introverts speaking out: introverts in online and in-class discussions
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DESCRIPTIONIntroverts Speaking Out: Introverts in Online and In-Class Discussions. Alina Richardson Spring Hill College. Class Participation. Participating in class discussions is beneficial to a student’s learning ( Jalongo , Twiest , Gerlack , & Skoner , 1998). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Introverts Speaking Out: Introverts in Online and In-Class Discussions
Alina RichardsonSpring Hill CollegeClass ParticipationParticipating in class discussions is beneficial to a students learning (Jalongo, Twiest, Gerlack, & Skoner, 1998). Promotes collaborative learning and leads to better understanding of the materialOnly 10% of students choose to participate during in-class discussions (Jalongo et al., 1998).Students who are able to communicate their thoughts quickly are rewarded, while students who are more reflective and prefer to take time before responding often miss the opportunity for recognition (Litz, 2003 as cited in Mello, 2010).
Personality and ParticipationStudents with higher levels of extraversion tend to participate more in in-class discussions (Anitsal et al., 2010; Murberg, 2010; Nelson, 2010)Introverts struggle in discussions because they are more reflective in nature and are less assertive than Extraverts (Anitsal et al., 2010; Rim, 1977)Introverts Introverts prefer to reflect and develop their ideas prior to commenting, suggesting that introverts may require extra time to respond in a discussion and are more reflective learners (Russell, 2002). There is supplementary time in online discussions to reflect prior to contributing (Anitsal et al., 2010; Baglione & Nastanski, 2007; Russell, 2002).
Present StudyThe present study focuses on student participation, satisfaction, and comfort in in-class discussions compared to asynchronous online discussions Asynchronous online discussions are a format in which the instructor or a student can post a question or a topic to the entire group and allow for personal-paced responsesAllows students additional time to develop a complete thought and carefully construct responses to their peers and instructors
Research QuestionsAre Introverts more Reflective Learners than Extraverts?Will Introverts participate more in an online discussion than they would in an in-class discussion?Will Introverts express higher levels of comfort and satisfaction in online discussions than in in-class discussions?Will Reflective Learners express higher levels of comfort and satisfaction in online discussions than in in-class discussions?
ParticipantsParticipants were recruited from Spring Hill College courses and from FacebookApproximately 280 ParticipantsThree did not complete the survey and were excludedApproximately 125 participants never participated in an asynchronous online discussion and were excluded from most of the analysesThere were 58 males and 213 females (Two did not identify their gender)Ages 18-55 (M= 21.73)Approximately 175 participants were Spring Hill College studentsThe remaining were students from other universities
Materials and ProceduresData was collected using self-reportsOnline questionnaire Five to ten minutes to completeConsisted of four scales:Online Experience QuestionsSatisfaction, Participation, and Comfort in Online vs. In-class DiscussionsActive/Reflective Learners ScaleIntroversion ScaleOnline Experience QuestionsAsked general questions about the participants experience in an online discussionWas participation in the discussion required?Did the instructor participate in the discussion?There was also an open-ended question allowing participants to provide any additional comments they may have on their online experience
Online Vs. In-Class Discussion QuestionsConsisted of eight items in which the participant chose online discussions or in-class discussions to complete a sentence to make it relevant to their experiencesI feel more comfortable voicing my opinions during (online discussions/in-class discussions)Overall, I participate more during (online discussions/in-class discussions)I prefer participating in (online discussions/in-class discussions)Intended to measure satisfaction, participation, and comfort between the two forms of discussions
Active/Reflective Learners ScaleIntended to determine the learning styles of the participants (i.e., whether they were active or reflective learners)Comprised of questions from the Index of Learning Styles (Felder & Soloman, 1994) Consists of 11 sentence completion itemsI understand something better after I (try it out/think it through) I more easily remember (something I have done/something I have thought a lot about)When I am learning something new, it helps me to (talk about it/think about it)Clarify what response would be active and what would be reflective11Introversion ScaleConsisted of items from an extraversion-introversion scale created by McCroskey (1995), who pulled items from Eysencks work on extraversion-introversion (1970; 1971)Consists of 12 statements, in which the participant indicated how much he or she agrees with each on a Likert-type scaleI am inclined to keep in the background on social occasionsI usually take the initiative in making new friendsI think that having a daily routine is a comfortable way to get things done
