labex (fr)

37
 H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW 0>88 Hgpakslb or ~pambt ! Hgpaksl OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ ! WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @ Gb oagrlbkt obyph cl~ãphtcyblbkt gal~pbkopb rk lhzclrl ob 02 ~hebw& pã~hptcbw î yatpb gakybkhkgb bktpb wbw ociiãpbktbw gal~awhktbw& fb g ap~w or tbztb obyhkt ítpb bk ~afcgb ob thcffb 88+ Gb lhzclrl kb gal~pbko ~hw fb kal`pb ob ~hebw gakwhgpãbw î fh obwgpc~tcak obw rkctãw ~hptbkhcpbw& ohkw fbw fclctbw ckocxrãbw+ Hgpakslb or ~pambt! Hgpaksl ai tjb ~pambgt WLW ! WWU _ctpb or ~pambt bk iphkåhcw Wtprgtrphtcakw obw lakobw wagchrz *pãwbhrz& pãerfhtcakw& ocw~awctciw& tbppctacpbw# ^pambgt tctfb ck Bkefcwj Wtprgtrpcke ai Wagchf Uapfow *WWU# *kbtuapdw& pberfhtcakw& obycgbw& tbppctapcbw# Pbw~akwh`fb wgcbktcicxrb bt tbgjkcxrb or ~pambt!^pambgt lhkhebp *gjbpgjbrp& bkwbcekhkt gjbpgjbrp…# Kal& ^pãkal ! Fhwt khlb& Icpwt khlb = Lcgjbf EPAWWB__C Bth`fcwwblbkt ! Ckwtctrtcak = ^PBW Fh`aphtacpb ! Fh`aphtaps = FCWW_ *GKPW& BJBWW& R_0# Krlãpa o–rkctã  !Rkct krl`bp = RLP28>7 Hcob oblhkoãb! Pbxrbwtbo irkocke 3 ?3: ?88&20 _YH kak pãgr~ãph`fb ckgfrwb Gjhl~*w# wgcbktcicxrb*w# or ~pambt!Wgcbktcicg icbfo*w# ai tjb ~pambgt Wgcbkgbw ob fh Lhtcêpb bt ob f–Bkbpecb Wgcbkgbw or Wswtêlb _bppb,Rkcybpw,Bkycpakkblbkt Wgcbkgbw ob fh Ycb bt ob fh Whktã Wgcbkgbw or Krlãpcxrb bt Lhtjãlhtcxrbw  Wgcbkgbw Wagchfbw Jrlhkctãw Gb ~pambt& ar rk ~pambt ~pagjb& h,t,cf ãtã warlcw ~arp FH@BZ0>8> 1 Kak Arc Hgpakslb or ~pambt = Gaapockhtbrp or ~pambt = Gb ~pambt bwt,cf fh wrctb& ~arp tart ar ~hptcb& o–rk ar ~frwcbrpw ~pambtw warlcw î FH@BZ0>8> 1 Kak Arc Hgpakslbw obw ~pambtw Gaapockhtbrpw Gb ~pambt bwt,cf ~hptcb ~pbkhktb o–rk ~pambt Kak Arc 8!75

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Page 1: LABEX (FR)

5/15/2018 LABEX (FR) - slidepdf.com

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/labex-fr 1/37

H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

Gb oagrlbkt obyph cl~ãphtcyblbkt gal~pbkopb rk lhzclrl ob 02 ~hebw&pã~hptcbw î yatpb gakybkhkgb bktpb wbw ociiãpbktbw gal~awhktbw& fb gap~w or

tbztb obyhkt ítpb bk ~afcgb ob thcffb 88+ Gb lhzclrl kb gal~pbko ~hw fbkal`pb ob ~hebw gakwhgpãbw î fh obwgpc~tcak obw rkctãw ~hptbkhcpbw& ohkw fbw

fclctbw ckocxrãbw+

Hgpakslb or ~pambt!Hgpaksl ai tjb~pambgt

WLW ! WWU

_ctpb or ~pambt bkiphkåhcw

Wtprgtrphtcakw obw lakobw wagchrz*pãwbhrz& pãerfhtcakw& ocw~awctciw& tbppctacpbw#

^pambgt tctfb ck BkefcwjWtprgtrpcke ai Wagchf Uapfow *WWU#*kbtuapdw& pberfhtcakw& obycgbw& tbppctapcbw#

Pbw~akwh`fb wgcbktcicxrbbt tbgjkcxrb or~pambt!^pambgt lhkhebp*gjbpgjbrp& bkwbcekhktgjbpgjbrp…#

Kal& ^pãkal ! Fhwt khlb& Icpwt khlb = Lcgjbf EPAWWB__CBth`fcwwblbkt ! Ckwtctrtcak = ^PBWFh`aphtacpb ! Fh`aphtaps = FCWW_ *GKPW& BJBWW& R_0#Krlãpa o–rkctã !Rkct krl`bp = RLP28>7

Hcob oblhkoãb!

Pbxrbwtbo irkocke

3 ?3: ?88&20 ₦

_YH kak pãgr~ãph`fb ckgfrwb

Gjhl~*w#wgcbktcicxrb*w# or~pambt!Wgcbktcicg icbfo*w#ai tjb ~pambgt

Wgcbkgbw ob fh Lhtcêpb bt ob f–Bkbpecb Wgcbkgbw or Wswtêlb _bppb,Rkcybpw,Bkycpakkblbkt Wgcbkgbw ob fh Ycb bt ob fh Whktã Wgcbkgbw or Krlãpcxrb bt Lhtjãlhtcxrbw Wgcbkgbw Wagchfbw Jrlhkctãw

Gb ~pambt& ar rk

~pambt ~pagjb& h,t,cfãtã warlcw ~arpFH@BZ0>8> 1

Kak Arc

Hgpakslb or ~pambt =Gaapockhtbrp or ~pambt =

Gb ~pambt bwt,cf fhwrctb& ~arp tart ar~hptcb& o–rk ar~frwcbrpw ~pambtwwarlcw îFH@BZ0>8> 1

Kak ArcHgpakslbw obw

~pambtwGaapockhtbrpw

Gb ~pambt bwt,cf ~hptcb~pbkhktb o–rk ~pambt

Kak Arc

8!75

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

o–Cobz 1 Hgpakslb ob f%Cobz =

Bth`fcwwblbkt gaapockhtbrp *yacp oãickctcak gc,h~pêw# ! Ckwtctrtcak fbhocketjb ~pambgt *~pambgt fbhobp ‗ wbb obickctcak ck tjb ghff iap ~pa~awhfw#

Kal ob f–ãth`fcwwblbkt ! Ckwtctrtcak khlb Wthtrt ! Wthtrw

^PBW ¤ Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb ́ B^GW

Bth f̀cwwblbkt ebwtcakkhcpb ob f–hcob *yacp oãickctcak gc,h~pêw#& îgal~fãtbp wc ociiãpbkt ob f–ãth`fcwwblbkt gaapockhtbrp ! Ckwtctrtcaklhkhecke tjb irkockew *wbb obickctcak ck tjb ghff iap ~pa~awhfw#& ta `bgal~fbtbo ci ociibpbkt ipal tjb ~pambgt fbhobp

Kal ob f–ãth`fcwwblbkt ! Ckwtctrtcak khlb Wthtrt ! Wthtrw

^PBW ¤ Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb ́ B^GW

Hiicfchtcakw obw rkctãw ~hptbkhcpbw *yacp oãickctcak gc,h~pêw# or

~pambt!~hptkbp–w hiicfchtcak *wbb obickctcak ck tjb ghff iap ~pa~awhfw#

Fh`aphtacpb*w#!Fh`aphtaps

Krlãpa*w# o–rkctã!Rkct krl b̀p _rtbffb*w#!Pbwbhpgj apehkc}htcak pbibpbkgb

FCWW_ RLP 2837GKPW& Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb 0& Bgafb obwJhrtbw Btrobw bk Wgcbkgbw Wagchfbw

IPHLBW^H RLP 2879 GKPW& Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0

GBP_A^ RLP 2>??GKPW& Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb 0& Rkcybpwctã_arfarwb 7

Oskhlcxrbw Prphfbw LH 8>? R_0& CK^_& Lckcwtêpb ob f–hepcgrftrpb

^FJ BH ?827 Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb 0

FBPB^W BH ?080 Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb 8FHWW^ BH ?582 Ckwtctrt o–ãtrobw ~afctcxrbw ob _arfarwb

HECP *CAOH bt Lãochtcakw# RLP80?: CKPH ‗ WHO& CK^

0!75

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

PBWRLB ! WRLLHPS++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ?8+ OBWGPC^_CAK WGCBK_CICXRB B_ _BGJKCXRB OR ^PAMB_ ! _BGJKCGHF HKO WGCBK_CICG OBWGPC^_CAK AI 

