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Journey Across Time

Chapter IntroductionSection 1 The Culture of Ancient GreeceSection 2 Greek Philosophy and History Section 3 Alexander the GreatSection 4 The Spread of Greek CultureReading ReviewChapter AssessmentGreek CivilizationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

Chapter ObjectivesDescribe important Greek developments in the arts. Discuss Greek achievements in history, politics, biology, and logic. Summarize how Alexander the Great created an empire. Describe how Hellenistic kingdoms became centers of learning and culture. Greek Civilization

Greek Civilization

Get Ready to ReadSection OverviewThis section discusses the culture of the ancient Greeks as expressed in their religion, literature, and art.The Culture of Ancient Greece

Get Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main IdeasThe Culture of Ancient GreeceThe Greeks believed that gods and goddesses controlled nature and shaped their lives. Greek poetry and fables taught Greek values. Greek drama still shapes entertainment today. Greek art and architecture expressed Greek ideas of beauty and harmony.

Get Ready to Read (cont.)Locating PlacesMount Olympus (uhLIHMpuhs) Delphi (DEHLFY) Meeting PeopleHomer (HOHmuhr) Aesop (EESAHP) Sophocles (SAHfuhKLEEZ) Euripides (yuRIHpuhDEEZ) The Culture of Ancient Greece

Get Ready to Read (cont.)Building Your Vocabularymyth (MIHTH) fable (FAYbuhl) drama (DRAHmuh) oracle (AWRuhkuhl) epic (EHpihk) tragedy (TRAjuhdee) comedy (KAHmuhdee) The Culture of Ancient Greece

Get Ready to Read (cont.)Reading StrategyCompare and Contrast Create a Venn diagram like the one on page 154 of your textbook, showing similarities and differences between an epic and a fable.The Culture of Ancient Greece

Greek MythologyThe Greeks believed in many gods and goddesses. The Greeks believed the 12 most important gods lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. (pages 155156)They thought these deities affected peoples lives and shaped events. Greek myths were stories about gods and heroes. The Culture of Ancient Greece

Greek Mythology (cont.)In these stories, gods had special powers but looked and acted like humans. They hoped that the gods would grant good fortune to them in return. The Greeks followed rituals to win the gods favor. The Greeks believed in prophecy, or predictions about the future. The Culture of Ancient Greece(pages 155156)

Greek Mythology (cont.)Many Greeks visited an oracle to receive a prophecy. The most famous oracle was at the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. An oracle was a sacred shrine where a priest or priestess spoke for a god or goddess. The Culture of Ancient Greece(pages 155156)

How did the Greeks believe their gods and goddesses were like humans?Greek gods and goddesses married, had children, played tricks on each other, quarreled, and fought wars.The Culture of Ancient Greece

Greek Poetry and FablesGreek poems and stories are the oldest in the Western world and serve as models for European and American poems and stories. (pages 157158)An epic is a long poem about heroic deeds. The first great epics were the Iliad and the Odyssey, written by a poet named Homer. The Culture of Ancient Greece

Greek Poetry and Fables (cont.)The Iliad is about a battle for the city of Troy. The Odyssey is the story of Odysseus, a Greek hero. Greeks believed these two epics were real history. The Culture of Ancient Greece(pages 157158)

Greek Poetry and Fables (cont.)A fable is a short tale that teaches a lesson. Fables were passed from person to person by oral tradition. A slave named Aesop wrote many fables. The Culture of Ancient Greece(pages 157158)

Why were the heroes of Homers epics considered role models?The heroes in Homers stories had courage and honor. They worked to be the best they could be, and they fought to protect their honor.The Culture of Ancient Greece

Greek DramaThe Greeks used drama as part of their religious festivals. (pages 160161)The Greeks developed two types of drama tragedies and comedies.Drama is a story told by actors who pretend to be characters in the story. The Culture of Ancient Greece

