Introduction to road materials Part 1

Download Introduction to road materials Part 1

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Lecture contentMain Conceptsa) What is road and how it's constructed b) Structure of the roadc) Responsibilities d) Main tests for soil, aggregate, concrete and asphalt

Learning How to Learna) Recommended studies b) International codes c) How to get any specification and how to deal with itd) how to perform any test How to work a) Resume writingb) LinkedIn and how to deal with it c) Contracting companies

A road is a path connecting two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by sometransportations .

The beginning of road constructioncould be dated to the time of the Romans. With the advancementof technology from carriages pulled by two horses to vehicles.

Tutti le strade portano a Roma All roads lead toRomewas being used as early .It was based off of the ancient Roman road system where roads radiated fromthe capital of Rome.

The construction of modernhighways did not begin until the late 19th to early 20th century , the Long IslandMotor Parkway was the firstroadway design for automobile use only

Highways Is the type of roads designed to obtains the safe movement of high-speed vehicles, through the removal of intersections.

Atlanta USAHannover GERBuenos Aires, Argentina.Aims from road construction

Establishing a new communityConnecting between placesExtend and development current axes to prevent wasting time and money

Road construction prior studies

1- Exploring studies :Population Number activities customs and tradition favorite conveyance for transportationClimateTemperature humidity rains storms - floods EnvironmentalHazards environmental systemGeology and soilStructure stratigraphy sedimentology hydrology earthquakes geophysics pits water content classification CBR shear tests

SurveySatellite images - Aerial photographs topographic maps - GPSMaterials Sources types - transportation TrafficVolume classification weights ObstructionsMountains dams rivers seas railways villages sand dunes airports factories etc At the end of this stages we selecting suitable three pathsfor road

2- Primary studiesMore detailed for above sections but work will be at the three chosen paths , making traverse for every one of them , setting in-out , then at the end of this stage we will select the best path for our road 3- Final detailed studiesMore deeply for every section in exploration studies DrawingsSoil and material studiesQuantitiesSpecifications

ProfileHorizontal curvesprovides a transition betweentwo tangent strips of roadway, allowing a vehicle to turn at a gradual rate rather than a sharp cut

Vertical curvesprovides a transition between two sloped roadways, allowing avehicle to negotiate the elevation rate change at a gradual rate rather than a sharp cut

Cross section Lanes shoulders median - sidewalks curbs slopes - barriers bikeways infrastructures

Pavement structureSoil A mixture of mineral grainsAnd solid particles with liquid and gas in the empty spacebetween the solid particles

Sampling

RepresentativeSizeTransportationInformation

Reducing site sample to Test sizeMechanical SplitterQuartering method

Moisture content (mc%) Oven Speedy

Sieve analysis Sorting the grains with same diameter and determination of particle size distribution using specified sieves

What are these numbers ?

Distribution curve

Atterberg Limits(soil passing #40 - 0.425 mm )

Plastic Limit

Liquid limitCasagrand method

Cone penetration method

Plasticity index PI = Liquid limit plastic limit

Higher PIHigher plasticityHigher swellingHigher compressibilityHigher activityHigher volumetric change

Soil classification (AASHTO) system

Compaction Process of increasing of unit weight of soil by forcing soil solids into a dense state and decrease air voids

TestsLab ( Proctor ) In situ (sand cone nuclear gauge )

Proctor test (moisture density relation)Which Moisture content will give us maximum dry densityStandard modified

LayersBlowsWeight Heightmold

Sand cone

California Bearing Ratio CBRPotential strength determination

Sand equivalentHow much clay in the sample ?

Aggregate tests -Sampling-Sieve analysis -LL , PI-Sand equivalent -Unit weight -Flat and elongated

Specific gravity and absorption for coarse aggregate

Specific gravity and absorption for Fine aggregate

Abrasion resistance (Los Anglos)

No.12 sieveSoundness test

Asphalt

Penetration

kinematic viscosity

Softening point

Thin Film Oven Test

Flash point

Marshall

Extraction

Density and thickness

Cement

hydration

- Fineness

Sieve no 170

- Consistency of paste

- Initial setting time

- Final setting time

Initial needleFinal needleCompressive strength

Concrete Suspension of coarse aggregate particles in mortarmortarSuspension of fine aggregate particles in pastePasteSuspension of cement particles in water

Admixtureadd to the concrete to enhancing their properties or adding a new property Chemical Water reducer , retarders , accelerators , plasticizers , add color MineralFly ash slag silica fume

Red , green concrete

Concrete mixer truck

Slump test

Temperature

Cube test for concrete

Compressive strength

Learning How to learn

MOOCRecommended studies Codes How to get themHow to deal with them Places to study

Resume

Make a timeBe brief Market yourselfFont , Format revise update

Personal informationTarget position/career objective EducationSummary ExperienceTrainings CoursesSkills activitiesCover letter Dear .,(Intro )I would like to apply for position .., kindly find attached resume .(body)I have ...(experience or education and skills ) (End) Thank you for taking the time to consider this application and I look forward to hearing from you in the near future.

Yours sincerelyYour name Network

Family , friends , neighbors, professors, beers

Online (companies websites )

By hand

Header

Experience

Summery

Recommendation Awards Volunteer workSkills & Courses Education

Companies

Develop your selfApply what you learn Dont be afraid of work problems Help others

Further reading

Soil mechanics , CarigPrinciple of geotechnical engineering ,Barja DasConcrete technology , john newmanNeville, A.M. and Brooks, J.J.," CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY", ELBS .1990.Asphalt Institute-The Asphalt Handbook. No 4 (1989)AASHTO( American association of state highway and transportation officials)ASTM(American society of testing materials ) ... .... .... .......

Special thanks to

https://www.facebook.com/groups/ZG.UP.Team/

Regards , AmrElgabry

eg.linkedin.com/in/amrelgabry/

https://www.facebook.com/amrelgabry17/

Chart170115220300320

Penetration (inches)Load on Piston (psi)

Sheet10.025700.051150.12200.23000.4320

Sheet2

Sheet3