_JB ^PAMBG_+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++98+8+ Obwgpc~tcak or ~paephllb& hl`ctcak& ~bptckbkgb bt wtphtbecbwgcbktcicxrb! ^paephl obwgpc~tcak& ycwcak& hl`ctcak hko wgcbktcicg wtphtbes + + + + 98+0+ ^pbwbkthtcak wgcbktcicxrb or ~pambt ob pbgjbpgjb! Wgcbktcicg obwgpc~tcak ai tjb pbwbhpgj ~pambgt ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 8>8+7+ Cl~hgt or ~paephllb wrp fh iaplhtcak! Cl~hgt ak tphckcke ++++++++++++++++++ 0>8+?+ Cl~hgt wagca,ãgakalcxrb or ~paephllb !Wagca bgakalcg cl~hgt ++++++++ 0>0+ APEHKCWH_CAK B_ EARYBPKHKGB OR ^PAMB_ !APEHKC]H_CAK HKO EAYBPKHKGB+++++++++++++++++++++ 0>0+8+ Pbw~akwh`fb wgcbktcicxrb bt tbgjkcxrb!~pckgc~hf Ckybwtcehtap ++++++++++++++++ 0>

0+0+ Apehkcwhtcak or ~hptbkhpcht ! ^hptkbpwjc~ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 080+0+8 Obwgpc~tcak& hoãxrhtcak bt gal~fãlbkthpctã obw rkctbw ~hptbkhcpbw!^hptkbpw– obwgpc~tcak& pbfbyhkgb hko gal~fblbkthpcts 08

0+0+0 Xrhfcicghtcak& pÿfb bt cl~fcghtcak obw RKC_BW ~hptbkhcpbw ! Xrhfcicghtcak& pafb hkockyafyblbkt ai tjb ~hptkbp rkctw = 03

0+7+ Earybpkhkgb !Eaybpkhkgb ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 700+?+ Wtphtãecb obw bth`fcwwblbktw!Ckwtctrtcakhf wtphtbes ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 777+ MRW_CICGH_CAK OBW LASBKW OBLHKOÃW ! IRKOCKE MRW_CICGH_CAK++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++77

7+8+8 ^paephllb ob pbgjbpgjb! Pbwbhpgj ~pambgt 777+8+0 ^paephllb ~ãoheaecxrb! _bhgjcke ~pambgt 7?7+8+7 Yhfapcwhtcak! Bz~facthtcak ai pbwrftw hko tbgjkafaes tphkwibp 727+8+? Earybpkhkgb! eaybpkhkgb 727+8+2 @roebt efa`hf 79

7!75

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

P BWRLB ! WRLLHPS

Fb fh`bBz WLW hwwagcb obw gjbpgjbrpw ob 2 Rkctãw ob Pbgjbpgjb ob f–Rkcybpwctãob _arfarwb fb Lcphcf gfhwwãbw H$ bt H *FCWW_& IPHLBW^H& GBP_A^& OskhlcxrbwPrphfbw& ^FJ# hckwc xrb fb FHWW^ *CB^ _arfarwb& wgcbkgbw ~afctcxrbw#& or FBPB^W*_arfarwb 8& ãgakalcb#& bt obw lbl`pbw ob f–CPC_ *_arfarwb 7& CK^ bt GKPW&ckiaplhtcxrb#& or FBPHWW *ckiaplhtcak bt gallrkcghtcak# bt ob f–CKPH,HECP*ãgakalcb#+ Fb kal`pb tathf ob gjbpgjbrpw gakgbpkãw bwt ob 753 ~bplhkbktw+

Gaktbztb bt a`mbgtciw

F–a`mbgtci gbktphf or Fh`bBz WLW bwt ob oãybfa~~bp rkb gakgb~tcakpbkarybfãb obw iaplbw ob wtprgtrphtcak obw lakobw wagchrz bk pbkiapåhkt fhgakybpebkgb oãmî fhpeblbkt hlapgãb ob~rcw ~frwcbrpw hkkãbw o–rkb ephkob ~hptcbobw ãxrc~bw bt gjbpgjbrpw ob wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbw or wctb ob _arfarwb+F–hl`ctcak or Fh`bBz WLW wb mrwtcicb 8# ~hp f–apceckhfctã h~~aptãb ~hp f–bz~ãpcbkgbhgxrcwb ohkw fbw hkhfswbw ob pãwbhrz& thkt wrp fb ~fhk obw lãtjaobw xrb obwghopbw o–hkhfswb bt obw gakkhcwwhkgbw hggrlrfãbw& bt 0# ~hp fb fhpeb ãybkthcf obgal~ãtbkgbw phwwbl`fãbw hr wbck or ~pambt+ Fbw gjbpgjbrpw cl~fcxrãw akt bk biibtbk gallrk obw hgxrcw gakgbpkhkt f–ãtrob obw pãwbhrz ob pbfhtcakwcktbp~bpwakkbffbw ar cktbp,apehkcwhtcakkbffbw& lhcw hrwwc wrp fbw iaplbw obpãerfhtcak& g–bwt,î,ocpb fbw ~pagbwwrw ob ~paorgtcak ob gakybktcakw& pêefbw& kaplbwbt wthkohpow xrc wtprgtrpbkt fbw apehkcwhtcakw bt fbw ~afctcxrbw ~r`fcxrbw& wrp fbw

ocw~awctciw lhtãpcbfw xrc cktbpycbkkbkt ohkw fbw cktbphgtcakw wagchfbw& bt wrp fbwtbppctacpbw& gakwcoãpãw gallb obw wtprgtrpbw wagca,w~htchfbw gpcwthffcwhkt ob ihåaktarmarpw w~ãgcicxrb obw pãwbhrz& obw ocw~awctciw bt obw pãerfhtcakw+ Cfw akt hrwwc fhgakycgtcak xrb fh gakkhcwwhkgb obw lakobw wagchrz kb ~brt w–a`tbkcp xr–hr lasbkob pbgjbpgjbw bl~cpcxrbw pcearpbrwbw+ Bk gbfh& WLW wb ociiãpbkgcb phocghfblbktobw ~pambtw ycwhkt î ãtbkopb î f–bkwbl`fb obw ~jãkalêkbw wagchrz fbw laoêfbwlhtjãlhtcxrbw rtcfcwãw ~hp rkb ~hptcb obw ãgakalcwtbw+ Fb Fh`Bz WLW h ~arpa`mbgtciw& ~pblcêpblbkt ob pbkiapgbp fbw oskhlcxrbw bzcwthktbw ~hp obw a~ãphtcakwbl~cpcxrbw ob ephkob hl~fbrp xrc kãgbwwctbkt obw lasbkw cl~apthktw ~arp~paorcpb rkb ycwcak pãhfcwtb obw lakobw wagchrz bt obrzcêlblbkt o–hiickbp rkbw~hgb tjãapcxrb bt lãtjaoafaecxrb ~bplbtthkt o–hkhfswbp fbw ociiãpbktbwiaplbw ob wtprgtrphtcak obw lakobw wagchrz bt ob pbkiapgbp fbw bkwbcekblbktw~frpcocwgc~fckhcpbw bk wgcbkgbw wagchfbw+

EarybpkhkgbF–apehkcwhtcak or ~pambt pb~awb wrp ? ckwthkgbw =, Rk Gakwbcf o–Holckcwtphtcak gal~awã or pbw~akwh`fb or Fh`Bz& obw

ocpbgtbrpw obw rkctãw ob pbgjbpgjb cl~fcxrãbw& or ^PBW& or ~ÿfb ^HGW& obw ycgb,~pãwcobktw pbgjbpgjb obw ãth`fcwwblbktw gakgbpkãw& bt ob 7 pb~pãwbkthktw ob fhwagcãtã gcycfb+ Cf kallb fb pbw~akwh`fb or Fh`Bz bt fbw lbl`pbw or galctã ob~cfatheb wrp ~pa~awctcak ob gbfrc,gc+ Cf ãyhfrb hkkrbffblbkt fb iakgtcakkblbktapehkcwhtcakkbf or Fh`Bz bt w–h~~rcb wrp fbw bz~bptcwbw or Gakwbcf Wgcbktcicxrb+ FbGakwbcf o–holckcwtphtcak ybcffb î fh gajãpbkgb obw hgtcyctãw or Fh`Bz hybg fbw

apcbkthtcakw obw fh`aphtacpbw bt obw ãth f̀cwwblbktw& hckwc xr–hrz biibtwo–bktphëkblbkt ob gbfrc,gc wrp f–bkwbl`fb ob fh gallrkhrtã wgcbktcicxrb faghfb+

?!75

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

, Rk Galctã ob ^cfatheb& ~pa~awã ~hp fb pbw~akwh`fb or Fh`Bz& bt pbkarybfãtarw fbw 0 hkw+ Cf bwt gakwtctrã obw ~pckgc~hrz pbw~akwh f̀bw obw a~ãphtcakw obpbgjbpgjb bt obw hgtcyctãw ob wãlckhcpb+ Cf oãgcob obw httpc`rtcakw o–hffaghtcakw& bkgakgbpthtcak hybg fbw ocpbgtbrpw ob fh`aphtacpbw bt hybg fbw ãgafbw oagtaphfbw*hrzxrbffbw fbw oawwcbpw ob ghkocohtw wakt warlcw# ~arp fbw tjêwbw& hybg fbwocpbgtbrpw ob fh`aphtacpbw ~arp fbw hffaghtcakw ~awt,oagtaphfbw+ Cf oãgcob obwa~ãphtcakw ob pbgjbpgjb î bkehebp bt fbw eêpb hr xratcocbk+

