introduction to special education: group one- specific learning disabilities

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  • 1.Specific Learning Disabilities GROUP ONE

2. The Facts of Specific Learning Disorders 3. Facts: Definitions IDEA Definition Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculation. NJCLD Definition National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) Came up with their own definition because they perceived a lack in the IDEA definition. Learning disabilities is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. 4. Facts: Prevalence Currently 2.4 million students are diagnosed with SLD and receive special education services in our schools or 4-6% of all public school students. IDEA Part B Child Count, 2010, Students ages 6-21. Available at 41% of all students receiving special education are SLD IDEA Part B Child Count, 2010, Students ages 6-21. Available at The number of SLD students has been on a steady decline in the past 10 years. IDEA Part B Child Counts, 2001-2010, Students ages 6-21. Available at Boys outnumber girls three to one in prevalence of SLD 5. Facts: Language Disability Two types: Written Expression and Oral Expression Written Expression: requires a complex set of motor and information processing skills. Makes the act of writing difficult. Can lead to problems with spelling, poor handwriting and putting thoughts on paper. Can cause trouble with organizing letters, numbers and words on a line or page. trouble processing and making sense of what the ear hears Note-taking during a lecture is a problem Visual-spatial difficulties: trouble processing what the eye sees Note-taking from the board is a problem Causes fatigue because the physical process of writing is so arduous Oral Expression: express thoughts, and ideas using appropriate language structures Is NOT reading aloud or reading fluently. must adversely affect academic performance. If a deficit does not affect academic performance the speech-language pathologist may better address the students needs. 6. Facts: Reading Disability Two types: Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension Also known as Dyslexia Most prevalent type of learning disability Characterized by difficulties with accurate word recognition, decoding and spelling. May result in poor reading fluency and reading out loud. Reads slowly and painfully May cause problems with reading comprehension and slow down vocabulary growth 7. Facts: Math disability Two types: Math Calculation and Math Reasoning Visual-spatial difficulties and language processing difficulties contribute to math disabilities. Math Calculation: Difficulty in making arithmetical calculations Also known as Dyscalculia Trouble learning math facts (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) Trouble with mental math Difficulty learning math concepts beyond the basic math facts Poor long term memory for math functions Difficulty measuring things Math Reasoning: Difficulty developing math problem-solving skills Difficulty finding different approaches to one problem Not familiar with math vocabulary Avoiding games that require strategy Difficulty estimating costs like groceries bills Poor ability to budget or balance a checkbook Trouble with concepts of time, such as sticking to a schedule or approximating time 8. Causes and Preventions of Specific Learning Disabilities 9. Causes of Specific Learning Disabilities Physiological: Brain injury may occur prenatally if exposed to toxins, during birth if deprived of oxygen, or postnatally from an accident or illness. Heredity if one or both parents have a learning disability, the chance of the child having one is 30-50%. Chemical imbalance biochemical disorder in the brain. 10. Causes (continued) Curriculum and Environmental Contributors: Poor nutrition Adverse emotional climate Toxins in the environment - lead-based paint, cigarette smoke Too little stimulation Lack of educational materials English as a second language Children who live in poverty 11. Causes (continued) Lack of medical care Low parent education and less modeling Few early learning experiences In most cases, a single cause is not known, and it is very unlikely that a primary cause is ever identified. However, a combination of one or more of these causes are most often considered. It is not uncommon for SLD to co- occur with social, emotional, or behavior problems. 12. Prevention of Specific Learning Disabilities Primary Prevention Healthy start for newborns Appropriate prenatal care Early intervention for developmental delays Reducing chances of brain injury Education for parents Improving teachers skills in instruction 13. Prevention of Specific Learning Disabilites (continued) Secondary Prevention Remedial instruction Working with children (RTI) because learning problems have been noticed Tertiary Prevention Keeping the effects of the problem from spreading into other areas of functioning Avoiding problems in other subjects 14. Resources for Effected Students and Their Families 15. National Resources The National Center for Learning Disabilities Established in 1977 Provides resources to promote awareness of learning disabilities as well as provides grants and other resources for research and implementation of innovative practices in the field of learning disabilities. The organization also acts as an advocacy group for students with SLDs and their families. The Learning Disabilities Association of America The LDA was established in 1963 by a group of concerned parents. The LDA promotes prevention of learning disabilities, provides resources for learning disability research, promotes identification of those with learning disabilities, supports educational intervention, and advocates for people with learning disabilities and their families. LDA Website 16. State Resources Georgia Department of Education- The Divisions for Special Education Services and Supports This state service is provided through the State Department of Education. This service provides resources and support to local school systems to provide special education services and supports to students who need them. These programs and services provide extra educational opportunities for students to boost their educational achievement and multiply these students opportunities upon their getting out of high school. Website Learning Disabilities Association of Georgia Provides resources and advocates for students with learning disabilities and their families in the state of Georgia. Website 17. Local Resources Southeast GLRS GLRS is based in several locations across the state of Georgia. Its primary focus is to provide professional learning for teachers who teach students with learning disabilities and to parents with children who have learning disabilities. The nearest location to me is Southeast GLRS in Claxton, Georgia. Each location serves as a source of local support for schools and families who are within its coverage area. Website Parent 2 Parent of Georgia Parent 2 Parent of Georgia is a support organization which allows parents with children who have all types of disabilities, including specific learning disabilities, to get advice and support from other parents who are experts. The organization is located in Statesboro. Website 18. Accommodations for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities 19. Accommodations in the Classroom Academics and Organization Present information visually and verbally Use diagrams, graphics and pictures to support instruction. Provide independent practice Write legibly and print when possible Use large print Speak clearly and turn so students can see your face Present learning tasks into small steps 20. Accommodations ( Cont.) Academics and Organization Regularly check understanding Provide timely feedback Have student underline key words or directions on activity sheets Teach memory strategies Use graphic organizers to connect ideas 21. Accommodations ( Cont.) Reading Highlight unfamiliar words, review them, and explore the meaning. Teach the use of contextual clues for unfamiliar words Build background for reading Set a purpose for reading to gain meaning from text Have students use both visual and auditory senses when reading text Present reading in small units Peer read Use graphic organizers to connect ideas. Read and share stories with students. 22. Accommodations ( Cont.) Writing Use oral exams in when possible. Provide notes or outlines to reduce writing. Provide a partially completed outline that allows student to fill in details under major headings. Allow use of a laptop or other computer for writing assignments. 23. Accommodations ( Cont.) Math Allow use of fingers and scratch paper. Use diagrams and draw math concepts. Present activities that involve all sensory modalities auditory, visual, tactile, and kinesthetic. Arrange peer assistance and tutoring opportunities. Have graph paper available so students can align numbers in math problems. Use colored pencils to differentiate problems. Offer manipulatives throughout instruction. Teach s


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