Introduction to the Arab world

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This is a brief introduction to the Arab culture, history and religions.

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<ul><li>1.Answer True or False: 1. The Arab countries are mostly very hot deserts.2. There are multiple faiths in most Arab countries. 3. In some Arab countries, there are Churches, Synagogues andMosques. 4. All Muslims are Arabs 5. Muslims believe in the Bible just as much as they do in the Koran. 6. All Arab women cover at least their heads. 7. Other than the oil, the Arab land is very poor in natural ores and produce. 8. Some Arab countries are considered the bread baskets of many neighboring countries. 9. Most Muslim Arabs do not drink alcohol. 10. Most Muslim Arabs do not eat pork. 11. Most Christian Arabs do not drink alcohol and do not eat pork. False True True True True True True True False False False</li></ul> <p>2. The Arab World 22 countries make the Arab world. 330 million people live in this areaArabic is the dominant languageIts called World because people from all races, religion and color live in that area. AlgeriaBahrainComorosDjiboutiEgyptIraqJordanKuwaitLebanonLibyaMauritaniaMoroccoOmanPalestineQatarSaudi ArabiaSomaliaSudanSyriaTunisiaUnited Arab EmiratesYemen 3. The Arab World </p> <ul><li>Religion and Ancestry: </li></ul> <ul><li>All threemonotheistic religions(Judaism, Christianity and Islam) originated in what is known today as the Arab-World. </li></ul> <ul><li>Arabs trace their ancestry to Sam the son of Noah and theyre therefore Semites. </li></ul> <ul><li>Arabs represent 98% of the current Semites. </li></ul> <ul><li>Arabs are immediate descendant from Ishmael the son of Abraham who lived all his life in Becca (Todays Mecca). </li></ul> <ul><li>The Kaba was built by Ishmael and Abraham about 2000 BCE. </li></ul> <ul><li>Islam originated in Mecca in 610 CE. </li></ul> <ul><li>Most pre-Islam Arab tribes were polytheists but several of them adhered to the Jewish or Christian faiths. </li></ul> <ul><li>Today most Arabs are Muslims but a significant minority about 10% are of Christian or Jewish faith. </li></ul> <p>4. History of the Arab World </p> <ul><li>Pre-Islam Arab Kingdoms: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>There were many Arab Kingdoms before Islam, among them: </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>The Babylonian, the Canaanites and the Phoenicians</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Its also referred to as the cradle of civilization </li></ul></li></ul> <p>5. </p> <ul><li>Islamic Arab dynasties : </li></ul> <ul><li>RashidunEmpire(632 - 661)</li></ul> <ul><li>Umayyad Empire(661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Umayyad Emirate inIslamic Spain(750 - 929)</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>UmayyadCaliphate of Crdobain Islamic Spain (929 - 1031)</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Abbasid Empire(750 - 1258) - Successors of the Umayyad Caliphate</li></ul> <ul><li>Fatimid Empire(910 - 1171)</li></ul> <ul><li>Ayyubiddynasty(1171-1246), Saladdin </li></ul> <ul><li>Bahridynasty(1250-1382) </li></ul> <ul><li>Burjidynasty(13821517) </li></ul> <ul><li>Ottoman Empire (1517-1914)Non-Arab Muslims ruled The Arab World(Collapses after WWI and the Arab World divided into 22 countries) </li></ul> <p>History of the Arab World 6. The Arab World </p> <ul><li>Culture: </li></ul> <ul><li>The Alphabet: </li></ul> <p>The Arabic alphabet is about 3000 years old. It has 28 letters. Its written from right to left. 7. The Arabic Alphabet Today Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and China are the main non-Arab statesusing the Arabic alphabet to write one or more official national languages, including Persian, Dari, Pashto, Urdu, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Uyghur-&gt;Countries where the Arabic script is used alongside otherorthographies . -&gt;Countries where the Arabic script is the only official orthography 8. Examples of Arabic Alphabet used by other languages </p> <ul><li>Farsi: , </li></ul> <ul><li>Urdu: </li></ul> <ul><li>Chinese(Xiao'erjing): </li></ul> <p>9. 