, Rkb Hwwbl`fãb Eãkãphfb obw gjbpgjbrpw ~bplhkbktw bt kak ~bplhkbktwcl~fcxrãw ohkw fb ~pambt wb pãrkct rkb iacw ~hp hk+ Bffb oakkb wak hycw wrp fbwapcbkthtcakw or fh`aphtacpb+

, Rk Gakwbcf Wgcbktcicxrb& gal~awã ob 8> bz~bptw cktbpkhtcakhrz w~ãgchfcwãw

ohkw fbw tjêlbw or ~pambt *pãwbhrz wagchrz& ocw~awctciw& pãerfhtcakw& tbppctacpbw# bwtkallã tarw fbw obrz hkw ~hp fb Gakwbcf o–Holckcwtphtcak wrp ~pa~awctcak or Galctãob ^cfatheb+ Fb Gakwbcf Wgcbktcicxrb ãyhfrb tarw fbw obrz hkw f–hgtcyctã or Fh`Bz*tjêwbw fhkgãbw& a~ãphtcakw ob pbgjbpgjb& gaffaxrbw#+

^paephllbw o–bkwbcekblbktWLW ycwb î pbkiapgbp ar î ihcpb ãlbpebp rk bkwbl f̀b o–bkwbcekblbktw

~frpcocwgc~fckhcpbw wrp fbw tjêlbw xr–cf oãybfa~~b+ Hr kcybhr obw ãtrobwoagtaphfbw& fb wãlckhcpb ob pbgjbpgjb ¤ f–bw~hgb obw wgcbkgbw wagchfbw ´& xrc bwtcktãepã ob~rcw 0>>5 î fh iaplhtcak obw ãtrochktw ob f–ãgafb oagtaphfb ¤ _bl~w&Bw~hgbw& Wagcãtãw& Grftrpbw ´ *_BWG# wbph pbkiapgã& hckwc xrb f–htbfcbp bzcwthkt obiaplhtcak obw oagtaphktw î f–hkhfswb ob pãwbhrz+ Hr kcybhr obw lhwtbpw& WLWoãybfa~~bph obw laorfbw o–bkwbcekblbkt ~aryhkt ítpb aiibptw hrz ãtrochktw obwociiãpbktw lhwtbpw ob wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbw+ Gbw laorfbw hrpakt ~arpa`mbgtci ob pbkiapgbp fbw `hwbw tjãapcxrbw bt lãtjaoafaecxrbw o–rk ~ackt ob yrb~frpcocwgc~fckhcpb+ Hr kcybhr ob fh fcgbkgb& WLW gakwtctrbph fh `hwb cktbffbgtrbffb~bplbtthkt o–ãfh`apbp ob karybhrz ~hpgarpw ~frpcocwgc~fckhcpbw xrc wakt pbkorwkãgbwwhcpbw ~hp f–ãyafrtcak ob fh oblhkob obw ãtrochktw+ Gbw ~hpgarpw ob fcgbkgbwbpakt lcw bk ~fhgb î f–agghwcak or ~pagjhck gaktpht xrckxrbkkhf+

Rtcfcwhtcak obw iakowKarw ihcwakw fb ~hpc xrb fh pãrwwctb or Fh`Bz ~hwwb ~pblcêpblbkt ~hp fb wartcbk

î ob mbrkbw gjbpgjbrpw& o–aó f–hggbkt lcw wrp fbw hffaghtcakw ob tjêwb bt ob ~awt,

oagtapht& obrzcêlblbkt ~hp f–cktbkwcicghtcak obw pbgjbpgjbw obw bkwbcekhktw,gjbpgjbrpw bt fh ociirwcak obw pãwrfthtw ob pbgjbpgjb ohkw fbw grpwrw& o–aófh ~pãwbkgb o–rkb fcekb gakwhgpãb hr ickhkgblbkt ob f–bkwbcekblbkt& bttpacwcêlblbkt ~hp fh lcwb bk ~fhgb ob ephkobw pbgjbpgjbw bl~cpcxrbw& o–aóf–cl~apthkgb obw a~ãphtcakw ob pbgjbpgjb hl`ctcbrwbw bt obw htbfcbpwlãtjaoafaecxrbw+ Karw ckyctbpakw hrwwc tpêw pãerfcêpblbkt obw gakiãpbkgcbpwãtphkebpw ~arp ob garptw wãmarpw bt ickhkgbpakw obw wãmarpw ob gjbpgjbrpw or~pambt î f–ãtphkebp+ Karw wartcbkopakw hgtcyblbkt fh tphorgtcak ohkw ocybpwbwfhkerbw ãtphkeêpbw obw tphyhrz gakorctw hr wbck ob WLW hick ob ihyapcwbp fbrppbgakkhcwwhkgb cktbpkhtcakhfb+

2!75

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

8+ OBWGPC^_CAK WGCBK_CICXRB B_ _BGJKCXRB OR ^PAMB_ ! _BGJKCGHF HKO WGCBK_CICG OBWGPC^_CAK AI _JB ^PAMBG_

8+8+ OBWGPC^_CAK OR ^PAEPHLLB& HL@C_CAK& ^BP_CKBKGB B_ W_PH_BECB WGCBK_CICXRB! ^PAEPHL OBWGPC^_CAK& YCWCAK& HL@C_CAK HKO WGCBK_CICG W_PH_BES

Rk ~pambt ob pbkarybffblbkt bt ob gakybpebkgb obw wgcbkgbw

jrlhckbw bt wagchfbwFb Fh`bBz WLW ycwb î gakwtprcpb rkb ycwcak pbkarybfãb obw lakobw wagchrz bkw–h~~rshkt wrp f–apceckhfctã ~pagrpãb ~hp f–bz~ãpcbkgb hgxrcwb ~hp fbw gjbpgjbrpwor ~pambt ohkw f–hkhfswb obw pãwbhrz wagchrz& bz~ãpcbkgb xrc wckerfhpcwb fb wctbtarfarwhck ohkw fb ~hswheb iphkåhcw bt brpa~ãbk obw wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbw+Fbw pãwbhrz wagchrz kb ~brybkt ítpb gal~pcw bt pbkopb gal~tb ob fh gal~fbzctã obw~jãkalêkbw wagchrz whkw ítpb pbfcãw î o–hrtpbw oclbkwcakw obw lakobw wagchrz&kathllbkt fbw ocw~awctciw lhtãpcbfw wrp fbwxrbfw w–h~~rcb hr xratcocbk f–hgtcyctãwagchfb& fbw iaplbw ob pãerfhtcak *kaplbw& pêefbw& wthkohpow# xrc ghopbkt gbttblílb hgtcyctã bt fbw tbppctacpbw ohkw fbwxrbfw bffb wb oã~facb+ Fb wctb tarfarwhck~pãwbktb f–hyhktheb ob pbepar~bp obw gjbpgjbrpw xrc kak wbrfblbkt lhëtpcwbkt fbwh~~pagjbw fbw ~frw hgtrbffbw ob gbw ociiãpbktbw oclbkwcakw or lakob wagchf& lhcw

akt bktpb~pcw ob~rcw ~frwcbrpw hkkãbw ob fbw ihcpb gakybpebp hrtarp ob wãlckhcpbw bto–htbfcbpw lãtjaoafaecxrbw+ F–hl`ctcak or ~pambt bwt mrwtcicãb ~hp gb fhpeb ãybkthcfob gal~ãtbkgbw+

Gaktbztb faghf bt khtcakhfFb ~pblcbp h~~bf h yhfcoã rk ~pambt tarfarwhck *f–CHW_#& oakt rkb fbgtrpb

wr~bpicgcbffb ~arpphct ihcpb gpacpb xrb fbw tjêlbw ob pbgjbpgjb wakt ~pagjbw ob gbrzxrc wakt h`apoãw ~hp WLW+ Cf ihrt oakg cllãochtblbkt bz~fcxrbp bk xrac WLW bwttpêw ociiãpbkt *bt gal~fãlbkthcpb# ob gb ~paephllb+ F–CHW_ wb ~pa~awb o–h~~fcxrbpî f–bkwbl f̀b obw ~jãkalêkbw wagchrz obw gakgb~trhfcwhtcakw bt obw laoêfbwlhtjãlhtcxrbw ãfh`apãw ~arp pbkopb gal~tb ob f–hgtcyctã ãgakalcxrb î ~hptcp ob

