keep talking: from text to touch screen (2014)

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A look at the origins of assistive technology for blind people, its context within the digital evolution, the challenges of evolving screen reader technology, and a glimpse into the future of assistive technology.


  • 1.Keep talking From text to touch

2. Overview Where it all began Technology changed the world From text to touch screen Keep 3. Where it all 4. 1st Century Magnifying glass Seneca the Younger writes: "Letters, however small and indistinct, are seen enlarged and more clearly through a globe or glass filled with water." 5. 14th Century Eye-glasses Friar Alessandro della Spina makes corrective 6. 1808 Typing machine Pellegrino Turri invents a typing 7. 1876 Telephones Alexander Graham Bell patents the 8. 1917 Condensing microphone EC Wente invents condenser 9. 1936 Artificial speech HW Dudley invents artificial talking 10. 1952 Speech recognition Davis, Biddulph and Balasek invent first speech recognition 11. Technology changed the 12. 1948 Transistor Bardeen, Shockley and Brattain invent the 13. 1955 Transistor computer Felker and Harris create first fully transistor based 14. 1970 Xerox PARC Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) is 15. 1971 Email Ray Tomlinson sends first email over 16. 1974 Mouse Xerox Alto is first computer with mouse 17. 1981 Personal Computer IBM PC with DOS ignites the Personal Computer (PC) 18. 1983 Graphical User Interface Apple releases first PC with Graphical User Interface (GUI) 19. 1984 Keyboard IBM ships first PC with keyboard 20. 1985 Windows Windows 1.0 is released by 21. 1990 Web Tim Berners Lee proposes HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and HyperText Markup Language (HTML) 22. 1993 Mosaic Mosaic web browser is 23. 1994 Netscape Navigator Netscape Navigator 1.0 is 24. 1995 Internet Explorer Internet Explorer 1.0 is 25. From text to touch 26. 1969 BCAB British Computer Association of the Blind (BCAB) is 27. 1978 Speak n Spell Speak n Spell is 28. 1986 IBM Screen Reader IBM Screen Reader is 29. 1989 Outspoken Outspoken for Macintosh is 30. 1990 IBM Screen Reader 2 IBM Screen Reader 2 is 31. 1995 Jaws 1 Jaws 1.0 is released by Henter 32. 1995 Window-Eyes Window-Eyes is released by GW 33. 2002 Jaws 4 Jaws 4.0 is released, introducing quick 34. 2005 VoiceOver VoiceOver is released with 35. 2007 NVDA Non Visual Desktop Access (NVDA) is released by NV 36. 2009 Mobile VoiceOver for iOS and TalkBack for Android are 37. Keep 38. 2013 Tactile air Disney develops tactile air 39. 2013 Tactile 3D Disney prototypes 3D tactile 40. 2013 Google Glass Google Glass goes into public 41. 2011 Argus II Argus II visual prosthesis approved for clinical trial in the 42. 2014 Contact lenses Prototype contact lenses relay 43. Thank