knowing words v. owning words

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1. Knowing aWord v. Owning aWord: Best Practices for Deeper Vocabulary Learning Kristi Reyes READ San DiegoTutor Conference June 13, 2015 2. Handout, PowerPoint slides, Resources Online at 3. Warm-up Questions: Answer these by writing short answers to each question on your handout (best guesses OK!). 1.What does it mean to know a word? 2.What percentage of words in a text do readers need to know in order to read a text with support? 3.How many exposures to a word are necessary for a language learner to acquire and retain it? 4. Small Groups Steps: Introduce yourself: Name, what, where, who you tutor or teach. Compare your answers to questions 1 3. 3 minutes if you finish early, look ahead to questions 4 6. 5. 1. What does it mean to know a word? Receptive knowledge word understood when heard/read Productive knowledge ability to use word in speaking/writing 6. Productive Knowledge = form, meaning, use Pronunciation Spelling Word parts (prefixes, suffixes) and forms (singular, plural, inflections) and family Associations and synonyms Denotative v. connotative (polysemy different meanings in different contexts) Grammatical function / part of speech Collocations (example: make v. do) Register (formal v. informal) Frequency Source: Nation, I.S.P. (2014). Learning vocabulary in another language (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. 7. 2. What percentage of words in a text do readers need to know in order to read a text with support? In general for extensive reading 95% with support 98% without support Slightly lower (90-95%) for intensive reading Less than 90% - text is too difficult for student at his/her current ability level Five Finger Rule = %5 8. 3. How many exposures to a word are necessary for a language learner to acquire and retain it? One exposure = typical students retention rate 5 14% 5 20 or more exposures / repetitions (depending on several factors, including age of student) Repeated exposures greater chances for word to move from receptive to productive knowledge 9. Groups Again: 3 minutes! 4.How do you decide which words to explicitly teach? 5.Which words do you leave to incidental learning or simply gloss? 6.What is your one best / most effective technique or activity to (discuss one or all) to teach / tutor learners new vocabulary? to have learners study vocabulary? to get learners to use / practice target vocabulary? to assess learning of vocabulary? to promote learners vocabulary learning and practice beyond the tutoring session / class? 10. Which words to teach Learners who know the most frequent 2000 words in English should be able to understand 80% of the words in an average text Most frequently-used 5000 words -> 88.7% 11. 4. Word toTeach Explicitly High-frequency words based on corpora (Tier 1 and 2) Lower levels: Basic themes (housing, clothing, transportation, food, etc.) New General Service List Higher levels: New Academic Word List 12. ThreeTiers ofVocabulary Tier 1: Common, Known Words (EverydayVocabulary) Examples: big, small, house, table, family Tier 2: High-Frequency Words (General Academic - Cross-context, cross- curricular) Examples: justify, explain, expand, predict, summarize, maintain Tier 3: Low-Frequency, Domain-Specific words Examples: isotope, tectonic plates, carcinogens, mitosis, lithosphere 3Tiers - Isabel Beck and Margaret McKeown ; Source for image 13. 5. Words to leave to incidental learning or gloss Leave to incidental learning: lower frequency words How likely is the student to encounter this word again? Gloss: at higher levels, words that can be defined with an image or quick/short definition or explanation (Tier 3 words) 14. Lesson / Activity Planning Goal: strike a balance to promote receptive and productive knowledge Meaning-focused input: reading/listening Language-focused learning: pronunciation/spelling/word parts/word forms/part of speech Meaning-focused output: speaking/writing Fluency building Nation, I.S.P., & Tamamoto, A. (2012). Applying the four strands. International Journal of Innovation in English Language Teaching and Research, 1(2). 