~awtrfhtw wrp fbw gal~aptblbktw ckocycorbfw& brz,lílbw laoãfcwãw wbfak fbwjs~atjêwbw ob fh tjãapcb or gjacz phtcakkbf+ Fb Fh`bBz WLW wb iakob wrp rkbkwbl`fb ob wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbw *jcwtacpb& wagcafaecb& btjkafaecb&eãaeph~jcb jrlhckb& hktjpa~afaecb& ~wsgjafaecb wagchfb& ãgakalcb ~afctcxrb#& xrcgakwcoêpbkt xrb fbw ~jãkalêkbw wagchrz wakt lhpxrãw ~hp obw ~pagbwwrwjcwtapcxrbw bt oakkbkt fcbr î f–ãlbpebkgb ob iaplbw xrc kb wakt ~hw pãorgtc`fbw îf–hepãehtcak ar î fh gal~awctcak o–hgtcakw ckocycorbffbw+ Fbw gjbpgjbrpw phwwbl`fãwhr wbck or ~pambt WLW lbttbkt bk ~pcapctã fh gakwtprgtcak ob oakkãbw bl~cpcxrbwwrp fbw ~jãkalêkbw wagchrz+ WLW bwt ~pagjb ohkw wak ~awctcakkblbktã~cwtãlafaecxrb ob ~frwcbrpw ~pambtw ob wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbw bzcwthkt bkIphkgb& gallb ~hp bzbl~fb fb ~pambt ¤ Cktbffcebkgb obw Lakobw Rp`hckw ´ ar fb~pambt ¤ Wgcbkgbw& Ckkayhtcakw bt _bgjkcxrbw bk Wagcãtã ´+ Wh w~ãgcicgctã wb wctrb

ohkw wh tjãlhtcxrb ~frw iakohlbkthfb bt wak h~~rc wrp fbw h~~aptw obw pbgjbpgjbwwrp fbw pãwbhrz wagchrz+

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

Rk ~pambt cktbpocwgc~fckhcpb xrc targjb hrwwc f–bkwbcekblbkt …Gbt ãfhk ybpw rkb iaplb ob ~frpcocwgc~fckhpctã cktbpkb hrz wgcbkgbw wagchfbw ycwb

hrwwc î cl~rfwbp obw ãyafrtcakw lhmbrpbw ob f–bkwbcekblbkt& xrc wariipbhgtrbffblbkt obw gfacwakkblbktw ocwgc~fckhcpbw jãpctãw ob f–jcwtacpb bt kb gappbw~ako~frw hrthkt xrb ~hp fb ~hwwã hrz `bwackw obw ãtrochktw+ Fb Fh`bBz WLW wb ~pa~awbob mbtbp fbw `hwbw cktbffbgtrbffbw o–rk bw~hgb obw wgcbkgbw obw wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw btwagchfbw hr wbck orxrbf fbw tjãapcbw bt fbw lãtjaobw wacbkt `cbk cobktcicãbw bthptcgrfãbw fbw rkbw hrz hrtpbw+ Cf w–hect ob ~bplbttpb hrz ãtrochktw bt hrzgjbpgjbrpw ob lhëtpcwbp fbw `hwbw ob ~frwcbrpw ocwgc~fckbw bk hshkt obw pb~êpbwgfhcpw wrp fbw gakgb~tw gallrkw xrc fbw tphybpwbkt+

Fb Fh`bBz WLW h ~arp hl`ctcak ob ihcpb ãlbpebp obw laorfbw tphkwybpwhrz îociiãpbktw lhwtbpw ~aptãw ~hp fbw oã~hptblbktw bt fbw rkctãw ob pbgjbpgjb xrc fbwartcbkkbkt+ Cfw ~aptbpakt bk ~hptcgrfcbp wrp fbw lãtjaobw bt fbw xrbwtcakwtjãapcxrbw bt ã~cwtãlafaecxrbw tphkwybpwhfbw tphctãbw ohkw fb ~pambt+ Gbwlaorfbw ~arppakt ítpb ~pa~awãw hrz ãtrochktw ob lhwtbp î tctpb a~tcakkbf ohkw fbgarpw or ~pãwbkt gaktpht xrckxrbkkhf *0>88,0>89#& lhcw cfw ~arppakt ítpb cktãepãw~frw ocpbgtblbkt hrz lhxrbttbw obw lhwtbpw or ~pagjhck gaktpht& yacpb ohkwgbpthckw ghw& hr garpw or gaktpht hgtrbf *0>8?#+ Hr kcybhr ob fh fcgbkgb& WLWgakwtctrbph fh `hwb cktbffbgtrbffb ~bplbtthkt o–ãfh`apbp ob karybhrz ~hpgarpw~frpcocwgc~fckhcpbw ~arp iaplbp fbw ãtrochktw hrz h~~pagjbw bt hrz gakkhcwwhkgbw fbw~frw laobpkbw gakgbpkhkt fb lakob wagchf+ Gbw ~hpgarpw ob fcgbkgb wbpakt lcw bk~fhgb î f–agghwcak or ~pagjhck gaktpht xrckxrbkkhf+

… bt bk fcbk hybg fh oblhkob wagchfbFb ~pa f̀êlb ob fh ~frpcocwgc~fckhpctã bwt hrwwc ~htbkt ohkw fb ph~~apt hrz

ociiãpbktbw iaplbw ob oblhkob wagchfb xrc wakt iaplrfãbw ob ihåak whkw gbwwbpbkarybfãb î f–bkopact obw gjbpgjbrpw obw wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbw& obw

 marpkhfcwtbw bk pbgjbpgjb o–ãgfhcpheb wrp obw ~jãkalêkbw gal~fbzbw& hrzgaffbgtcyctãw ~r`fcxrbw ob tartbw khtrpb xrc ybrfbkt bk rpebkgb obw ochekawtcgw& bk~hwwhkt ~hp fbw gctasbkw xrc iakt h~~bf î f–bz~bptcwb obw gjbpgjbrpw hick ob ocw~awbpo–hplbw cktbffbgtrbffbw ~arp gaktbwtbp ociiãpbktw ts~bw ob ~aryacpw+ Wã~hpãlbkt& fbwocwgc~fckbw akt ob ~frw bk ~frw ob lhf î ihcpb ihgb î gbttb oblhkob bk gpacwwhkgb~bplhkbktb+

G–bwt ~arpxrac& WLW& bk fcbk hybg fb wbpycgb ob yhfapcwhtcak ob fh pbgjbpgjb obf–Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb fb Lcphcf& lbttph bk ~fhgb rkb gbffrfb o–cktbpihgb hybg fhoblhkob wagchfb& gal~awãb ob gjbpgjbrpw or ~pambt bt ob ~bpwakkbfw o–h~~rc lcwî ocw~awctcak ~hp fbw ãth`fcwwblbktw& hick ob pã~akopb ob ihåak gaapoakkãb fapwxrbg–bwt kãgbwwhcpb& wact ~hp obw bz~bptcwbw& wact ~hp f–apehkcwhtcak ob oã`htw ar fboãgfbkgjblbkt o–ãtrobw h~~paiakocbw+ Gbttb gbffrfb hrph hrwwc ~arp lcwwcak ob ihcpbpblaktbp ybpw fbw gjbpgjbrpw obw tjãlhtcxrbw bt obw ~pa`fêlbw wagchrz ãlbpebktw+^hp hcffbrpw& bk gb xrc gakgbpkb fbw tbgjkafaecbw ob f–ckiaplhtcak bt ob fhgallrkcghtcak& xrc iakt f–a`mbt ob kal`pbrwbw oblhkobw& wbph lcw bk ~fhgb rkFh`aphtacpb obw Rwhebw& xrc apehkcwbph bk fcekb f–cktbphgtcak bktpb fbw gjbpgjbrpwbt fbrpw cktbpfagrtbrpw *yacp ~frw fack#+

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

F–bzgbffbkgb ~hp fh oskhlcxrb gaffbgtcyb bt fh ~bptckbkgb obwpãwrfthtw

W–cfw wakt wargcbrz ob fh ycwc`cfctã ob fbrpw tphyhrz& fbw gjbpgjbrpw bkeheãw ohkwfb Fh`bBz WLW lbttbkt bk ~pcapctã fh xrhfctã o–bkwbl`fb obw pbgjbpgjbw ~paorctbw btfbrp gh~hgctã î ~paorcpb obw pãwrfthtw oakt fh ~bptckbkgb oact w–hiicplbp ohkwfh orpãb î f–ã~pbryb or oã`ht wgcbktcicxrb+ Fh gakgb~tcak ob WLW `ãkãicgcb bkbiibt ob f–bz~ãpcbkgb ob gbpthckw o–bktpb karw bk wagcafaecb bt jcwtacpb obw wgcbkgbw+Fb ~jãkalêkb `cbk gakkr ob gakgbktphtcak wrp rkb ~btctb ~pa~aptcak obw hrtbrpwobw ~r`fcghtcakw bt ob fh ycwc`cfctã wgcbktcicxrb& xrb f–ak `h~tcwb bk eãkãphf ¤ fac obFatdh ´8& pbfêyb o–rk ~jãkalêkb gfhwwcxrb or lakob wagchf xrc bwt fh tbkohkgb hrgrlrf obw hyhkthebw+ Wbfak karw& fbw gjbpgjbrpw fbw ~frw gctãw wakt fh ~hptcb fh ~frw