Greek Drama (cont.)A comedy is a story with a happy ending. Aeschylus was a writer who wrote a group of three plays called Oresteia. A tragedy is the story of a person who tries to overcome difficulties but fails. These plays teach that evil acts cause more evil and suffering. The Culture of Ancient Greece(pages 160161)

Greek Drama (cont.)Euripides wrote plays about real-life people instead of gods. Aristophanes wrote comedies that made fun of leading politicians and scholars.The Writer Sophocles wrote the plays Oedipus and Antigone. The Culture of Ancient Greece(pages 160161)

How are plays of today similar to those of ancient Greece?Actors in plays of today like those of ancient Greece wear costumes. Music and dance also occur in many of todays plays, as they did in Greek plays.The Culture of Ancient Greece

Greek Art and ArchitectureAlthough Greek murals have not survived, examples of Greek paintings still exist on decorated pottery. The most important architecture in Greece was the temple dedicated to a god or goddess.Greek artists believed in the ideas of reason, balance, harmony, and moderation and tried to show these ideas in their work. (pages 162163)The Culture of Ancient Greece

Greek Art and Architecture (cont.)The most famous temple is the Parthenon. Greek architecture included columns, which were first made from wood.The Culture of Ancient Greece(pages 162163)

Greek Art and Architecture (cont.)Later, the Greeks began using marble. Many of todays churches and government buildings have columns. Greek sculpture expressed Greek ideas.The Culture of Ancient Greece(pages 162163)

What elements of Greek architecture are present in your school or in buildings in your community?Answers will vary, but should include symmetry and proportion between building parts, the use of columns, pediments, pedestals, or materials such as marble or tiles.The Culture of Ancient Greece

How and why did the Greeks honor their gods?They honored their gods with rituals, festivals, and temples, so the gods would grant good fortune.The Culture of Ancient Greece

courage, honor, loyalty, and the value of the husband-wife relationshipWhat values did the epic poems of Homer teach Greeks?The Culture of Ancient Greece

Contrast How do Greek tragedies and comedies differ?Tragedy: person fails to overcome difficulties because of fate or personal flaws;Comedy: happy endingsThe Culture of Ancient Greece

Evaluate Do you think the themes of Euripides plays would be popular today?Answers will vary.The Culture of Ancient Greece

Make Generalizations Why did Greek artists include the ideas of reason, moderation, balance, and harmony in their work?Artists hoped viewers would be inspired by the art.The Culture of Ancient Greece

Expository Writing Greek literature tells us what the Greeks thought was important. Choose a modern book, movie, or television show. Write a paragraph to explain what it would tell others about our society.Answers will vary.The Culture of Ancient Greece

List the three most important ways the ancient Greeks have influenced our culture. Give reasons for your choices.The Culture of Ancient Greece

Greek Philosophy and HistoryGet Ready to ReadSection OverviewThis section describes Greek contributions to the study of philosophy and the writing of history.

Get Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main IdeasGreek Philosophy and HistoryGreeks wrote the first real histories in Western civilization.Greek philosophers developed ideas that are still used today.

Get Ready to Read (cont.)Pythagoras (puhTHAguhruhs) Meeting PeopleSocrates (SAHkruhTEEZ) Plato (PLAYTOH) Aristotle (ARuhSTAHtuhl) Herodotus (hirRAHduhtuhs) Thucydides (thooSIHduhDEEZ) Greek Philosophy and History

Get Ready to Read (cont.)Building Your Vocabularyphilosophy (fuhLAHsuhfee) philosopher (fuhLAHsuhfuhr) Sophist (SAHfihst) Socratic method (suhKRAtihk) Greek Philosophy and History

Get Ready to Read (cont.)Reading StrategyCategorizing Information Use diagrams like the one on page 168 of your textbook to show the basic philosophies of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.Greek Philosophy and History

Greek PhilosophersGreek thinkers, called philosophers, believed the human mind could understand everything. The word philosophy comes from the Greek word for love of wisdom. (pages 169171)Greek Philosophy and History

Greek Philosophers (cont.)Sophists were professional teachers