ionic bonding chemistry i. ionic bonding ionic bonding and the octet rule octet rule: atoms will...

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Ionic Bonding Chemistry I

Author: sophie-spencer

Post on 26-Dec-2015




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  • Slide 1
  • Ionic Bonding Chemistry I
  • Slide 2
  • Ionic Bonding
  • Slide 3
  • Ionic Bonding and the Octet Rule Octet Rule: Atoms will lose, gain, or share electrons to achieve an octet (eight valence electrons; a noble gas configuration)
  • Slide 4
  • In ionic bonding, Metal atoms lose electrons to become like the noble gas immediately before them in the periodic table Metals become positively charged cations Example: Mg: [Ne]3s 2 Mg + : [Ne]3s 1 not stable Mg 2+ : [Ne]stable
  • Slide 5
  • Nonmetal atoms gain electrons to become like the noble gas following them on the periodic table Nonmetals become negatively charged anions Example Cl: [Ne]3s 2 3p 5 Cl - : [Ne]3s 2 3p 6 = [Ar] stable
  • Slide 6
  • We can predict how many electrons an atom will lose or gain to achieve a stable, noble gas configuration, therefore, we can also predict the ionic charge
  • Slide 7
  • +1 +2varies +3 +/-4 -3 -2 -1 0
  • Slide 8
  • Representing the formation of an ionic bond with Lewis structures Draw the Lewis structure for each atom in the compound Show the transfer of valence electrons from the metal to the nonmetal with an arrow Continue adding atoms and showing transfers of electrons until the total number of electrons lost equals the total number of electrons gained. Rewrite the dot structures showing the ions formed All metal ions should have no dots and have a positive charge All nonmetal ions should have 8 dots and have a negative charge
  • Slide 9
  • Examples
  • Slide 10
  • Writing formulas for ionic compounds Chemical formulas Represent the composition of substances Show the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance.
  • Slide 11
  • Formula Unit The smallest representative unit of an ionic compound The lowest whole number ratio of ions in the compound Does not show the ionic charges
  • Slide 12
  • Sodium Chloride Formula unit: NaCl Represents the ratio of Na + to Cl - in the 3-dimensional structure
  • Slide 13
  • Mono-: one Monatomic ions Composed of only one atom which has an overall + or charge Examples: Na +1, O -2 Poly-: many Polyatomic ions Composed of a group of atoms (many) with an overall charge May contain subscripts (which you cannot change!) Will usually contain at least two different elements Examples: OH -1, CO 3 -2
  • Slide 14
  • Parts of a formula Na 2 O This compound contains sodium ions Subscript of 2 means the formula unit contains 2 sodium ions This compound contains oxygen ions Since there isnt a subscript written next to the O, that means there is only 1 oxygen in the formula unit
  • Slide 15
  • Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 This compound contains calcium ions Subscript of 3, the formula unit contains 3 calcium ions This compound contains a polyatomic ion phosphate, PO 4 -3 Subscript of 2 outside of parantheses means the formula unit contains 2 phosphate ions
  • Slide 16
  • Na 2 SO 4 This compound contains the polyatomic ion sulfate, SO 4 -2 Since there are no parantheses, the formula unit contains 1 sulfate ion
  • Slide 17
  • Rules for writing ionic formulas 1) The positively charged ion is written first
  • Slide 18
  • 2) compounds are neutral, so the algebraic sum of the charges must add to zero (the total positive charge must cancel out the total negative charge)
  • Slide 19
  • 3) never write 1 as a subscript
  • Slide 20
  • 4)Put parantheses around polyatomic ions if they need a subscript (other than 1)
  • Slide 21
  • 5)Reduce subscripts to simplest form
  • Slide 22
  • Other things to keep in mind Any ionic compound will be made of only one type of positive ion with one type of negative ion You must know the charge of each ion Predict monatomic ion charges from periodic table Look up charges of polyatomic ions in chart
  • Slide 23
  • Shortcut: the crisscross method Cross down the numerical value of each charge to become the subscript of the other ion Make sure you consider if you have the simplest ratio; if not, reduce it