ycwc`fb o–rk cllbkwb tphyhcf gaffbgtci pãhfcwã ~hp f–bkwbl`fb ob fh gallrkhrtãwgcbktcicxrb+ Wc f–ak gar~hct gbttb ¤ ãfctb ́ ob wh ¤ `hwb ́ & bffb w–ãtcafbphct tpêwph~coblbkt+ Karw gakwcoãpakw oakg xrb f–bzgbffbkgb k–bwt ~hw fh ghphgtãpcwtcxrbo–rkb ãfctb ob gjbpgjbrpw ~frw gakkrw xrb fbrpw gaffêerbw& lhcw fh xrhfctão–bkwbl`fb ob fh pbgjbpgjb o–rk wctb& o–rkb pãecak ar o–rk ~hsw+ G–bwt ~arpxrac fbFh`bBz WLW k–cl~fcxrbph ~hw obw gjbpgjbrpw wãfbgtcakkãw rkcxrblbkt wrpfh `hwb ob fbrp ycwc`cfctã wgcbktcicxrb& lhcw gbrz xrc wb la`cfcwbpakt hrtarpobw ~pa f̀ãlhtcxrbw xrb fb ~pambt ycwb î oãybfa~~bp+ Fh fcwtb obw~hptcgc~hktw k–bwt ~hw iceãb lhcw bffb bwt hr gaktphcpb obwtckãb î cktãepbptarw gbrz xrc mackopakt fbrpw biiaptw î gbrz xrc ckctcbkt fb ~pambt+

Fb gjacz ob fh pbgjbpgjb bl~cpcxrb bt ob fh la`cfcwhtcak obwbkwbcekhktw,gjbpgjbrpw

Karw ihcwakw fb ~hpc xrb f–hggpacwwblbkt ob fh ~paorgtcak or Fh`Bz ~hwwb~pblcêpblbkt ~hp fb wartcbk î ob mbrkbw gjbpgjbrpw& o–aó f–hggbkt lcw wrp fbwhffaghtcakw ob tjêwb *? ~hp hk& wact 0> fhkgãbw orphkt fbw 2 ~pblcêpbw hkkãbw# bt ob~awt,oagtapht *7 ~hp hk& wact 82 orphkt fbw 2 ~pblcêpbw hkkãbw#& obrzcêlblbkt ~hpf–cktbkwcicghtcak obw pbgjbpgjbw obw bkwbcekhktw,gjbpgjbrpw& o–aó fh~pãwbkgb o–rkb fcekb gakwhgpãb hr ickhkgblbkt ob oãgjhpebw o–bkwbcekblbkt *7~fbck,tbl~w ob oãgjhpeb ~hp hkkãb or ~pambt#& bt tpacwcêlblbkt ~hp fh lcwb bk~fhgb ob pbgjbpgjbw bl~cpcxrbw& gb xrc wb tphorct ohkw fb ~pambt ~hp obwa~ãphtcakw ob pbgjbpgjb hl`ctcbrwbw& obw ickhkgblbktw ob ~pambtw ãlbpebktw bt obwhtbfcbpw lãtjaoafaecxrbw *2>> >>> brpaw ~hp hk gakwhgpãw î gbw a~ãphtcakw#+ Karw

ckyctbpakw hrwwc tpêw pãerfcêpblbkt obw gakiãpbkgcbpw ãtphkebpw ~arp ob garptwwãmarpw *8 wblhckb î 8 lacw#+ ^arp obw ckycthtcakw ~frw fakerbw& karw karwh~~rcbpakw wrp fbw ocw~awctciw bzcwthktw *~paibwwbrpw ckyctãw obw rkcybpwctãw& gjhcpbwo–bzgbffbkgb ob fh pãecak& hggrbcf ob gjbpgjbrpw ãtphkebpw hr GKPW#+ Karwwartcbkopakw hrwwc fbw garptw wãmarpw î f–ãtphkebp ob gjbpgjbrpw cl~fcxrãw ohkw fb~pambt+ Karw wartcbkopakw hgtcyblbkt fh tphorgtcak ohkw ocybpwbw fhkerbwãtphkeêpbw obw tphyhrz gakorctw hr wbck ob WLW hick ob ihyapcwbp fbrppbgakkhcwwhkgb cktbpkhtcakhfb+

8 Fatdh Hfipbo M+ *8309#+ "_jb ipbxrbkgs ocwtpc̀ rtcak ai wgcbktcicg ~paorgtcycts"+  Marpkhf ai tjbUhwjcketak Hghobls ai Wgcbkgbw 89 *80#= 785‗70?+

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

Gjciipheb or ~pambt bk lcffcbpw o–brpaw

Hk 8 Hk 0 Hk 7 Hk ? Hk 2 Hk 9 Hk 5 Hk :Earybpkhkgb 22 29 25 2: 9> 98 90 97

Yhfapcwhtcak*oakt tphorgtcakw btgaffaxrbw#

8>> 8>0 8>? 8>9 8>: 88> 887 882

^paephllb ~ãoheaecxrb :0 :? :2 :5 :3 38 30 3?

^paephllb ob pbgjbpgjb 523 :37 8>05 8>75 8>?: 8>23 3?9 :77

Hffaghtcakw tjêwbw

80? 80? 80?80? 80? 80? 80? 80? 80? 80?  80? 80? 80? 80? 80?

80? 80? 80?

 _athf _jêwbw 80? 0?: 750 750 750 750 0?: 80?

^awt,oagw 872 872 872 872 872 872 872 872

A~ãphtcakw wtprgtrphktbw ?>> ?>: ?89 ?0? ?77 ??0 ?2> ?23

^pambtw ãlbpebktw bt htbfcbpwlãtjaoafaecxrbw

8>> 8>0 8>? 8>9 8>: 88> 887 882

_athf eãkãphf  339 8872 8057 80:3 87>2 8708 8087 88>?

F–httphgtcyctã ~hp fh lcwb bk pãwbhrGallb obw ocw~awctciw o–ckycthtcak wrp obw gjhcpbw ob ~pbwtceb bzcwtbkt oãmî ohkw

fh pãecak Lcoc,^spãkãbw *gjhcpbw ^cbppb ob Ibplht or Gakwbcf Pãecakhf#& karw hyakwoãgcoã ob lcwbp wrp obw ocw~awctciw ihyapcwhkt fh ybkrb ob mbrkbw gjbpgjbrpw *fbwhffaghtcakw ob tjêwbw bt ob ~awt,oagtapht wbpakt fhpeblbkt arybptbw hrz gjbpgjbrpwkak faghrz# bt fbw wãmarpw ob garptb orpãb *ob 8 wblhckb î 7 lacw lhzclrl#&wact ob gjbpgjbrpw ãtphkebpw ohkw rk obw ãth`fcwwblbktw cl~fcxrãw ohkw fb ~pambt&wact ob gjbpgjbrpw ob WLW ohkw obw ãth`fcwwblbktw ãtphkebpw+ Katpb a`mbgtci lhmbrpbwt o–hggpaëtpb fb ~frw ~awwc`fb f–ckwbptcak obw gjbpgjbrpw or ~pambt ohkw obwpãwbhrz cktbpkhtcakhrz+ _arw fbw obrz hkw obw marpkãbw WLW wbpakt apehkcwãbw~arp pbkopb gal~tb obw hyhkgãbw pãhfcwãbw ohkw fb ~pambt hrwwc `cbk hr~pêw ob fhgallrkhrtã hghoãlcxrb xrb obw ~hptbkhcpbw bt or ~r`fcg+

Rkb oskhlcxrb o–bktphëkblbkt

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

Fb Fh`bBz WLW bwt gakår ~arp lhzclcwbp wh iakgtcak o–bktphëkblbkt+ W–cfbwt ~aptã ~hp rk epar~b ob gjbpgjbrpw ~hptcgrfcêpblbkt cl~fcxrãw ohkw whgakgb~tcak bt wh lcwb bk ŗrypb& cf h yaghtcak î hggrbcffcp fbw gjbpgjbrpw obw rkctãwob pbgjbpgjb cl~fcxrãbw xrc gaktpc̀ rbpakt wcekcicghtcyblbkt hrz pbgjbpgjbwbkeheãbw+ Fb Gakwbcf o–Holckcwtphtcak gal~awã ~pckgc~hfblbkt obw pbw~akwh`fbwo–rkctãw ob pbgjbpgjb bt obw ycgb,~pãwcobktw pbgjbpgjb obw ãth f̀cwwblbktwgakgbpkãw marb cgc rk pÿfb gbktphf bk ckghpkhkt gbt hkgpheb+ Wak pÿfb bwt ~pãgcwãlbktob ybcffbp î gb xrb WLW pbwtb rk artcf ob oskhlcwhtcak ob f–bkwbl`fb ob fhpbgjbpgjb bk wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbw or wctb+