15. Teaching and Learning the Words Lower levels: visuals,TRP, realia, choral repetition, manipulatives, personalized picture dictionaries, labeling, word/sentence writing, manipulatives, categorizing, personalized picture dictionaries/flashcards Higher levels: vocabulary notebooks or index cards (word, part of speech, derivatives and inflections, dictionary entry, a sample sentence, synonym(s) and antonym, and an original sentence) sentence writing All: matching, flashcards, games, categorizing, word web/concept map, diagrams/chart, dialogs, vocabulary self-rating 16. Using the Words Lower levels: dictations, running dictation, simple sentence or story writing (from pictures) Higher levels: paragraphs, conversation/discussion, summary or story writing , structured retell, oral presentations, student-created cloze exercises All: interviews, surveys/questionnaires, info gaps, writing/performing dialogs 17. Some key points from research Help students develop strategic communicative competence paraphrasing & expressions such as What is the word for? Present vocabulary in context Practice activities: controlled practice (listen and repeat, matching, cloze) to activities that allow students to recall and produce the target words in meaningful, personalized ways Learners need to see, say, write newly-acquired words many times before they can be said to have learned them: Make time for review in a systematic way with repetition (remember 5 20 or more exposures) and recycling Forgetting occurs soon after learning review soon after teaching Include competitive fun review (games) motivational, forces faster retrieval Writing vocabulary in own sentences strengthens memory of target vocabulary through generative processing 18. Mini Lesson Conversation: Do you like chocolate? What are some benefits of chocolate? Do you worry about getting older? What are some bad points about getting old? Lets read an article about chocolate. 19. Word Cloud: Prediction 20. Word Clouds: Other Uses Personality Characteristics (any word association or word lists) on Tagxedo Guess theVocabularyWord on Word it Out Other words for goodWordle Tagxedo,Word it Out, Wordle,WordSift, Wordsalad app, ImageChef app) 21. Graphic Organizers: Mind Maps / Webs chocolate 22. Graphic Organizers, Webs, Mind Maps Source: SmartArt graphic organizers in Microsoft Office products (Word, PowerPoint, and Excel 2010), Education Places Graphic Organizers, Education Oasis, Text2Mindmap, with app, Mindmeister, Popplet app 23. Interactive Concept Map Sites (Instragrok, SnappyWords,TheVisual Dictionary) 24. Interactive Images Thinglink (vegetables, house) 25. Vocabulary Preview/Self-Rating See also Vocabulary Self-Rating Chart at 26. Vocabulary Notebook or Index Cards Image mnemonics 27. Flashcards Print Flashcards: Beginning Level Flashcards or make or have students make their own onWord or PPT Digital Flashcards: Quizlet (Kitchen, Academic Word List Sublist 1), Memrise (Academic English course, EnglishVisual Dictionary course), Bitsboard app 28. Word Walls Padlet (seeYouTube video), Lino (example), others 29. Games Jeopardy (BasicVocab Jeopardy Game ESOL Help - also on ESL Games Plus, Food Partitives and other beginning vocabulary games on ESL Games Plus) Flyswatter game (Beg) Password (word association game) 30. Dictations Running Dictation Groups Sentences or paragraphs, based on students level Split Dictation Text dividedA /B Dictogloss / Dictocomp Listen, remember, write 31. Dialogs Comic strips (Bit Strips, ComicLife, MakeBeliefsComix, Toondoo, StoryboardThat) SampleVESL Business Idioms Project Digital movies (Dvolver, GoAnimate!, ZimmerTwins) Sample Student Idiom Project Learner-produced video 32. Business & Work Idioms Victoria Mendoza Edith Floyd VESL@MiraCostaCollage Spring 2014 33. Lemon: A defective product or anything that doesnt work. 34. Think outside the box: to think in different ways. 35. The big wig: An important, powerful or famous person. 36. Online discussion board: Listening, writing, speaking VoiceThread BasicVocabulary Example Assessment 37. Writing Structured Retell (like dictocomp - paraphrase / write a story they listen to, using provided list of words) Individual / pair / small group summary and story writing from a provided list of words Writing sites and discussion boards (PicLits, Padlet or Lino, Storybird, Storymash, an individual or class blog, a class wiki) 38. Conversation / Writing prompts & ProductiveVocabulary Party Teacher or student-composed questions using target vocabulary words Students must reply to questions using full sentences and target vocab 1. What is a good method for losing weight? 2.What is your preferred method for studying vocabulary? 3. What is the best method for learning another language? 4.What is your method for staying so young looking? 39. Assessment: Beginning Level Possibilities: 1. Matching 2. Labeling 3. Writing from picture prompts (Action, English, Pictures! , Sequences: Picture Stories for ESL, Picture Stories: Language and Literacy Activities for Beginners) 4. Simple sentence cloze tests Source: Source: Source: 40. Assessment: Intermediate/Advanced Levels Objective:Test memory of definition or require critical