introduction to-poetry

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  • 1. Introduction to Poetry

2. Poetryis the most misunderstood form of writing. It is also arguably the purest form of writing. Poetry is a sense of the beautiful; characterized by a love of beauty and expressing this through words. It is art. Like art it is very difficult to define because it is an expression of what the poet thinks and feels and maytake any form the poet chooses for this expression.Poetry is not easily defined. Often it takes the form of verse, but not all poetry has this structure. Poetry is a creative use of words which, like all art, is intended to stir an emotion in the audience. Poetry generally has some structure that separates it from prose. 3. The basic unit of poetry is theline . It serves the same function as the sentence in prose, although most poetry maintains the use ofgrammarwithin the structure of the poem. Most poems have a structure in which each line contains a set amount ofsyllables ; this is calledmeter . Lines are also often grouped intostanzas .Thestanzain poetry is equivalent or equal to the paragraph in prose. Often thelinesin a stanza will have a specificrhyme scheme . Some of the more common stanzas are:Couplet: a two line stanzaTriplet: a three line stanzaQuatrain: a four line stanzaCinquain: a five line stanza 4. Meter is themeasuredarrangement of words in poetry, the rhythmicpattern of a stanza , determined by the kind and number oflines .Meter is an organized way to arrange stressed/accentedsyllablesand unstressed/unaccentedsyllables .Who sewood s /thes ear e /Ithink / Iknow 5. Rhymeis when theendingsof the words sound the same.Read the poem with me out loud. Dust of Snowby Robert Frost The way acrow Shook down onme The dust ofsnow From a hemlocktree Has given myheart A change ofmood And save somepart Of a day I hadrued. 6. Rhyme scheme is the pattern ofrhymingwords at the end of eachline .Not all poetry has arhyme scheme .They are not hard to identify, but you must look carefully at which wordsrhymeand which do not. Dust of Snowby Robert Frost The way acrow Shook down onme The dust ofsnow From a hemlocktree Has given myheart A change ofmood And save somepart Of a day I hadrued. A B A B C D C D Poems of more thanonestanza often repeat thesamerhyme scheme in eachstanza . 7. Repetition is therepeatingof a sound, word, or phrase foremphasis . Inside Inside the house(I get ready) Inside the car(I go to school) Inside the school (I wait for the bell to ring) 8. Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else, you are usingfigurative language . Figurative language is any language that goes beyond theliteralmeaning of words in order to furnishnew effectsorfresh insightsinto an idea or a subject. The most common figures of speech aresimile ,metaphor , andalliteration .Figurative language is used in poetry to compare two things that are usuallynot thoughtof asbeing alike . 9. Asimileis a figure of speech in whichtwoessentiallyunlikethings are compared, often in a phrase introduced bylikeoras . Thecloudslookedlikecotton candy . Grandpawasas stubbornas a mule Tom'sheadisas hardas a rock . 10. Ametaphoris a figure of speech in which animpliedcomparison is made between twounlikethings that actually have somethingimportant in common . Cloudsarecotton candy. Grandpawasa mule. Tomisa rock.They are fluffy. They are stubborn. They are hard. 11. Alliteration is the repetition of thesamesounds or of thesamekinds of sounds at thebeginningof words or in stressed syllables, as in"on scrolls of silver snowy sentences" (Hart Crane).Modern alliteration is predominantly consonantal. To find an alliteration, you must look the repetitions of thesame consonant sound through out a line . Silvery snowflakes fall silently Softly sheathing all with moonlight Until sunrise slowly shows Snow softening swiftly . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Now you try the one in your packet. 12. Imageryis an appeal to thesenses . The poet describes something to help you tosee ,hear ,touch ,taste , orsmellthe topic of the poem.Fog The fog comes on little cat feet.It sits looking over harbor and cityon silent haunches and then moves on. Carl SandburgSEE, HEAR SEE HEAR, SEE, FEEL Now do the poem in your packet. 13. Anexaggeratedstatement used to heighten effect is a hyperbole. It is not used to mislead the reader, but toemphasize a point. Ive told you a million times not to leave the dirty glass on the table . The exaggeration in the number of times. In your packets, write two more hyperbole.Have your partner check them. 14. Anidiomis a phrase where the words together have a meaning that isdifferentfrom the dictionarydefinitionsof theindividual words.This can make idioms hard for students to understand. A day late and a dollar short. This idiom means it is too little, too late. Write two more examples of idioms to share with the class. 