8+0+ ^PBWBK_H_CAK WGCBK_CICXRB OR ^PAMB_ OB PBGJBPGJB! WGCBK_CICG OBWGPC^_CAK AI _JB PBWBHPGJ ^PAMBG_ 

Wtprgtrphtcakw obw lakobw wagchrz = rkb xrbwtcakiakohlbkthfb ~arp fbw wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbw

F–coãb xrb fb lakob wagchf bwt ~frw bt hrtpb gjawb xr–rkb gaffbgtcak o–ckocycorwbwt gb xrc iakob fbw wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbw ob~rcw fbrp ãlbpebkgb hrz ZYCCCb

bt ZCZb wcêgfbw+ Hr icf or tbl~w wb wakt apehkcwãbw& î ~hptcp ob gbttb hl`ctcak& obwocwgc~fckbw ocwtckgtbw *jcwtacpb& eãaeph~jcb& ãgakalcb& wagcafaecb& btjkafaecb&~wsgjafaecb wagchfb& wgcbkgbw ~afctcxrbw& btg+# bt ob kal`pbrwbw tjãapcbw akt ãtãiaplrfãbw ~arp oãgpcpb gb xrb f–ak h h~~bfã wbfak fbw lalbktw bt fbw garphktw ob~bkwãb fbw ¤ wagcãtãw ´& fbw ¤ wswtêlbw wagchrz ´& fbw ¤ wtprgtrpbw wagchfbw ´& fbw

¤ iaplbw wagchfbw ́ & ar bkgapb f–¤ bw~hgb wagchf ́ *gbttb fcwtb bwt fack o–ítpbbzjhrwtcyb#+ Cf w–bwt hyãpã ~paepbwwcyblbkt xrb fbw tbkthtcybw ~arp bkibplbp ohkwobw obwgpc~tcakw ar obw tjãapcbw tpa~ efa`hfbw fh gal~fbzctã obw iaplbw xrcãlbpebkt obw hgtcyctãw wagchfbw bt fbw gaktphcekbkt bk pbtarp *Ujctb& 0>>:# k–ãthcbkt~hw whtcwihcwhktbw& bt xr–cf ãthct ~pãiãph`fb o–h`apobp gbttb gal~fbzctã ~hp ocybpw`chcw ycwhkt î gbpkbp obw hw~bgtw ~frw fclctãw wrwgb~tc`fbw o–ítpb bkwrctb hptcgrfãw fbwrkw hrz hrtpbw+ F–bz~pbwwcak ~probktb ob ¤ lakobw wagchrz ´ *@bgdbp& 83:0#& xrc kb~awtrfb ~hw f–bzcwtbkgb o–rkb gajãpbkgb efa`hfb obw hgtcyctãw wagchfbw& bz~pclbkatpb yafaktã ob tbkcp gal~tb ob gbttb ociicgrftã xrc bwt hrwwc fb oãic o–rkb h~~pagjbyãpcth`fblbkt ~frpcocwgc~fckhcpb+ F–ãyafrtcak obw pbgjbpgjbw orphkt fb obpkcbp wcêgfb hbk artpb laktpã fh kãgbwwctã o–ãfh`apbp obw lãtjaobw hoh~tãbw î fh khtrpb

w~ãgcicxrb obw ~jãkalêkbw wagchrz bt obw tphgbw xr–cfw fhcwwbkt& ohkw fh lbwrpb aócfw wb fhcwwbkt lackw oagcfblbkt xrb fh lhtcêpb bkibplbp ohkw obw ãxrhtcakwlhtjãlhtcxrbw ar obw bz~ãpcbkgbw ob fh`aphtacpb *H``att& 0>>0#+

W~ãgcicgctãw obw wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbwFbw wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbw akt bk biibt obw w~ãgcicgctãw xrc wakt fcãbw 8# î

gbffbw ob fbrp a`mbt& obw ítpbw ~bkwhktw& xrc ~brybkt w–h~~pa~pcbp fb ocwgarpw obwwgcbktcicxrbw bt laocicbp fbrpw gal~aptblbktw bk gakwãxrbkgb& 0# î fh ~pazclctãbktpb gbpthckw gjbpgjbrpw bt fbrpw a`mbtw& gb xrc ~bplbt f–rwheb ob lasbkw obpbgjbpgjbw ~hptcgrfcbpw gallb f–cllbpwcak ar f–bl~htjcb& wbfak rkb faecxrbgal~pãjbkwcyb& 7# hr ph~~apt ~hptcgrfcbp xr–bffbw bktpbtcbkkbkt hybg fb ~afctcxrb *hrwbkw fhpeb#& ?# hrz ~hptcgrfhpctãw obw iaplbw ob oãtbplckcwlb bt ob ~pãycwc`cfctã

xr–bffbw ~brybkt lbttpb bk ŗrypb+ Bk ~hptcgrfcbp& wc fbw ~jãkalêkbw wagchrz~pãwbktbkt obw pãerfhpctãw& xrb kaw wgcbkgbw wb oakkbkt ~arp a`mbgtci ob lbttpb bk

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0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

ãycobkgb& gbffbw,gc kb ~brybkt ítpb hrwwc h`wafrbw xrb fbw facw ob fh ~jswcxrb& xrcw–h~~fcxrbkt bk tarw ~acktw ob f–rkcybpw bt ~bplbttbkt o–biibgtrbp obw ~pãocgtcakw~pãgcwbw+ Gbfh cl~fcxrb fh kãgbwwctã o–a`wbpybp whkw pbfàgjb fbw hgtcyctãw wagchfbw&~hp fbw lasbkw ~pa~pbw hrz wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbw *ãtrob ob tphgbw bto–hpgjcybw& a`wbpyhtcak& bktpbtcbkw& xrbwtcakkhcpbw# bt o–hiickbp gakwthllbkt gbwartcfw bk iakgtcak obw gaktbztbw w~htca,tbl~apbfw+ Cf bwt rtcfb ob ihcpb h~~bf hrzlhtjãlhtcxrbw gallb rk artcf o–hkhfswb bt kak ob gakwtprgtcak ob laoêfbw~pãocgtciw wrp obw ~awtrfhtw tpa~ iphecfbw+ F–rk obw a m̀bgtciw ob WLW bwt oboãybfa~~bp hybg fbw lhtjãlhtcgcbkw bt ckiaplhtcgcbkw& rk laob ob gaa~ãphtcak xrcwact hoh~tã hrz w~ãgcicgctãw obw wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbw+

Pãwbhrz& pãerfhtcakw& ocw~awctciw& tbppctacpbw = xrhtpbgakgb~tw tphkwybpwhrz

F–hggrlrfhtcak ob~rcw ~frw o–rk wcêgfb o–a`wbpyhtcakw bl~cpcxrbw& oboãybfa~~blbktw lãtjaoafaecxrbw bt o–ãfh`aphtcakw tjãapcxrbw h ~bplcw ob ihcpbãlbpebp ~paepbwwcyblbkt obw gakkhcwwhkgbw wafcobw& ã~paryãbw& lhcw ~hptcbffbw+^hplc gbffbw,gc& fbw gjbpgjbrpw cl~fcxrãw ohkw fb Fh`bBz WLW akt hgxrcw rkbbz~bptcwb wafcob bt rkb ycwc`cfctã wcekcicghtcyb ohkw xrhtpb ihåakw gal~fãlbkthcpbwo–h`apobp fbw ~jãkalêkbw wagchrz+ Fbw pãwbhrz ob pbfhtcakw bktpb obw ~bpwakkbwar obw gaffbgtciw iaplbkt rkb wtprgtrpb iakohlbkthfb ob fh ycb wagchfb xrc cktbphectbk ~bplhkbkgb hybg obw ocw~awctciw lhtãpcbfw bt obw pêefbw ar kaplbw xrc~bplbttbkt o–cktbphecp bt ob wb gaapoakkbp+ Gbw tpacw hw~bgtw ob fh ycb wagchfb

iaplbkt fh `hwb obw wtprgtrphtcakw obw lakobw wagchrz = cfw ~bplbttbkt ob ~hwwbpor kcybhr obw hgtbrpw ckocycorbfw bt obw cktbphgtcakw î obw iaplbw wagchfbw ~frwgal~fbzbw bt ~frw yhwtbw& xrb f–ak ~brt gakgbyacp gallb obw gakicerphtcakwhwwagchkt gbw tpacw ts~bw+ Ak ~hwwb hckwc obw bktarphebw ~bpwakkbfw ¤ î ~aptãb oblhck ´ hrz tpêw ephkow pãwbhrz ob gcpgrfhtcak obw ckiaplhtcakw bt obw ckifrbkgbw&obw a`mbtw xratcocbkw hrz lakobw ãgakalcxrbw bt ~afctcxrbw ohkw fbwxrbfw cfww–bkphgckbkt& obw pêefbw faghfbw obw apehkcwhtcakw hrz facw bt hrz ~pckgc~bw î ycwãbrkcybpwbffb+ Fbw tbppctacpbw wakt obw gpcwthffcwhtcakw ckwgpctbw ohkw f–bw~hgb ob gbwgakicerphtcakw& xrc ~brybkt hrwwc `cbk wb wctrbp î f–ãgjbffb ob xrhptcbpw xrb obkhtcakw ar ob pãecakw or lakob+

