introduction to six sigma

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Introduction toSIX SIGMAFacilitator: Khan Mohd. IbrahimIndustrial Engineer & Six Sigma Black BeltOverview: Module # 1

The Helicopter View

Hello!This isKhan IbrahimYou can find me

This presentation is for the personnel who are going to be a part of Six Sigma project as team member & need to know the basics.

The scope of this presentation is Overview & Define of Six Sigma.

Name: Khan Md. IbrahimProfession: Industrial EngineerCompany: A & E Bangladesh

What do martial arts have to do with my job?

BLACK Belt??

Thousands of dollars $$ savings??

What is Six Sigma?

A story from Japan We will only accept 3 defective parts per 10,000---- IBM

The 3 defective parts have been separately manufactured and have been included in the consignment------ Japanese Company

How does it improve ?

A statistical measure of the process performance

A goal that reaches near perfection

A system of management to achieve & sustain the goal

Problem- Eat the Elephant

Eat the Elephant


Henry FordFounder of Ford Motor

Six Sigma Approach

Proceeds through small-small projects

3-6 months timeline per project

Very precise area of work in each project

Six Sigma Learning Curve

White Belt- 1 day workshop

Yellow Belt- 2 to 3 days workshop

Green Belt- 4 to 6 weeks workshop

Black Belt- In depth training of SS

Six Sigma. Wait ... Six What??

What does that Sigma mean?

Sigma Sigma is a Greek alphabet

Statistics- It stands for Standard Deviation

Statistics- It depicts deviation from target in a specific process


Why not 99.9% Quality?1 hour of unsafe drinking water every month

Why not 99.9% Quality?2 long or short landing at every American Airport each day

Why not 99.9% Quality?400 letters per hour which never arrive at their destination

Why not 99.9% Quality?500 incorrect surgical operations each week

Why not 99.9% Quality?3000 newborns accidentally falling from the hands of nurses or doctors every year

Why not 99.9% Quality?4000 incorrect drug prescriptions per year

Why not 99.9% Quality?22,000 checks deducted from the wrong bank account each year

Six Sigma Quality

Only 3.4 defects per million opportunities

Sigma level of 6 is difficult to achieve

Sigma level for Manufacturing companies is 2 4

Sigma level for Service companies is 3 -4

Six Sigma IndicatorsDefects per Unit (DPU)

Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO)

Sigma Level

Defects vs. DefectivesDefect- A single non-conforming quality characteristics

Defectives- items having one or more defects

3 defects in 1 defective item

1 Defective item1. Weight in-accurate2. Inner diameter wrong3. Surface finish poor

TransitionNext: Module # 2

Facilitator: Khan Mohd. IbrahimIndustrial Engineer & Six Sigma Black BeltIntroduction toSIX SIGMAOverview: Module # 2

Roles and Phases

The Players

Process Owner: Roles

Team Member: Roles

Six Sigma: Phases of a Project

Phase: Define

Identify problemsDefine projectSelect Black Belt/ Green BeltSelect Team MemberEstimate Financial ImpactDefine

Phase: Measure

Map the processIdentify inputs & outputsIdentify opportunity of failuresAnalyze measurement systemEstablish baseline capabilityMeasure

Phase: Analyze

Identify factorsHypothesis TestingGraphical & Statistical analysis to identify critical factorsAnalyze

Phase: Improve

Factorial DesignsIdentify InteractionsDefine Y = f(x)Improve

Phase: Control

Optimize outputsImplement Control PlanProject ClosureControl

TransitionNext: Module # 3

Introduction toSIX SIGMAOverview: Module # 3

Basic StatisticsFacilitator: Khan Mohd. IbrahimIndustrial Engineer & Six Sigma Black Belt

What is a Statistic?Data or Information from a sample

Population vs. Sample

Population: includes all members of a defined group

Sample: Sample is a proportion of a population, a slice of itSamplePopulation

What to measure?

Mean (): Weighted average of the measurement

Standard Deviation (): Statistical measure of variation from mean

Jack WelchCEO of General Electric

Variation is Evil

Types of variations

TransitionNext: Module # 4

Introduction toSIX SIGMAOverview: Module # 4

Data Collection & Sampling

Mark TwainAmerican Author

Data is like garbage.