10. Arabic Calligraphy 11. Arabic Architecture and Arts 12. Arabic Architecture and Arts 13. Arabic Music 14. Arabic Music 15. Traditional Costumes of the Arab World 16. Food </p> <ul><li>The Arabic cuisine is very diverse and rich. </li></ul> <ul><li>Each area in the Arab World has its own flavor and specific cuisine. </li></ul> <p>17. Cities of the Arab World Amman, Jordan Al-Quds or Jerusalem, Palestine Beirut, Lebanon Dubai, UAE Cairo, Egypt Casablanca, Aldar Albaida, Morocco 18. Contribution of the Arab/Islamic civilization to Science, Math and Astrology 19. Medicine and Pharmacy </p> <ul><li>Institutionalized and regulated the practice of Medicine and Pharmacy </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>The modern concept of clinics </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Board exams and license to practice. Regulatory boards (FDA's!!!) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Classification of plants and Algae for their medical use, and outlined possible side effects (PDRs!!) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Hospitals :</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Tens, including specialized, in each of Baghdad, Qurtoba, and Damascus.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Mobile hospitals for emergency.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Departments and University Hospitals. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Patients records and vital signs, urine tests, family history.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Surgery :</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Threads from animals intestine.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Opium and Hashish for Anesthesia.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Alcohol as disinfectant.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Treatment of cataract, and removal of kidney and gallbladder stones </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Autopsy!!! </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Students training (Anatomy) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Cause of death </li></ul></li></ul> <p>20. </p> <ul><li>Abu-bakr Elrazzy ; 9th Century</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Father of Physicians, great clinician and experimentalist</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Many books including Smallpox and Measles </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Ibn-Elhaytham : 10th Century</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Multidisciplinary scientist. Ophthalmologist</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Mechanism of sight. Function of the eye</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Over 100 books in Med. and Math. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Ibn-Seena (Avisai) : 10th Century</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>The Qannun, the medical text book in Europe till 19th Cen. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Described the medical use of over 2700 plants </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Light has a finite speed, which is much faster than the speed of sound </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Ibn-Rushd (Aviros) :13th Century</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Philosopher and Physician. Many books </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Ibn-Elnafees :</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Blood circulation and the role of lungs </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Abulkassim Alzahrawi (Abulcasis or Albucasis) : 11th Century</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>One of the greatest surgeons.A good dentist and GP.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Removal of breast cancer.