Pãwbhrz

Lílb wc fbw artcfw lhtjãlhtcxrbw o–hkhfswb obw pãwbhrz *tjãapcb obw eph~jbw&gal`ckhtacpb& btg+# ~brybkt w–h~~fcxrbp î obw bkwbl`fb o–cktbphgtcakw ar î obwbkwbl`fbw ob tbztbw& fh katcak ob pãwbhr wagchf cl~fcxrb bk eãkãphf ob oãickcp gbxr–bwt rkb pbfhtcak oshocxrb xrc ãlbpeb ob fh pã~ãtctcak obw cktbphgtcakw bktpb obrz~bpwakkbw+ Rkb tbffb pbfhtcak wb tphorct ~hp rkb gakkhcwwhkgb bt rk bkeheblbktpãgc~paxrbw& xrc wakt ~frw orph`fbw xrb fbw wcl~fbw cktbphgtcakw bt xrc ghopbktgbffbw,gc+ Gjhgrkb ob gbw pbfhtcakw bwt gakkbgtãb î o%hrtpbw pbfhtcakw 4 bffbw iaplbkttartbw bkwbl`fb rk pãwbhr xrc phggapob gjhxrb ckocycor ar ~frw eãkãphfblbktgjhxrb bktctã wagchfb î f%bkwbl`fb or lakob wagchf Rk pãwbhr k%bwt oakg ~hw rkepar~b wagchf ar rkb apehkcwhtcak = wbw lbl`pbw k%akt bk biibt ~hw kãgbwwhcpblbktgakwgcbkgb o%bk ihcpb ~hptcb+ Rk pãwbhr k–h ~hw ob lãlacpb& kc o%apehkcwhtbrp+ G–bwt

wcl~fblbkt rk bkwbl`fb ob pbfhtcakw wagchfbw bktpb obw ckocycorw ar bktpb obwgaffbgtcyctãw!apehkcwhtcakw+ Fbw ãtrobw wrp fbw pãwbhrz wagchrz iakoãbw wrp gbttbgakgb~tcak gakkhcwwbkt hgtrbffblbkt rk ephko oãybfa~~blbkt hr kcybhr

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Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

cktbpkhtcakhf bt f–¤ hkhfswb obw pãwbhrz wagchrz ´ bwt rk oalhckb `cbk ãth`fc hybgwbw lhkrbfw *Obebkkb bt Iapwã& 0>>?#& wbw gaffaxrbw bt rkb gallrkhrtã obw~ãgchfcwtbw ob ~frw bk ~frw cl~apthktb+

Fh gakgbktphtcak î _arfarwb o–rk kal`pb pbfhtcyblbkt ãfbyã î f–ãgjbffb ortbppctacpb brpa~ãbk ob w~ãgchfcwtbw ob f–hkhfswb obw pãwbhrz wagchrz bk wagcafaecb&jcwtacpb& ãgakalcb& lhtjãlhtcxrbw bt ckiaplhtcxrb h wrwgctã bk 0>>3 fh gpãhtcako–rk epar~b cktbpocwgc~fckhcpb o–ãgjhkeb bt ob pãifbzcak wrp gb tjêlb+ Cf gal~tbhgtrbffblbkt bkycpak 5> ~bpwakkbw& lhcw kb gbwwb ob gaherfbp ob karybffbw ãxrc~bwbt ob karybhrz gjhktcbpw+ Karw hyakw kathllbkt oãybfa~~ã obw h~~pagjbw bt obwlãtjaobw apceckhfbw ohkw ~frwcbrpw oalhckbw = 8# fh iaplhfcwhtcak ob fcbkw wagchrzwrp obw oakkãbw bt ohkw obw gaktbztbw jcwtapcxrbw wckerfcbpw *@bptphko& 0>>0 4

@akkbt& Dpckew bt Yhfbktc& 0>88 4 Jhrtbibrcffb bt Maryb& 0>8># 4 0# f–h~~fcghtcak obf–hkhfswb obw pãwbhrz wagchrz î f–ãtrob obw oskhlcxrbw obw gfrwtbpw ãgakalcxrbw*Ycgbktb& @hffhko& @pawwhpo& 0>8> 4 Ehs& 0>>:# ar î f–hkhfswb obw biibtwo–bkghwtpblbkt ob f–hgtcyctã ãgakalcxrb ohkw fbw pãwbhrz ob pbfhtcakwcktbp~bpwakkbffbw *Epawwbttc& 0>>: 4 Epawwbttc bt @hptjb& 0>>: 4 Epawwbttc bt @êw&0>>8# 4 7# f–hkhfswb oskhlcxrb ob pãwbhrz ~bpwakkbfw *ob Ibobpca& 0>>5& 0>>: 4Epawwbttc& 0>>5# 4 ?# fbw lãtjaobw lcztbw hwwagchkt bktpbtcbkw& gakwtprgtcak obpãgctw bt xrhktcicghtcak+ *Epawwbttc& @hptjb& Gjhryhg& 0>88 4 Lcfhpo& 0>8># 4 2# fhwclrfhtcak lrftc,hebktw hoh~tãb î f–hkhfswb obw pãwbhrz wagchrz *Gh}h`bt&@fhkgjhpo& Jhkhgjc& 0>8>#+

Ohkw fb ghopb or Fh`bBz WLW& fbw w~ãgchfcwtbw obw pãwbhrz wagchrz w–bkehebpaktohkw ~frwcbrpw a~ãphtcakw bl~cpcxrbw wtprgtrphktbw = ¤ _CG bt pãwbhrz ´ 4 ¤ Lcephtcak

bt pãwbhrz ́ 4 ¤ _phkwiaplhtcakw obw lakobw ~paorgtciw ́ 4 ¤ _phkwiaplhtcak obwiaplbw or ycbcffcwwblbkt ´ 4 ¤ Ocwgarpw bt ~phtcxrbw ~afctcxrbw ´+ Gbw a~ãphtcakw wakthrthkt ob gjhktcbpw bl~cpcxrbw bt tjãapcxrbw gappãfãw& bk ochfaerb ~bplhkbkt&kathllbkt ~hp fb `chcw o–htbfcbpw lãtjaoafaecxrbw gallrkw+

PãerfhtcakFh katcak ob pãerfhtcak pb~awb wrp f–coãb wbfak fhxrbffb fbw hgtcyctãw wagchfbw

gal~aptbkt bk ~bplhkbkgb rkb oclbkwcak ob ~paorgtcak ob pêefbw bt ob kaplbwxrc ghopbkt bk pbtarp fbw hgtcyctãw+ Gbw pêefbw bt kaplbw ~brybkt ítpb obw pêefbwckiaplbffbw ãfh`apãbw ohkw obw epar~bw ob wagch`cfctã ar obw ãxrc~bw ob tphyhcf& obwjcãphpgjcbw iaplbffbw& obw facw bt hrtpbw ocw~awctciw mrpcocxrbw+ Fbw pbgjbpgjbw

~pa~awãbw bk lhtcêpb ob pãerfhtcak bz~fapbkt rkb gaktphocgtcak+ O–rk gÿtã& fbghopheb ~afctcxrb biibgtrã ~hp fbw earybpkhktw bk Iphkgb bt bk Brpa~b gakwtctrb rkboakkãb bwwbktcbffb hrthkt ~hp fbw gal~aptblbktw xr–cf cl~rfwb xrb ~hp fbwpãwcwthkgbw ckocycorbffbw bt gaffbgtcybw î f–apceckb obwxrbffbw cf wb tparyb+ Cf bk pãwrftbxrb gb ghopheb bwt ob ~frw bk ~frw kãeagcã bt bkebkopb obw tbkwcakw bktpb hgtbrpwgaffbgtciw bt ckocycorw ohkw fh ~paorgtcak ob f–apehkcwhtcak+ O–aó fb ~paephllb obpbgjbpgjb wrp ¤fb _phyhcf o–apehkcwhtcak ́ xrc ycwb î h~~paiakocp fbw iaplbw obpãerfhtcakw wagchfbw xrc wb oãybfa~~bkt ohkw rk gaktbztb ob ~pãghpctã obw rkcybpwapehkcwãw bt ob yrfkãph`cfctã obw ckwtctrtcakw *Ob _bpwwhg& 0>>7 bt 0>88#+ Gbttbh~~pagjb ~hp fbw ckwtctrtcakw bwt ãehfblbkt gakorctb bk ckwcwthkt thkt wrp gb xrc ihctfbrp pa`rwtbwwb *opact& gpashkgbw& h~~rcw `rpbhrgphtcxrbw# xrb wrp gb xrc fbwtphkwiaplb *~jãkalêkbw ob oãwãthtcwhtcak& gpcwb ob fãectclctã& btg+#+ Fbw tphyhrz

lbkãw ~hp fbw gjbpgjbrpw phtthgjãw î WLW wrp fb ~bpwakkbf holckcwtphtci& fbw pcwxrbwar f–brpa~ãhkcwhtcak ob f–hgtcak ~r`fcxrb wb ~fhgbkt ohkw gbttb h~~pagjb+

