jane schaffer writing terms

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Jane Schaffer Writing Terms. Tracy Unified School District Adopted Writing Program. Essay:. An essay is a piece of writing that gives the writer’s thoughts (commentary) about a subject. All the essays will have at least four paragraphs: an introduction, two body paragraphs, and a conclusion. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Jane SchafferWriting TermsTracy Unified School District Adopted Writing Program

  • Essay:An essay is a piece of writing that gives the writers thoughts (commentary) about a subject. All the essays will have at least four paragraphs: an introduction, two body paragraphs, and a conclusion.

  • Introduction:The introduction is the first paragraph of an essay. It includes the thesis, most often at the end.

  • Body Paragraph:This is a middle paragraph in an essay. It develops a point the writer wants to make that supports the thesis.

  • Format of theBody ParagraphTopic Sentence (TS)Concrete Detail (CD) For example, Commentary (CM) This shows that Commentary (CM) This also shows Concrete Detail (CD) In addition, Commentary (CM) This shows that Commentary (CM) This also shows Concluding Sentence (CS)

  • Conclusion:The conclusion is the last paragraph in an essay. It may sum up the writers ideas, reflect on what is said in the essay, or give a personal statement about the subject.

    The conclusion is all commentary and does not include concrete detail. It does not repeat any key words from the paper and especially not from the thesis and introduction. It gives a finished feeling to the essay.

  • Thesis:The thesis is a sentence with a subject and opinion. This is most often found at the end of the introduction.

  • Pre-Writing:Pre-writing is the process of getting the concrete details down on paper before the writer organizes the essay into paragraphs.

    There are several kinds of pre-writing. There are five basic kinds: bubble clusters, spider diagrams, outlines, line clustering, and columns.

  • Concrete Details (CD):Concrete details are specific details that form the backbone or core of the body paragraphs.

    Synonyms for concrete detail include facts, specifics, examples, descriptions, illustrations, support, proof, evidence, quotations, paraphrasing, or plot references.

  • Commentary (CM):Commentary is the writers opinion or comment about something; not concrete detail.

    Synonyms for commentary include opinion, insight, analysis, interpretation, inference, personal response, feelings, evaluation, explication and reflection.

  • Topic Sentence (TS):The topic sentence is the first sentence of a body paragraph. The topic sentence must have a subject and opinion (commentary) for the paragraph. It does the same thing for a body paragraph that the thesis does for the whole essay.

  • Concluding Sentence (CS):The concluding sentence is the last sentence in a body paragraph. It is all commentary, does not repeat key words, and gives a finished feeling to the paragraph.

  • Shaping the Essay:This step is done after pre-writing and before the first draft of the essay. It is an outline of your thesis, topic sentences, concrete details, and commentary ideas.

  • First Draft:The first draft is the first version of your essay. This version is also known as the rough draft.

  • Final Draft:The final draft is the final version of the essay, but NOT NECESSARILY the second draft.

  • Peer Response:A peer response is a written response and/or reaction to a partners paper.

  • Chunk:A chunk is one sentence of concrete detail (CD) and two sentences of commentary (CM). It is the smallest unified group of thoughts that one can write.

  • Weaving:Weaving is the blending of concrete details (CD) and commentary (CM) in a body paragraph. One can do this after the format is mastered.

  • Ratio:The ratio for English is one part concrete detail (CD) to two parts commentary (CM)

  • Shifting Ratios:

    ENGLISHHISTORYMATH1:2+2+:11:0CDCDCDCMCDCDCMCMCD

  • Word Counts:The word count is the minimum number of words in a specified paragraph that will allow the writer to earn a C.

  • Word Count for 9th GradeFIRST SEMESTER

    Introduction: 40+

    Body Paragraphs: 100+

    Conclusion: 40+SECOND SEMESTER

    Introduction: 40+

    Body Paragraphs: 125+

    Conclusion: 40+

  • Sentence Count:The sentence count is the minimum number of sentences in a specified paragraph that will allow the writer to earn a C.

  • Sentence Countfor 9th GradeFIRST SEMESTER

    Introduction: 3+

    Body Paragraphs: 8+

    Conclusion: 3+

    SECOND SEMESTER

    Introduction: 3+

    Body Paragraphs: 11+

    Conclusion: 3+