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Hemophilia and its hereditary transmission (female to male) </li></ul></li></ul> <p>Known Physicians 21. </p> <ul><li>Arabic terms and methods of preparation for Alkali, Alcohol, Tartarate</li></ul> <ul><li>Discovered and prepared 28 elements (Ibn Elhaytham)</li></ul> <ul><li>The processes of crystallization, fermentation, distillation, sublimation,</li></ul> <ul><li>Preparation of acids (H 2 SO 4 , HCl, HNO 3 ) and bases (NaOH) </li></ul> <ul><li>Light travels in straight lines. Laws of refraction, reflection and illusion of light.</li></ul> <ul><li>First attempt to fly by Abbas Ibn Fernas </li></ul> <ul><li>Mechanical clock </li></ul> <ul><li>Astrulab </li></ul> <ul><li>Magnifiers (1 stTelescopes) </li></ul> <ul><li>Torpedos and Rockets (Used for Military purposes) </li></ul> <ul><li>Eluded to the Magnetic properties of some objects </li></ul> <p>Chemistry and Physics 22. </p> <ul><li>Arabic numeral and the decimal system of numbers.</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Right Left.English. But 1000 </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Arithmetic. Roots and powers </li></ul> <ul><li>Algorithm =Alkhawarismi </li></ul> <ul><li>The mathematical ZERO </li></ul> <ul><li>Algebra (combining fractions).</li></ul> <ul><li>The Use of (x, y, z) to solve complex arithmetic/geometric problems </li></ul> <ul><li>Trigonometry (Albairuni and Albuzjani), differential and Integral.</li></ul> <ul><li> = 3.141596.</li></ul> <ul><li>Some known Mathematicians: </li></ul> <ul><li>Abu-bakr Alkhawarismi </li></ul> <ul><li>Thabit Ibn Qarra (9th Century).Calculus.</li></ul> <ul><li>Ibn-elhaytham </li></ul> <ul><li>Albairuni (10th Century) </li></ul> <ul><li>Albuzjani</li></ul> <ul><li>Omar Elkhayam (2 &amp; 3 equations) </li></ul> <p>Mathematics 23. </p> <ul><li>Astrology (myth)Astronomy (science) </li></ul> <ul><li>Movement, path, and location of planets and stars </li></ul> <ul><li>The Asturlab </li></ul> <ul><li>Earth is spherical and rotates along its axis and around the sun.</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Calculated earth circumference (Albairuni) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Calculated the time needed for one rotation around the sun (solar year), with </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>an error of 2 22 only (Albattani) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Calculated the equinoxes</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Current names of most constellations, and many stars are from Arabic </li></ul> <ul><li>Map making was enhanced by Arab scientists </li></ul> <ul><li>Arab sailors dominated the seas and were major members of Columbuss crew that discovered America. </li></ul> <ul><li>Magellan used Arab sailors and maps to navigate around the globe. </li></ul> <ul><li>Vasco de Gama was helped by Arab sailors to travel around the Cape of Good Hope making </li></ul> <ul><li>him the first European to reach India by sea. </li></ul> <ul><li>Some known astronomists: </li></ul> <ul><li>Alkindy (9th Century) </li></ul> <ul><li>Albattani (9th Century) </li></ul> <ul><li>Ibn-elhaytham (11th Century) </li></ul> <ul><li>Thabit Ibn Qarra</li></ul> <ul><li>Almajreeti </li></ul> <p>Astronomy 24. Arab Americans Who are they and where do they come from? 25. Countries of origin of Arab Americans 26. Famous Arab-Americans </p> <ul><li>1) Poet / philosopher / author of The Prophet:Kahlil Gibran </li></ul> <ul><li>2) 2000 Presidential Candidate &amp; Consumer advocate:Ralph Nader </li></ul> <ul><li>3) Former Senate Majority Leader:George Mitchell </li></ul> <ul><li>4) Singer, dancer, choreographer:Paula Abdul </li></ul> <ul><li>5) Corporal Klinger of M*A*S*H:Jamie Farr </li></ul> <ul><li>6) Dean of the White House press corps:Helen Thomas </li></ul> <ul><li>7) Producer of Halloween films:Moustapha Akkad </li></ul> <ul><li>8) Disk jockey, creator of American Top 40:Casey Kasem </li></ul> <ul><li>9) White House Chief of Staff, Bush Adm.:John Sununu </li></ul> <ul><li>10) NFL quarterback, Heisman Trophy winner:Doug Flutie </li></ul> <ul><li>11) Indy 500 winner, National Race Car champion:Bobby Rahal </li></ul> <ul><li>12) Former CEO, Ford Motor Company:Jacques Nasser </li></ul> <ul><li>13) The founder of Mothers Against Drunk Driving:Candy Lightner </li></ul> <ul><li>14) Actor in Monk and other TV shows and movies:Tony Shaloub </li></ul> <ul><li>15) Oscar for Best Supporting Actor, Amadeus:F. Murray Abraham </li></ul> <ul><li>16) Comedian, founder of St. Judes Childrens Hospital:Danny Thomas </li></ul> <ul><li>17) Former co-star of Baywatch:Yasmeen Bleeth </li></ul> <ul><li>18) U.S. Secretary of Energy, G.W. Bush Adm.:Spencer Abraham </li></ul> <ul><li>19) Actress in American Pie and American Pie 2:Shannon Elizabeth </li></ul> <ul><li>20) Co-star of Wild Wild West and Desperado:Selma Hayek </li></ul> <ul><li>21) Current NIH Director:Elias A. Zerhouni </li></ul> <ul><li>22) Current Director of JPL (NASA) lead the Cassini (Venus) and Spirit (Mars) exploration:Charles El-Achi </li></ul> <ul><li>23) CEO of Nissan Motors:Carlos Ghosn </li></ul> <ul><li>24) Astronaut who died aboard the space shuttleChallenger: Christina McAuliffe </li></ul> <ul><li>25) NBA player from 1988-1996:Rony Seikaly </li></ul> <ul><li>And many more for full list go towww.aaiusa.orgThe Arab American Institute </li></ul> <p>27. Guess what?? You speak Arabic without knowing!! </p> <ul><li>A Sample of Arabic words used in English: </li></ul> <ul><li>Admiral = amir al (ruler of; originally "amir al-bahr," ruler of the sea) </li></ul> <ul><li>Alchemy = alkimia (from Greek "chemia," a pouring together) </li></ul> <ul><li>Alcohol = al kohool (First distillation of Alcohol by humans) </li></ul> <ul><li>Algebra = al-jabr (the reunion of broken parts, from "jabara," to reunite, bind together) </li></ul> <ul><li>Almanac = almanakh (calendar) </li></ul> <ul><li>Arsenal = dar as-sina'ah (workshop, literally, house of skill or trade) </li></ul> <ul><li>Azure = lazward (sky blue, from Persian "lazhward") </li></ul> <ul><li>Candy = qandi (made of sugar, from Sanskrit "khanda," sugar in pieces; "khand," to break) </li></ul> <ul><li>Coffee = qahwa (coffee) </li></ul> <ul><li>Cotton = qutun (cotton) </li></ul> <ul><li>Elixir = el iksir (the philosopher's stone) </li></ul> <ul><li>Gazelle = gazal (gazelle) </li></ul> <ul><li>Mattress = matrah (mattress, foundation) </li></ul> <ul><li>Rice = Rozz </li></ul> <ul><li>Saffron = za'faran </li></ul> <ul><li>Sherbet = sherbet (from "sharaba," to drink) </li></ul> <ul><li>Sofa = soffah (cushion on a saddle for a camel) </li></ul> <ul><li>Sugar = sakkar (from Persian "shakar" and Sanskrit "carkara," gravel or candied sugar) </li></ul> <ul><li>Soap= Saboon </li></ul> <ul><li>Syrup = sharab (from "shariba," to drink) </li></ul> <ul><li>Tariff = tar'if (explanation, information, a list of things, especially of fees to be paid; from "`arafa," to inform) </li></ul> <ul><li>Zero = sifr (a cipher) </li></ul> <ul><li>And many more </li></ul> <p>28. 29. History of the Arab World </p> <ul><li>Pre-Islam Arab Kingdoms: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Kingdom of Ma'in (9th century BC - 1st century BC)</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Kingdom of Saba (9th century BC - 275AD) (Queen of Sheba, Yemen) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Kingdom of Hadhramaut (8th century BC - 3rd century AD)</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Kingdom of Awsan (8th century BC - 6th century BC)</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>The Achaemenids in Northern Arabia: Babylonians, Phoenicians and Canaanites </li></ul> <ul><li>Nabateans (Petra, Jordan) </li></ul> <ul><li>Palmyra (Tadmor, Syria) </li></ul> <ul><li>Qataban &amp; Himyar in South Arabia</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Kingdom of Qataban (4th century BC - 3rd century AD)</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Kingdom of Himyar (2nd Century BC - 525 AD)</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Aksumite occupation of Yemen (525AD - 570AD)</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Sassanid period (570AD - 630AD)</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Qahtani expansion to the North (Crescent Fertile) </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Ghassanids, Lakhmids and Kindites</li></ul></li></ul> <p>30. Arabic Calligraphy </p>