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  • JUS1730/5730 International Humanitarian Law (the Law of Armed Conflict), autumn 2013

    Lecture 1, 26 August 2013

    Kjetil Mujezinovi Larsen

    k.m.larsen@nchr.uio.no

    Gentian Zyberi

    gentian.zyberi@nchr.uio.no

  • Structure of the current lecture

    1. Introduction to the course (KML)

    2. Introduction to international humanitarian law (KML)

    1. Terminology and related areas

    2. Jus ad bellum and jus in bello

    3. Main sources of IHL

    4. Scope of application

    3. Main principles of IHL (GZ)

  • Practical course information

    JUR1730/JUS5730 International humanitarian law (the law of armed conflict)

    http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/jus/jus/JUS5730/h13/index.html

    Autumn 2013: Time and place for teaching and exam

    Syllabus (achievement requirements)

    Course outline; style of teaching

    Student participation?

    http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/jus/jus/JUS5730/h13/index.html

  • Useful websites

    Treaties: http://www.icrc.org/ihl Commentaries to GCs and GC APs:

    http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/CONVPRES?OpenView Other useful links:

    ICRC Review: http://www.icrc.org/eng/review ICRC databases on IHL: http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/ihl-

    databases/index.jsp Harvard IHL Research initiative: http://ihl.ihlresearch.org Introduction to Public International Law research:

    http://www.nyulawglobal.org/Globalex/Public_International_Law_Research1.htm

    Central Human Rights Sources on the Internet: http://www.jus.uio.no/smr/tjenester/bibliotek/human-rights-sources.pdf

    http://www.icrc.org/ihlhttp://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/CONVPRES?OpenViewhttp://www.un.org/http://www.icrc.org/eng/reviewhttp://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/ihl-databases/index.jsphttp://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/ihl-databases/index.jsphttp://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/ihl-databases/index.jsphttp://ihl.ihlresearch.org/http://www.nyulawglobal.org/Globalex/Public_International_Law_Research1.htmhttp://www.nyulawglobal.org/Globalex/Public_International_Law_Research1.htmhttp://www.jus.uio.no/smr/tjenester/bibliotek/human-rights-sources.pdfhttp://www.jus.uio.no/smr/tjenester/bibliotek/human-rights-sources.pdfhttp://www.jus.uio.no/smr/tjenester/bibliotek/human-rights-sources.pdfhttp://www.jus.uio.no/smr/tjenester/bibliotek/human-rights-sources.pdfhttp://www.jus.uio.no/smr/tjenester/bibliotek/human-rights-sources.pdf

  • Terminology and related areas

    International

    humanitarian

    law (IHL)

    International

    criminal law

    Human

    rights law

    International

    refugee law

    General

    international

    law

    Jus ad

    bellum

  • Terminology and related areas

    International

    humanitarian

    law (IHL)

    International

    criminal law

    Sanctions for violations of

    certain violations of

    international humanitarian

    law

    Lectures 7 and 8:

    Implementation,

    enforcement,

    responsibility

    JUS5570 International

    Criminal Law

    (spring semester)

  • Terminology and related areas

    International

    humanitarian

    law (IHL)

    International

    refugee law

    Armed conflicts generate

    large numbers of

    refugees and IDPs

    Some rules in IHL:

    Protection of civilians

    JUS5530 Refugee and

    Asylum Law

    (spring semester)

  • Terminology and related areas

    International

    humanitarian

    law (IHL)

    Human

    rights law

    Considerable

    overlap

    Lecture 9:

    The relationship with other

    legal regimes

  • International

    humanitarian

    law (IHL)

    General

    international

    law

    IHL as part of international law

  • Traditionally: International

    law regulates the

    relationship between

    States

    States are the core

    subjects of

    international law

    but individuals may

    have rights and duties

    IHL is a good example

  • IHL is a part of

    international law

    but with some

    special characteristics

    Sources

    Methods

    Implementation

    Enforcement

    Individuals have both

    rights and obligations

    Sources

  • Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

    Art. 31. General rule of interpretation.

