Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peaceby Sumatra Bose

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  • Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace by Sumatra BoseReview by: Lucian W. PyeForeign Affairs, Vol. 82, No. 6 (Nov. - Dec., 2003), pp. 172-173Published by: Council on Foreign RelationsStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20033809 .Accessed: 16/06/2014 02:24

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  • Recent Books and technology in China. He traces in great detail how the Chinese leadership's decisions about weapons needs have dic tated the development of science from the

    Mao era to the present. The close linkage between technological development and security has meant that substantial resources have gone into a few key fields of science where China could claim world-class status, but the rest of its science lags far behind.

    In looking to the future, Feigenbaum suggests that China's success in high technology will depend on the growth of small-scale private entrepreneurial operations. This is exactly the subject of Segal's study, and he shows that China has had mixed success in devel oping nongovernmental high-tech enterprises. He examines the record of firms in four cities and concludes that success or failure depends very much on the practices of the local governments.

    The importance of this factor explains one of his most surprising findings: that Beijing firms were more successful than those in Shanghai, where local authorities concentrated their support for high-tech developments on only the large state owned enterprises and multinationals. In short, there is no getting around the role of government.

    Trans-Paciic Relations: America, Europe, andAsia in the Twentieth Century. EDITED BY RICHARD JENSEN, JON

    DAVIDANN, AND YONEYUKI SUGITA.

    Westport: Praeger, 2003,320 pp. $69.95. This book is far from standard diplomatic, political, or military history. Most of the contributors offer novel approaches and perspectives on unconventional issues and problems. The chapter on the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-45, for

    example, focuses on the racial theories of leading Japanese and Chinese eugeni cists and their biological explanations of the strengths and weaknesses of the two peoples. With respect to Korea's experi ence with foreign interventions, there is not the usual comparison of U.S. and Soviet approaches to a divided Korea; instead, the chapter compares the atti tudes that informed the Japanese and

    American "occupations" of Korea. The war in the Pacific is analyzed not in terms of grand strategy but in terms of how different historical developments in industrial management made it possible for the United States to move hundreds of tons of materiel to the battlefront far from home, while the Japanese were barely able to keep their troops from starving as they tried to invade India. Some of the novel ideas and arguments are quite convincing; others will at best serve to stir debate.

    Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace. BY SUMATRA BOSE. Cambridge: Harvard

    University Press, 2003, 304 pp. $25.95. This detailed study reveals that the Kashmir problem is more complicated than comparable clashes of sovereignties in other ethnically divided territories.

    Yet in the end, the author proposes some plausible policy measures to bring about an acceptable form of peace. The Line of Control (LOC) that divides the Pakistani and Indian-held portions ofJammu and Kashmir was the outcome of the first war between the two countries, when both armies were commanded by British gen erals and the Indian Defense Committee

    was chaired by Lord Mountbatten. Bose argues that the LOC has held firm through subsequent clashes between the two

    [172] FOREIGN AFFAIRS- Volume82No.6

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  • (now nuclear) powers largely because the complex ethnic and linguistic groupings on each side of the line have learned to live with each other. Thus he argues that a decision by India and Pakistan to grant autonomy and democracy to the respective entities would open the way to peaceful politics in what has long been a dangerous flashpoint. Bose brings fresh thinking and new information to what has seemed a hopeless problem.

    Machiavelli's Children: Leaders and Their Legacies in Italy andJapan. BY RICHARD SAMUELS. Ithaca: Cornell

    University Press, 2003, 456 pp. $39.95. This is a bold and audacious work, an example of what comparative politics can be but rarely is. Samuels' interests are not the narrow policy arenas, such as pension reform, that tend to dominate comparative

    work, but rather questions that have been central to Japanese and Italian societies since the beginning of the modern nation state: how to become rich, "normal" great powers. And while much of the field is focused on structural constraints economic and social forces, political institutions, and historical legacies

    Machiavellis Children makes a strong claim for the importance of the individual agency of leaders who try to overcome larger constraints and sometimes succeed.

    The use of Italy and Japan is somewhat counterintuitive but provides an effective and highly entertaining springboard. Each chapter pairs the experience of a leader with a decision he made at a critical juncture. For Samuels, leadership is the constant manipulation of and movement between the past and the future. Bullying and buying off the opposition may work, but the most effective leaders actively remake

    EMERGENCY

    RESPONDERS: DRASTICALLY UNDERFUNDED,

    DANGEROUSLY UNPREPARED

    Warren B. Rudman, Chair Richard A. Clarke, Senior Adviser

    Jamie F. Metzl, Project Director

    "The report is a bulls-eye. As a firefighter, I've been doing this for 27 years, and since 9111 have felt extremely frustrated by how slowly this process has moved."