15. The formation or use of words such asbuzzormurmurthatimitatethesoundsassociated with the objects or actions they refer to is called analliteration .It is a word or a grouping of words thatimitates the soundit isdescribing , such as animal noises like "oink" or "meow", or suggesting its source object (these are the more important ones), such as "boom", "click", "bunk", "clang", "buzz", or "bang". 16. SOUND OF NATURE by Marie Josephine SmithTicking, tocking. Head is rocking. Tippy toeing. Quietly. Snap, crack. Crushing branch. Helter, skelter. Run for shelter. Pitter, patter. Rain starts to fall. Gathering momentum. Becomes a roar. Thunder booms. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 17. A figure of speech, which gives thequalitiesof apersonto an animal, an object, or an idea is calledpersonification . It is acomparison , which the author uses to show something in an entirelynew light , to communicate a certainfeeling or attitudetowards it and to control the way areader perceivesit.A brave handsome tree fell with a creaking rending cry.The author is giving a tree the human quality ofbraveryand the abilityot cry. 18. Free verseis just what it says it is - poetry that is writtenwithoutproper rules about form, rhyme, rhythm, and meter.In free verse the writer makes his/her ownrules . The writer decides how the poem shouldlook ,feel , andsound . 19. Winter Poem ByNikki Giovanni once a snowflake fell on my brow and i loved it so much and i kissed it and it was happy and called its cousins and brothers and a web of snow engulfed me then i reached to love them all and i squeezed them and they became a spring rain and i stood perfectly still and was a flower 20. Haikuis one of the most important forms of traditionalJapanesepoetry. Haiku is, today, a17-syllableverse form consisting of three metered lines of5 ,7 , and5 syllables .Each Haiku must contain akigo , aseasonword, which indicate in which season the Haiku is set. For example, cherry blossoms indicatespring , snow indicatewinter , and mosquitoes indicatesummer , but the season word isn't always that obvious. In the next three haikus, try to guess the theme. 21. Fog On the mountain top The fog fell down thick and fast It was like pea soup. Rain Tip-tap goes the rain. As it hits the window pane I can hear the rain. Hail They fell in showers. Like diamonds upon the ground Big hailstones were found. Haikus By Paul McCann The theme of these three poems isweather in late autumn or early winter. 22. The simplicity of thelimerickquite possibly accounts for its extreme longevity. It consists offivelines with the rhyme schemea a b b a . Thefirst ,second , andfifthlines are trimeter, a verse with three measures, while thethirdandfourthlines are dimeter, a verse with two measures. Often the third and fourth lines are printed as a single line with internal rhyme. Old Man with a Beard Edward LearThere was an Old Man with a beard, Who said, 'It is just as I feared! Two Owls and a Hen,Four Larks and a Wren,Have all built their nests in my beard!'A A B B A 23. Anarrativepoem, often of folk origin and intended to besung , consisting of simplestanzasand usually having arefrain . The Ballade Of The Mistletoe Boughby Ellis Parker Butler I am standing under the mistletoe, And I smile, but no answering smile replies For her haughty glance bids me plainly know That not for me is the thing I prize; Instead, from her coldly scornful eyes, Indifference looks on my barefaced guile; She knows, of course, what my act implies But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile? 24. I stand here, eager, and beam and glow, And she only looks a refined surprise As clear and crisp and as cold as snow, And asStop! I will never criticize! I know what her cold glance signifies; But Ill stand just here as I am awhile Till a smile to my pleading look replies But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile? Just look at those lips, now! I claim they show A spirit unmeet under Christmas skies; I claim that such lips on such maidens owe Asomethingthe custom justifies; I claim that the mistletoe rule applies To her as well as the rank and file; We should meet these things in a cheerful guise But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile? 25. Some might consider the study of poetry old fashioned, yet even in our hurried lives we are surrounded by it: children's rhymes, verses from songs, trite commercial jingles, well written texts. Any time we recognize words as interesting for sound, meaning or construct, we note poetics.