kingdom plantae the plants- kingdom plantae · kingdom plantae the plants- kingdom plantae ......

of 12 /12
1 Kingdom Plantae The Plants- Kingdom Plantae Multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic, autotrophic All have: – Chloroplasts, evolved from single-celled green algae – Non-motile, rigid cell wall, sexual reproduction – Require light, water, minerals, CO 2 , other stuff which they must get from their environment The First Plants- The Algae Plant evolution begins in the sea Single celled Multicelled colonies – But still have very little specialization between cells Three divisions of algae- all can be seen in tide pools – Rhodophyta- Red Algae – Phaeophyta- Brown Algae – Chlorophyta- Green Algae Life cycles of most algae 2 multicellular phases- Alternation of Generation • 2n n 2n n….etc. Sporophyte and Gametophyte One phase may be dominant in structure Example on board and overhead General Algal /Plant lifecycle Plants move onto Land Advantages Low competition Low predation Ample sunlight Ample landscape Higher CO 2 Challenges Motile sperm need water No water to hold up body H 2 O, minerals- absorb and transport issues Desiccation Dispersal problems Temperature changes Need to protect embryos

Author: dinhnhi

Post on 30-Aug-2018

256 views

Category:

Documents


2 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 1

    Kingdom Plantae The Plants- Kingdom Plantae

    Multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic, autotrophic

    All have: Chloroplasts, evolved from single-celled green

    algae Non-motile, rigid cell wall, sexual reproduction Require light, water, minerals, CO2, other stuff

    which they must get from their environment

    The First Plants- The Algae

    Plant evolution begins in the sea Single celled Multicelled colonies

    But still have very little specialization between cells

    Three divisions of algae- all can be seen in tide pools

    Rhodophyta- Red Algae Phaeophyta- Brown Algae Chlorophyta- Green Algae

    Life cycles of most algae

    2 multicellular phases- Alternation of Generation

    2n n 2n n.etc. Sporophyte and Gametophyte One phase may be dominant in structure Example on board and overhead

    General Algal /Plant lifecycle Plants move onto LandAdvantages Low competition Low predation Ample sunlight Ample landscape Higher CO2

    Challenges Motile sperm need water No water to hold up body H2O, minerals- absorb and

    transport issues Desiccation Dispersal problems Temperature changes Need to protect embryos

  • 2

    Water vs. Land

    Evolution of Land Plants All land plants evolved from Division

    Chlorophyta, or the Green Algae Photo pigments- Chl. a & c, Carotinoids Store food as Starch

    Bryophyta- The Mosses and Liverworts

    1st terrestrial plants Non-vascular- so they cant transport water

    very wellwhat does this mean? Motile sperm- Need water to reproduce Small size, gametophyte is dominant Must live near water in a moist habitat!

    Bryophytes Sphagnum, or peat moss: Peat bog in Oneida County, Wisconsin

  • 3

    A peat moss bog in NorwayBryophyte lifecycle

    The Vascular PlantsAdaptation Trends of Vascular Plants Roots- obtain H2O and nutrients Vascular tissue

    Xylem- H2O and nutrient transfer Phloem- sugar transport

    Cuticle- prevents drying Stomata-prevent drying and helps gas ex. Leaves- efficient photosynthesis

    The Vascular Plants, cont.

    Xylem and Lignin- support for tall stems Hormones- coordinate growth, help with

    changing conditions Pollen- replaces motile sperm- how get

    around? Wind or animals Seeds- protects and dispersal of next gen. Fruits- enhance dispersal- animals Flowers- amt. pollen, pollination/fert.

  • 4

    Ferns, club mosses, horse tails

    Ferns Large, many-veined leaves= Fronds Rhizome- underground stem w/ roots Dominant Sporophyte w/ vascular tissue.

    Independent gametophyte- Vulnerable, no roots Still has motile sperm-Needs moist environment Most gametophytes die or are eaten

    25 million year period of drought and glaciation 280 mya. Strong selection pressure for desiccation resistance

    Horsetail

    Fern Sorus and SporangiumThe life cycle of a fern

  • 5

    Life cycle of a fern: mature sporangium Life cycle of a fern: germinating

    Life cycle of a fern: gametophyteFig. 15.14

    The stem of a fern Xylem and phloem in the stem of a fern

  • 6

    Carboniferous forest based on fossil evidence

    The Gymnosperms- Pines

    The first truly terrestrial plants Reduced and retained gametophytes-Cones Separate sexes- self fert, outcrossing, gen. vari. Pollen- non-motile sperm- Wind- random, expensive Seed- Sporophyte embryo- 3 generations

    nourished and protected Needles- low evaporation Slow life cycle- 7-10 years

    Vascular tissue

    Stem Tissues Sequoia

  • 7

    Sequoias Cypress

    Common juniper Bristlecone Pine

    Oldest Living Trees

    4,766 years old!!!

    The life cycle of a pine The life cycle of a pine

  • 8

    The life cycle of a pine

    Fig. 15.14

    Male pine cones Pine Sporangia with sporesPollen

    Pine pollen Winged seed of a White Pine (Pinus strobus)

  • 9

    Pine embryo

    The Angiosperms- Flowering Plants

    Cone Flower: Flower Power! Attractive colors, nectar, pollen- All for animals! Specific coevolution Non-random, efficient fertilization

    Gameto- dependent Leaves with stomata Short life cycle- Fruit- efficient dispersal Increasing specialization of vascular tissue

    The typical angiosperm plant

    The structure of a flower

  • 10

    Pollen grainsFig. 15.5

    Relationship between a pea flower and a fruit (pea pod)

    Angiosperm Lifecycle

    Fig. 15.14 Angiosperm Vascular Tissues

  • 11

    Vascular tissue- Roots Vascular tissue- Stems

    Angiosperm leaves How does Vascular tissue work?

    Pollen dispersal- Smart delivery devisesSeed Dispersal

  • 12

    Fruit adaptations that enhance seed dispersal: Red berries (left), dandelion (right) Dandelion seed dispersal

    The Angiosperms other trick Fruits Animal Dispersal

    Table 15.1