    1.A treaty shall be interpreted in good faith in accordance with the

    ordinary meaning to be given to the terms of the treaty in their

    context and in the light of its object and purpose.

    Art. 32. Supplementary means of interpretation.

    Recourse may be had to supplementary means of interpretation,

    including the preparatory work of the treaty and the circumstances of

    its conclusion, in order to confirm the meaning resulting from the

    application of article 31, or to determine the meaning when the

    interpretation according to article 31:

    (a) leaves the meaning ambiguous or obscure; or

    (b) leads to a result which is manifestly absurd or unreasonable

    Method: Interpretation

  • Jus ad bellum and jus in bello

    International

    humanitarian

    law (IHL)

    Jus ad bellum

    To which extent the use of military

    force against another state is allowed

    UN Charter Article 2.4: The

    prohibition against use of force

    ICC Statute: Crime of aggression

    Two (three?) exceptions

    Jus in bello

    Conduct in armed conflicts

    Protection of civilians and

    individuals hors de combat

    Protection of combatants

    Means and methods of warfare

    Relationship to neutral states

    No direct link:

    Violations of jus ad bellum do not

    justify violations of jus in bello, or vice

    versa

    Violations of jus ad bellum do not

    entail violations of jus in bello, or vice

    versa

  • Sources: An introductory point

    Recall

    ICJ Statute,

    Art. 38

    Conventions,

    custom,

    general

    principles

    Principles play an

    important role in IHL

    Principles on

    different levels

    Operational

    principles

    Dominant

    principles

    Fundamental

    principles

  • Main sources of IHL

    Conventions International

    customary law

    Geneva law Hague law

  • The four Geneva Conventions (1949)

    1. Wounded and sick soldiers on land

    2. Wounded and sick soldiers on sea

    3. Prisoners of war

    4. Protection of civilians and rules pertaining to

    occupation

    The two additional protocols (1977)

    1. International armed conflicts

    2. Non-international armed conflicts

    Geneva law Primarily rules on

    protection

  • The St. Petersburg Declaration 1868

    Hague Regulations of 1899 and 1907

    Gas protocol of 1925

    NPT (non-proliferation of nuclear weapons) 1968

    Biological weapons 1972

    Convention on inhuman weapons (CCW) 1980

    Chemical weapons 1993

    Anti Personnel Mines 1997

    Cluster Munitions 2008

    Hague law Primarily rules on

    protection

    Primarily rules on

    means of war

  • International customary law

    Statute of the ICJ, Art. 38:

    (a) international conventions, whether general or particular,

    establishing rules expressly recognized by the contesting

    states;

    (b) international custom, as evidence of a general practice

    accepted as law;

    (c) the general principles of law recognized by civilized nations;

    (d) judicial decisions and the teachings of the most highly qualified

    publicists of the various nations, as subsidiary means for the

    determination of rules of law.

    Opinio juris

    Usus

  • International customary law

    Opinio juris

    Usus

    Three volumes in

    2005:

    1) 161 rules

    2 and 3) State

    practice

  • Scope of

    application

    of IHL

    Material

    scope of

    application

    Temporal

    scope of

    application

    Spatial

    scope of

    application

    Personal

    scope of

    application

  • Personal

    scope of

    application

    To which

    subjects does

    IHL apply?

    Who have

    obligations

    under IHL?

    Who have

    rights

    under IHL?

    States Non-state

    armed groups Individuals

    International

    organisations

  • Temporal

    scope of

    application

    When does the

    applicability of

    IHL begin?

    When does the

    applicability of

    IHL end?

    The first hostile act in the

    armed conflict that puts at

    stake a provision in IHL

    Objective vs.

    subjective

    When a treaty

    enters into force

    for a specific State

    Material scope of

    application

    The end of military

    operations

  • Spatial

    scope of

    application

    The principle of

    effectiveness

    The territory of

    belligerent States

    Actual hostilities

    Occupied

    territories

    The principle of

    unity of territory

  • Material

    scope of

    application

    International armed

    conflicts and occupation

    Non-international armed

    conflicts (two categories)

    Internal disturbances,

    riots, etc., not amounting

    to armed conflicts

    Peace

    Qualification

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