L-2 Sources and Water Supply Schemes

Download L-2 Sources and Water Supply Schemes

Post on 12-Jan-2016




0 download

Embed Size (px)




<ul><li><p>L-2INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYENGINEERING</p><p>Environmental Engineering-I</p><p>- By Prof S S Jahagirdar</p></li><li><p>CONTENTS</p><p>Sources of water, elements of water supply schemes, design period</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>Raw Water Source</p><p>The various sources of water can be classified into two categories:</p><p>Surface sources, such as Ponds and lakes;</p><p> Streams and rivers; </p><p> Storage reservoirs; and</p><p> Oceans, generally not used for water supplies, at present. </p><p>Sub-surface sources or underground sources, such as Springs;</p><p> Infiltration wells ; and </p><p> Wells and Tube-wells.</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>Another way to classify the water sources</p><p>Rainwater, oceans, rivers, lakes, streams, ponds and springs are natural sources of water.</p><p> Dams, wells, tube wells, hand-pumps, canals, etc, are man-made sources of water.</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>DO YOU KNOW?N</p><p>KO</p><p>CE</p><p>T, S</p><p>olap</p><p>ur</p></li><li><p>HOW MUCH WATER IS USABLE?N</p><p>KO</p><p>CE</p><p>T, S</p><p>olap</p><p>ur</p></li><li><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>One in five people do not have access to safe drinking water</p><p>Every 15 seconds a child dies from water related diseases</p><p>Some young children and women trek up to six miles a day in order to collect water for their families</p><p>Women carrying water drums</p><p>WORLD WATER CRISIS</p><p>Much of the world's drinking water is contaminated and poses serious health threats</p></li><li><p>WATER RELATED DISEASES AND THEIRCAUSES</p><p>Bacteria E. coli Salmonella typhi Shigella spp. Yersinia</p><p>enterocolitica</p><p>Viruses</p><p> Hepatitis A/E virus</p><p> Adenovirus Enterovirus Rotavirus</p><p>E. coli bacteria Hepatitis A Virus</p><p>Diseases Diarrhea Arsenicosis Schistosomiasis Intestinal </p><p>Worms Hepatitis Cholera Malaria Trachoma Typhoid Fluorosis</p></li><li><p>Problems with High-Tech Treatment Systems for Rural Areas of Developing Countries</p><p> Usually are expensive and difficult to construct Require expensive mechanical equipment Require expensiveand dangerous chemicals (e.g. chlorine- carcinogenous)</p><p>High-Tech treatment system</p><p>A CURE FOR THIS GLOBAL PROBLEM?</p></li><li><p>OBJECTIVES OF WATER TREATMENT</p><p>1. To remove colour, dissolved gases and objectionable colour of water</p><p>2. To remove objectionable taste and odour.</p><p>3. To remove disease producing micro-organisms so that water is safe for drinking purpose.</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>4. To remove hardness of water (In case of ground water source).</p><p>5. To make it suitable for wide variety of industrial purposes such as steam generation, dyeing etc.</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>USES OF WATERi. Drinking, cooking and washing</p><p>ii. Bathing</p><p>iii. Swimming pools and water games</p><p>iv. Fountains and cascades (Display)</p><p>v. Watering of lawns and gardens</p><p>vi. Air coolers and dish washers</p><p>vii. For fire fighting</p><p>viii. Industrial operations such as steam generation</p><p>ix. Irrigation</p><p>x. Sanitary purposes</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>ELEMENTS OF WATER SUPPLY SCHEME</p><p>1. Selection of source River, lake or open , tube well</p><p>2. Collection and conveyance of raw water Intake works, pump house, rising main etc</p><p>3. Treatment of water- Multi barrier treatment to remove different types of impurities and pathogens</p><p>4. Pumping and storing the treated water in the E S R s </p><p>5. Distribution- network of pipes is needed</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>DATA TO BE COLLECTED FOR DESIGN OF WATERSUPPLY SCHEME</p><p>1. Sources of raw water Choice amongst alternatives, reliability throughout the year</p><p>2. Quantity of water required which depends upon</p><p>- Population to be served- Population forecasting, census data</p><p>- Water demands- domestic, public, industrial, fire etc</p><p>- Design period 30 yrs is common</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>3. Quality of water analysis of water, line of treatment is decided by raw water quality</p><p>4. Survey data Topographical maps </p><p>5. Plan or map of city or town-for knowledge of existing structures and roads etc</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>FACTORS AFFECTING DESIGN PERIOD</p><p>1. Useful life of the components of water supply scheme (Pumps, intake structures, rising main, pipe distribution network etc.) will decide the design period.</p><p>2. Higher design period has to be adopted if there are difficulties in future expansion.</p><p>3. Availability of funds. Less funds less design period</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>4. Rate of interest on the loans. Larger the rate of interest smaller is the design period and vise-versa.</p><p>5. Rate of increase in population is lower then higher design period is adopted.</p><p>6. Quantity of water available. If required quantity of the water is not available for longer periods then lesser design period shall be adopted</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>DESIGN PERIODS FOR COMPONENTS OF WATERSUPPLY SCHEME</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS</p><p>1. The fresh water content on the earth is ______%.</p><p>2. Safe water can be obtained by using advanced __________________.</p><p>3. Much of the world's drinking water is ______________ and poses serious health threats</p><p>4. Design period for pumps is ____ years.</p><p>5. Purpose of water treatment is _______________</p><p>(to remove odour/to remove taste/to kill pathogens/ all of above)</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>THEORY QUESTIONS</p><p>1. Discuss classification of sources of water in detail. </p><p>2. Explain elements of water supply scheme</p><p>3. Discuss objectives of water treatment.</p><p>4. Write short notes on </p><p>i. Factors affecting Design Period</p><p>ii. Data to be collected for design of water supply scheme</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li><li><p>NEXT LECTURE</p><p>NK</p><p>OC</p><p>ET</p><p>, Sola</p><p>pu</p><p>r</p></li></ul>


View more >