    Captain Mohler Fairfax County Fire and Rescue Department

    Two years after September 11, 2001, the United States is drastically underfunding local emergency responders and is dangerously unprepared to handle an attack on American soil. This Council- sponsored Independent Task Force, a blue-ribbon panel of

    Nobel laureates, U.S. military leaders, former high-level government officials, and other senior experts, met with emergency responder organiza tions to assess what would be required to achieve a

    minimum effective response to a catastrophic terrorist attack. The report marks the first time that data from emergency responder communities has been brought together to estimate national needs.

    $15, ISBN is 0-87609-334-9, 64 pp.

    [173]

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    Article Contentsp. 172p. 173

    Issue Table of ContentsForeign Affairs, Vol. 82, No. 6 (Nov. - Dec., 2003), pp. I-IV, 1-178Front MatterCommentsFlashbackThat Was Then: Allen W. Dulles on the Occupation of Germany [pp. 2-8]

    The Privatization of Foreign Aid: Reassessing National Largesse [pp. 9-14]The Case for Cultural Diplomacy: Engaging Foreign Audiences [pp. 15-20]

    EssaysChina's New Diplomacy [pp. 22-35]China Takes Off [pp. 36-53]Should Hezbollah Be Next? [pp. 54-66]Reinventing the West [pp. 67-73]Japan's New Nationalism [pp. 74-90]America's Imperial Dilemma [pp. 91-102]The Next Prize [pp. 103-114]The Baby Trade [pp. 115-125]Clinton's Strong Defense Legacy [pp. 126-134]

    Reviews & ResponsesReview EssayReview: Being Yasir Arafat: A Portrait of Palestine's President [pp. 136-141]Review: Remaking the World: Bush and the Neoconservatives [pp. 142-146]Review: The Other 9/11: The United States and Chile, 1973 [pp. 147-151]

    Recent Books on International RelationsPolitical and LegalReview: untitled [p. 152-152]Review: untitled [p. 153-153]Review: untitled [p. 153-153]Review: untitled [pp. 153-154]Review: untitled [p. 154-154]

    Economic, Social, and EnvironmentalReview: untitled [pp. 154-155]Review: untitled [p. 155-155]Review: untitled [pp. 155-156]Review: untitled [p. 156-156]Review: untitled [p. 156-156]

    Military, Scientific, and TechnologicalReview: untitled [pp. 156-157]Review: untitled [p. 157-157]Review: untitled [pp. 157-158]Review: untitled [p. 158-158]Review: untitled [p. 158-158]Review: untitled [pp. 158-159]

    The United StatesReview: untitled [p. 159-159]Review: untitled [pp. 159-160]Review: untitled [p. 160-160]Review: untitled [pp. 160-161]Review: untitled [p. 161-161]

    Western EuropeReview: untitled [pp. 161-162]Review: untitled [pp. 162-163]Review: untitled [p. 163-163]Review: untitled [pp. 163-164]

    Western HemisphereReview: untitled [pp. 164-165]Review: untitled [p. 165-165]Review: untitled [pp. 165-166]Review: untitled [p. 166-166]

    Eastern Europe and Former Soviet RepublicsReview: untitled [pp. 166-167]Review: untitled [p. 167-167]Review: untitled [p. 167-167]Review: untitled [pp. 167-168]Review: untitled [p. 168-168]Review: untitled [p. 168-168]

    Middle EastReview: untitled [pp. 168-169]Review: untitled [p. 169-169]Review: untitled [pp. 169-170]Review: untitled [p. 170-170]Review: untitled [p. 170-170]

    Asia and PacificReview: untitled [pp. 170-171]Review: untitled [pp. 171-172]Review: untitled [p. 172-172]Review: untitled [pp. 172-173]Review: untitled [pp. 173-174]

    AfricaReview: untitled [p. 174-174]Review: untitled [p. 174-174]Review: untitled [pp. 174-175]Review: untitled [p. 175-175]Review: untitled [p. 175-175]

    Letters to the EditorUnmasking the EU [p. 176-176]The Case for Regionalism [pp. 176-177]For the Record [p. 177-177]

    Lurie's Foreign Affairs [p. 178-178]

    Back Matter