Youd better know what are you going to do with it before you collect it

Data Collection System

Obtain Data (Collect data needed to answer the question )

Analyze Method (Define tools needed to graphs/analyze the data)

Question (Determine what questions needs to be answered) 123

Types of Data

History of SamplingUS Millitary in1934 on the eve of WWII

Why do we need sampling?Study a large population

Sampling is for speed

Sampling saves the source of data from being all consumed

Sampling is for economy

TransitionNext: Module # 5

Introduction toSIX SIGMAOverview: Module # 5

Scoping ToolsFacilitator: Khan Mohd. IbrahimIndustrial Engineer & Six Sigma Black Belt

What is a projects scope?Project's scope explains the boundaries of the project

Scope is defined by cascading a business problem into a very concise project idea through the scoping tools

Scoping ToolsQuantitativePareto Chart

QualitativeCause & Effect Diagram5 Why AnalysisAffinity Diagram

Pareto Chart- Pareto PrincipleVilfredo Pareto- an Italian civil engineer

80% of land in Italy belongs to 20% people

Pareto Chart

Frequencies/ CountsPercentageProblem TypesCumulative Percentage lineCut-off line

Cause & Effect DiagramKauro Ishikawa- Kawasaki Shipyard in 1960

Effects are reasoned under 6Ms

Man, Machine, Method, Material, Measurement & Mother Nature (Environment)

Cause & Effect Diagram


Cause & Effect DiagramMan: Anyone involved with the processMethods: How the process is performed and the specific requirements for doing itMachines: Any equipment or tools required to accomplish the jobMaterials: Raw materials used to produce the final productMeasurements: Data generated from the process that are used to evaluate its quality

5 WHY Analysis

Affinity DiagramGet ideas from cross-functional teams

Introduction toSIX SIGMAOverview: Module # 6

Project Definition WorkSheetFacilitator: Khan Mohd. IbrahimIndustrial Engineer & Six Sigma Black Belt

Project Definition Steps

Scoping for a project opportunityQuestion Description Output What is the Tangible output (Product or Service), related to the specific business problem Process What Is the Process which Is delivering the product or Service Number of Processes How many processes are involved in delivering the Product or Service (if there are more than two, the Problem is too broad and a scoping sessions needs to be executed in order to bring it down to ONE) High level Macro Map Develop a High level Macro Map illustrating the main steps of the process Measurable Process Characteristics Name the product or service features (or measureable process characteristics) that will help to improve the problem. If more than two features are identified, the scope of the project may be too broad.

Question Description Tangible OutputThe Product or Service Delivered to the Customer in terms of an Output E.g.: Output Process High level process or departmental function E.g.: Supply Chain, Sewing, Cutting, Planning, Finance High level Macro Map Process Map illustrating the macro process steps of a certain process

Jargon & Terminology

Define Project Metric & Objectives Question Description Defect What is wrong with each feature named above (i.e., what is the defect?) Primary Metric Name the Primary Metric(s) that measure the identified defect(s). The Primary Metric should measure performance directly from the process. It will be the yardstick for tracking success of the project. Consequential MetricList any Consequential Metrics measuring potential negative effects of successfully improving the Primary Metric. BaselineEstimate the Baseline performance level for each Primary Metric. Entitlement / Benchmark Estimate the Entitlement and/or Benchmark for each Primary Metric. Objective Statement Compose an Objective Statement as follows: Improve from to by . Source of Data Identify which Sources of Data (reports, collection sheets, inspection points, etc) are available to measure the metrics listed.

Question Description Defect Define what is non conformance Primary Metric The Key Performance Indicator or the key PROJECT FOCUS which will be approached in order to solve the specific Business Problem E.g.: Efficiency, Raw Material Wastage, Manufacturing Lead Time Consequential Metric E.g.: Primary Metric -Wastage, Consequential Metric Shortages

Jargon & Terminology

Quantify Financial Impact Question Description Finance Representative Who is the Finance Representative (provide name) assigned formally or informally to value the financial impact of this Six Sigma project? Cost Centers List any potential Cost Centers that will likely be impacted by reducing the defect or improving the pri