Research Question #1: Are Introverts more reflective learners than Extraverts?Levels of Introversion were positively correlated with whether a participant was a Reflective Learner.One-way between-groups analysis of variance Participants were divided into three groups according to their score on the Index of Learning Styles Group 1: Active LearnersGroup 2: NeutralGroup 3: Reflective LearnersThere was a statistically significant difference at the p < .05 level in Introversion Scale scores for the three groups: F (2, 270) = 36.3, p = .00. Group 1 (M = 2.32, SD = .47) Group 2 (M = 2.61, SD = .52) Group 3 (M = 2.97, SD = .55)One-way between-groups analysis of variance was conducted to explore the impact of introversion on learning style
The effect size, calculated using eta squared, was .22Post-hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated that the mean score for Group 1 (M = 2.32, SD = .47) was significantly different from Group 2 (M = 2.61, SD = .52) and Group 3 (M = 2.97, SD = .55). Group 2 and Group 3 differed significantly from one another.
13Research Question #2: Will Introverts participate more in an online discussion?There were no statistically significant differences between levels of Introversion and whether participants participated more in an online discussion or an in-class discussion.
Research Question #3: Will Introverts express higher levels of comfort and satisfaction in online discussions?There were no significant differences between levels of Introversion and satisfaction in either online or in-class discussionThere was a statistically significant difference for levels of introversion and levels of comfort for the item: I feel more comfortable voicing my opinions during (online discussions/in-class discussions)Chi-square test for independence 2 (1, n = 149)= 5.66, p = .02, phi = -.21.
A Chi-square test for independence indicated a significant association between level of comfort for voicing opinions in online vs. in-class discussions and introversion15Research Question #3: Will introverts express higher levels of comfort and satisfaction in online discussions?Research Question #4: Will Reflective Learners express higher levels of comfort and satisfaction in online discussions?There were no significant differences for satisfactionReflective Learners were more likely to express greater comfort in online discussions than in in-class discussionsChi-square test for independence 2 (1, n = 129) = 9.34, p = .00, phi = -.29.
A Chi-square test for independence (with Yates Continuity Correction) indicated a significant association between level of comfort participating in online vs. in-class discussions and active/reflective learners17Research Question #4: Will Reflective Learners express higher levels of comfort and satisfaction in online discussions?Comments About Online DiscussionsNegative commentsI thought it could have been useful. But students more or less just posted their thoughts without reading others. Just so they could meet the minimum requirements of just starting discussion without continuing it.I understand why it was used as part of the class, however the class required so much extra at home time and out of class participation I found it a frustrating task.I was mostly unimpressed with the online discussion format, mainly because some students, who could otherwise contribute well in a live discussion, struggled to express themselves fully in the written format. Others had no difficulty. I would rather be sitting in the classroom. I am a people person and I like face to face discussion. I like to raise my hand and ask questions. It's hard to get your point across online. It's not for me!In the online experiences questions there was an open-ended question that asked participants to provide any additional comments they may have on their online discussion experience. Some recurring trends amongst the negative comments were: that people often posted online without reading other posts, that the online discussions required too much work outside of class, that they struggled to express themselves in the written format, and that they would rather be sitting in the classroom.Also I felt that the chat wasn't properly applied in the course I was taking. Although all answers were public, there was no requirement that any student read other student's responses or reply to them. This limited the constructive aspects of a group discussion, where people are both expressing their opinions, and listening to others.
19Comments About Online DiscussionsPositive commentsI learned much lot more than I expected. I enjoyed being able to read over the discussion posts on my own time and learning real-life experiences from my classmates, which we definitely would not have had time to talk about during class time.I like it, its a way to communicate without the fear of the classroomI liked that it allowed