kingdom animalia - alabama school of fine · pdf filecell specialization cells form tissues,...

Click here to load reader

Post on 23-Mar-2019

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

KINGDOM ANIMALIA

CHARACTERISTICS

EUKARYOTIC

MULTICELLULAR

HETEROTROPHIC (ingestive)

LACK CELL WALLS

TRENDS IN ANIMAL EVOLUTION

CELL SPECIALIZATION

CEPHALIZATION

EARLY DEVELOPMENT

BODY SYMMETRY

BODY CAVITY FORMATION

CELL SPECIALIZATION

CELLS FORM TISSUES, TISSUES FORM ORGANS, ORGANS FORM ORGAN SYSTEMS

EPITHELIAL (skin, lining of cavities)

CONNECTIVE (bone, blood)

MUSCULAR (heart, biceps)

NERVOUS (brain, nerves)

CEPHALIZATION

CONCENTRATION OF SENSE ORGANS AND NERVE CELLS AT FRONT END OF BODY

EARLY DEVELOPMENT

FERTILIZATION FORMS A ZYGOTE

BLASTULA (hollow ball of cells)

GASTRULA (germ layers form)

GERM LAYERS

The gastrula is made up of three parts:

Ectoderm, a layer of cells on the outer surface of the gastrula, grows and divides developing into skin and nervous tissue.

Endoderm, a layer of cells lining the inner surface of the gastrula, develops into the lining of the animals digestive tract.

Mesoderm, made up of two layers of cells lying between the ectoderm and endoderm, forms muscles, reproductive organs and circulatory vessels.

2 TYPES OF DEVELOPMENT

PROTOSTOMES

mouth forms from the opening (blastopore) of the gastrula

Mollusca, Annelids, Arthropods

DEUTEROSTOMES

anus forms from the opening (blastopore) of the gastrula during development

Echinodermata and Chordata

3 TYPES OF BODY SYMMETRY Asymmetrical-no symmetry (ex,

sponge) Bilateral- body plan in which single line can divide body into 2 equal parts

Radial-body plan in which body parts repeat around center of body

ANATOMICAL TERMS

Dorsal- top or back

Ventral- bottom

Anterior- head end that goes first

Posterior- tail end that follows

Lateral- along the side (lengthwise)

BODY PLANS OR BODY CAVITY FORMATION

ACOELOMATE- no body cavity b/w digestive tract and outer body wall

ex. Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

BODY PLANS OR BODY CAVITY FORMATION

PSEUDOCOELOMATE- slight body cavity between the mesoderm and endoderm

Ex. Nematoda (roundworms)

BODY PLANS OR BODY CAVITY FORMATION

COELOMATE- body cavity forms and cushions organs, allows for growth of organs.

Ex. Annelids (earthworm)

FEEDING HETEROTROPHS

HERBIVORES- eat vegetation such as plants

CARNIVORES- eat other animals

FEEDING HETEROTROPHS

OMNIVORES- feed on both vegetation & other animals

FILTER FEEDERS- feed by straining tiny floating plants

FEEDING HETEROTROPHS

DETRITUS FEEDERS- feed on tiny bits of decaying matter

PARASITES- feed on living organisms usually destroying or injuring the host organism

PROTECTION AND SUPPORT

Though not all animals have a skeleton, those that do can be divided into two groups:

Those with an EXOSKELETON a hard, waxy coating on the outside of the body that protects internal organs, provides a framework for support, and a place for muscle attachment.

Those with an ENDOSKELETON support framework within the body that protects some organs and a brace for muscles to pull against.

PHYLA IN KINGDOM ANIMALIA

There are around 2 million species and 35 phyla in kingdom Animalia, the majority of organism are represented in just 9 of those phyla.

Porifera

Cnidaria

Platyhelminthes

Nematoda

Annelida

Arthropoda

Mollusca

Echinodermata

Chordata

2 MAIN GROUPINGS OF ANIMALS

INVERTEBRATES

95% of animal species

No backbone

VERTEBRATES

5% of animal species

Contains backbone

Invertebrates

Porifera- The Sponges

Marine

Asymmetical

Filter feeder

Cnidaria- The Cnidarians

Marine

Stinging tentacles

Radial symmetry

Invertebrates

Platyhelminthes- The Flatworms

Marine or terrestrial (parasite)

Bilateral symmetry

Acoelomates

Nematoda- The Roundworms

Marine or terrestrial (parasite)

Bilateral symmetry

Has mouth and anus

Invertebrates

Annelida- The Segmented Worms

Marine or terrestrial

Arthropoda- The Arthropods

Exoskeleton and jointed appendages

Invertebrates

Mollusca- The Mollusks

Terrestrial or marine

Bilateral symmetry

Echinodermata- The Echinoderms

Marine

Radial symmetry

spiney skinned

Chordates

Organisms with a notochord.

Subphylum Vertebrata

Chondrichthyes and Osteichtyes

The fish: cartilaginous and bony

a vertebrate that lives in water, swims, has gills and fins and is usually covered with scales

simplest and largest group of vertebrates

Vertebrata

Amphibia a cold-blooded vertebrate

that generally spends some time in water and some time on land

Smooth, moist skin

Live in moist, cool places

Lose gills and grow lungs as they grow up

Most lay eggs in water

Examples: Frogs, toads, salamander, and mud puppy

Reptilia a cold-blooded vertebrate that is

covered with scales or horny plates

Dry, rough skin

Most lay eggs on land

Live in warm, dry places

Have lungs all their lives

Examples: lizards, snakes

Vertebrata

Aves

a warm-blooded vertebrate with a beak, wings, and feathers

Additional Adaptations MOST Birds Have: ability to fly, instinct to migrate

Penguins are birds even though they cannot fly

Mammalia

a warm-blooded vertebrate with hair or fur that nurses its young and has babies that are born live

View more