysis & Tools Function Modeling Concept Generation& Selection DoE Robust Design & Tolerance Design Functions VOC KJ QFD Customer Needs/ Statements Customer Requirements FMEA Technical Requirements Reliability/Robustness Demonstration Concepts C 28. Characterize Phase

  • The Characterize phase emphasizes CTQs and consists of identifying functional requirements, developing alternative concepts, evaluating alternatives and selecting a best-fit concept, deploying CTQs and predicting sigma capability.
  • Crucial Steps: Formulate and select concept...