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ReportReports are used for many purposes. They are to provide information about natural and nonnatural phenomena, to document, to organize and store factual information on a topic, to classify and describe the phenomena about a whole class of things living and non living, to describe the way things are. Reports can be used in textbooks, encyclopedias, scientific magazines, historical texts, factual reading books, reference books, classroom lesson, environment program, TV documentaries, magazines etc. a report text has its own generic structure. It has two components namely (1) general classification, (2) description. Reports are principally not the same as descriptions although they can be used interchangeable. A.Generic Structure of Report:
1.General Classification : tells what the phenomenon under discussion is 2.Descriptions : tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of: Parts (and their function), Qualities and Habits or behaviour Notes: 1. Difference between reports and descriptions: Repots classify and describe a whole class of things e.g. Houses. By contrast, descriptive texts talk about on specific person, place or thing e.g. My houses. In short, reports deal with general classification and description of a thing while descriptions describe a particular thing. 2. The description can cover the facts about various aspects of the object (colour, shape, habits, behaviour etc), giving examples, comparing and contrasting, describing components and their functions. B. Generic Features of Report
1. Report texts usually used Simple Present Tense, and seldom use past tenses (if the thing is extinct) 2. The language is neutral or should be objective: no expression of opinions, no reference to the reader (not using I, we or you). 3. Frequent use of Passive Sentence. 4. Use of be: is, am, are, was, were for the classification. 5. Use of verb have: have, has, had, in order to give detail description. 6. Use of action verbs related to the topic, especially when describing behaviours. 7. Use of adjectives in describing especially the qualities. 8. Often accompanied by photos, diagrams, maps and illustrations.
What is Apiculture?
Apiculture is also called a bee-farming, the cultivation of bees on a commercial scale for the production of honey. Royal jelly and bee pollen are the other products of it. There are many species of bee. Some of them are Apis Cerana, Apis Dorsata, Apis florae and Apis Malifera. Among those species, Apis Malifera is the most productive and the easiest to be cultivated. Description A bee colony consists of one queen, a lot of worker bees and some drones, stingless male bees in a colony of social bees (especially honeybees) whose sole function is to mate with the queen. Each group has its specific duty. The queen, for example, only lays eggs, the drones have duty to copulate the queen, and the workers have to take care of the queen, drones and larvae. They are also responsible for seeking flowers and nectar.
Description To obtain good production, the farmers have to be able to provide the most productive flowers nearby the cultivation or they have to travel through forests, bushes, and plantations to find them. The best flowers can produce ample material for bee products. Many people like to consume honey because it is believed to give benefit for health, The Holy Koran says that the bee stomach produces some liquid that is very beneficial for human health.
Read this report text! Volcanoes General Classification A volcano is a mountain which is formed by the eruption of material from the earths interior through a central opening or groups of openings. Volcanoes are scattered over the world. Volcanoes can be divided into three categories based on volcano forms and type of volcanic activities. They are Shield, Composite and Explosion volcanoes Description A shield volcano is formed chiefly of layers of basalt (a dark, heavy lava). A few shield volcanoes are composed of andesite ( a related, less dense type of lava). Description
A composite volcano has more frequent and violent explosive eruptions than shield volcanoes do. Lava may be extruded from either central crater or fissures on a volcanos sides. Description Explosion volcanoes are composed of inclined layers of pyroclastic debris and contain no lava. During the eruption, debris is ejected from the crater. Most explosion volcanoes are formed during one period of eruption
To make it clear, please remember the concept of Report text below! REPORT Social Function:
To describe the way things are, with reference to a range of natural, man-made and social phenomena in our environment. Schematic Structure:
General statement/ classification: introduces the topic of the reports Description : provide details of topic such as physical appearance, behaviour, landform and uses (typically organized in paragraph)
Notes: 1. Simple Present Tense is mostly used in the report text either in active sentences or in passive sentences. 2.The use of Relational process, such as: is, consist of, function as, derive from, to be classified into, to be identified as etc. 3.The use of special nouns that denotes the characteristics of the thing such as: features, forms, functions, species etc. 4.The use of special technical terms such as: the parts of the body (e.g: brain, vein, vascular), the parts of the tree (e.g: stem, root, leaf, branch), the parts of machine (e.g: gear, screw, bolt etc). 5.No temporal sequences are used. If there is (e.g: first, second, third, the last etc). it only indicates numbering not an event. Sources: Cahyono, Kristiawan Dwi and Eka Purnama.2006. Communicative Competence 2B: A course in Acquiring English Communicative Competence, For Senior High School Level, Grade XI Semester 2. Jombang: CV Karunia Agung Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XI, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga
Analytical ExpositionAn analytical exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to persuade the listeners or readers that something is the case. To make the persuasion stronger, the speaker or writer gives some arguments as the fundamental reasons why something is the case. This type of text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Analytical expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people. The generic structure of analytical exposition usually has three components: (1) Thesis, (2) Arguments and (3) Reiteration or conclusion. A.Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition 1. Thesis : Introduces the topic and shows speaker or writers position; Outlines of the arguments are presented. 2. Arguments : It consists about Point and Elaboration Point, states the main argument Elaboration, develops and supports each point of argument 3. Conclusion : Reiteration (restatement), restates speaker or writers position B. Generic Features of Analytical Exposition 1. An analytical exposition focuses on generic human and non human participants. 2. It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example: realize, feel etc. 3. It uses emotive and evaluative words 4. It often needs material processes. It is used to state what happens, e.g. .has polluted etc. 5. It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect Tense. 6. Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given arguments: Firstly, secondly , Finally, etc.
Corruption and Indonesian Culture Thesis: Corruption has happened for many years and today it becomes a bad culture in Indonesia for three reasons Argument 1:
Most adult Indonesian or foreigners have known and admitted that corruptions happen in many places. The daily newspapers, news programs on TV and radio have reported corruptions are done everywhere, almost in all departments or public services of this country. Corruptions
happen in health, education departments and banks. When we manage to get some documents in public service offices, we usually need much money to pay. Manipulations happen everywhere Argument 2:
The actions to eliminate corruption are weak. The ever stronger culture seems not to come to an end when the responsible institutions who have to reinforce the justice today commit corruption. This is the worst. Corruptions happen in police department, courts where judges, public prosecutors, lawyers make deals to do corruption. All of us also heard in the end of 2004, Probosutejo reported that he had bribed the Supreme Court, or called Mahkamah Agung which becomes the highest level where the justice can be obtained. Perhaps you have to try to come to the local courts and see what happen there. You will see practices of bribery and other kinds of corruption. Therefore, we can say that corruptions becomes our culture. Do you like it? Argument 3:
The citizens have no goodwill to fight against the corruption. They create the situations in which people have opportunities to do corruptions. The citizens like to break the rules because they are not disciplined. For example, in the street when they drive a car or ride motorcycle, they do not have the driving license or necessary documents. Then, they are caught by the local policemen. To avoid more difficulties, they like to bribe the officer. The officer let them go then. In other words, the citizens and officers are the same, doing corruption together. If only the people were critical, disciplined, and obey the rules, and willing to report any wrong beh