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Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

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Ob f–hrtpb gÿtã& hr tphybpw ob f–ckocycorhfcwhtcak ob f–hgtcak ~r`fcxrb& f–ckocycorobycbkt gal~th`fb obyhkt fh wagcãtã ob kaplbw î fh gakwtprgtcak obwxrbffbw cf bwtbz~fcgctblbkt hwwagcã+ Gbttb tbkohkgb î hmartbp f–hrta,pãerfhtcak î fhpãefblbkthtcak hrtapcthcpb bt `rpbhrgphtcxrb& bk fhcwwhkt hrz ckocycorw rkb ~frwfhpeb hrtakalcb o–hgtcak bt ob oãgcwcak& gakorct î hggapobp rkb ~fhgb gpacwwhktbhrz ~pagbwwrw ob pãerfhtcak ~hp fb `hw ob f–hgtcak gaffbgtcyb+ O–aó ãehfblbkt obwpbgjbpgjbw cktbppaebhkt f–hgtcak ~r f̀cxrb ohkw gbttb ~bpw~bgtcyb& g–bwt,î,ocpbhttbktcyb hrz laohfctãw gakgpêtbw& thkt mrpcocxrbw xrb wagca~afctcxrbw& ob pãgb~tcakobw ~paorctw ~afctcxrbw ~hp fbw ~paihkbw *_jabllbw& 0>8> 4 Ipalbktck& Uamgcd&0>>: 4 ]bfbl& 0>8> h#& ob lcwb bk ŗrypb tbppctapchfb obw ~paephllbw *^hwxrcbp&Wclarfck& Ubcw`bck& 0>>5#& kathllbkt obw kaplbw cl~rfwãbw ~hp f–RB *^hwxrcbp&

Ubcw`bck& 0>>? 4 @hcwkãb& ^hwxrcbp& 0>>5 4 Phcl`hrft& 0>>9#+ Fbw tphyhrz ohkw fbwoalhckbw ob fh ebwtcak ob f–bhr& ob f–hepc,bkycpakkblbkt *Whffbw& 0>>9 4 @rwgh&0>8># ar ob fh lhëtpcwb ob fh oblhkob o–ãkbpecb *]bfbl 0>8> `#& ob f–ãorghtcak& arob fh pãerfhtcak obw ph~~aptw bktpb fbw epar~bw wagchrz wbzrãw& wb gakipaktbkt cgc îfh xrbwtcak ob f–ãyhfrhtcak ob f–biicghgctã ob gbw ~pagbwwrw ob pãerfhtcak+

Fbw ocw~awctciw ob kaplhfcwhtcak bkycpakkblbkthfb& fbw ckwtprlbktw ob ebwtcak obgbpthckbw gpcwbw gallb fbw lhpãbw kacpbw *Ctåhckh& Ubcw`bck& 0>88#& fbw ~afctcxrbw~r`fcxrbw bk lhtcêpb o–hfclbkthtcak *^arfhck& 0>>3# ar o–ãorghtcak *HKP bk garpwocpceãb ~hp ^+ Phcl`hrft bt Y+ Fhppawh#& fb ~pagbwwrw o–ãgafaecwhtcak gappbw~akobkthckwc ~hplc o–hrtpbw î ob karybffbw iaplbw ob pãerfhtcak xrc wb oãybfa~~bkt î fhlhpeb ar hrz cktbpwtcgbw obw pãerfhtcakw ckwtctrtcakkbffbw gfhwwcxrbw+ ^hphffêfblbkt&fbw laocicghtcakw hiibgthkt f–holckcwtphtcak bk Iphkgb& xrb gb wact hr kcybhr ob wak

~bpwakkbf ar wrp fb ~fhk obw laohfctãw o–bzbpgcgb ob fbrpw tàgjbw *Bslbpc& Opbsirw&0>>9 4 Bslbpc,Oar}hkw& ^cbppb& 0>8> 4 _hkers& 0>8>#& oakkbkt î yacp rkb ~rcwwhkgb~r`fcxrb ~frw gal~fbzb& ~frw ~apbrwb î wak bkycpakkblbkt wagchf bt bkgapb ~frwjãtãpaeêkb xr–hr~hphyhkt+

Gbw a`mbgtciw wgcbktcicxrbw wbpakt ~pãwbktw ohkw tartbw fbw a~ãphtcakw ~pa~awãbwohkw fb ghopb ob WLW+ Cfw fb wbpakt ~frw bkgapb ~arp fbw a~ãphtcakw 7 *wtprgtrphtcakwor lakob wgcbktcicxrb#& 2 *fbw karybffbw iaplbw or ycbcffcwwblbkt# bt 9 *hkhfswbwjcwtapcxrbw ob pãwbhrz wagchrz ohkw fbrpw ph~~aptw hybg fbw wtprgtrpbw ob ~aryacp#+Fbw h~~pagjbw ~hp fbw pãwbhrz& fbw tbppctacpbw& fbw ocw~awctciw bt a`mbtw bt gbffb ob fhpãerfhtcak h~~hphcwwbkt ob ihct cgc gallb gal~fãlbkthcpbw& ~rcwxrb g–bwt fbrpgal`ckhcwak xrc ~bplbt ob whcwcp fh pãhfctã wagchfb bt ob f–hkhfswbp+

Ocw~awctciwWarw f–cl~rfwcak bk ~hptcgrfcbp ob fh wagcafaecb obw wgcbkgbw bt obw tbgjkcxrbw& fbw

wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbw akt oakkã ohkw fbw obpkcêpbw oãgbkkcbw ob ~frw bk~frw ob ~fhgb hrz ocw~awctciw lhtãpcbfw xrc ãxrc~bkt bt ghopbkt f–hgtcyctã wagchfb& btxrc gakwtctrbkt f–a`mbt ob fh tpacwcêlb h~~pagjb+ Fbw gjbpgjbrpw cl~fcxrãw ohkw fb~pambt akt bk ~hptcgrfcbp hgxrcw rkb iaptb bz~bptcwb wrp fb tjêlb obw lãochtcakwlhpgjhkobw& wrp fbw a`mbtw ghophkt fbw tphkwhgtcakw ãgakalcxrbw *bl`hffhebw&a`mbtw ~r`fcgcthcpbw& apehkcwhtcak lhtãpcbffb obw ãgjhkebw#& hckwc xrb wrp f–bztbkwcakhrz apehkcwhtcakw ob ~pckgc~bw obw lãochtcakw lhpgjhkobw *pbfhtcakw gfcbktw,iarpkcwwbrpw& gbptcicghtcak xrhfctã& ebwtcak obw pcwxrbw+++# bt fbrp ãxrc~blbkt ~hp fb`chcw ob ocybpwbw tbgjkcxrbw bt wswtêlbw tbgjkcxrbw , obw oãlhpgjbw xrhfctã& ob

ebwtcak obw pcwxrbw& ob oãybfa~~blbkt iarpkcwwbrp& hrz BP^ *bktbp~pcwb pbwarpgb ~fhkkcke# hybg uapdifau& EBO *ebwtcak ãfbgtpakcxrb ob oagrlbktw#& `hwbw ob

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Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

oakkãbw ~hptheãbw& cktbpa~ãph`cfctã obw faecgcbfw bt hptbihgtw+++ Cfw akt hrwwcoãybfa~~ã tpêw ~pãgagblbkt obw pbgjbpgjbw wrp fh gallrkcghtcak ãfbgtpakcxrb btwbw rwhebw& ar bkgapb w–cktãpbwwbkt î f–ãyafrtcak obw cktbphgtcakw wagchfbwbkebkopãbw ~hp obw iaplbw o–jh`ctht ckgap~aphkt obw ocw~awctciw tbgjkcxrbw+

Fbw tphyhrz ob wagcafaecb obw tbgjkcxrbw ckctcãw oêw fbw hkkãbw :> ~hp @+ Fhtarp&L+ Ghffak& L+ Hdpcgj ar M+ Fhu akt ~bplcw ob pãcktpaorcpb fbw a`mbtw tbgjkcxrbwgallb cktpckwêxrblbkt bt ãtpactblbkt ~hptcbw ~pbkhktbw obw cktbphgtcakw wagchfbw&î fh iacw hecw bt hecwwhkt ohkw fbw ~phtcxrbw bt fbw pbfhtcakw cktbp~bpwakkbffbw arcktbp,apehkcwhtcakkbffbw+ Hr,obfî& rkb obw ghphgtãpcwtcxrbw iakohlbkthfbw obwwagcãtãw gaktbl~aphckbw tcbkt hr oãybfa~~blbkt ob ¤ wswtêlbw bz~bptw ́~hptcgc~hkt hrz ~pagbwwrw ob oãfaghfcwhtcak!pbfaghfcwhtcak wrp fbwxrbfw ~pbko

kathllbkt h~~rc fh lakochfcwhtcak obw ãgakalcbw bt obw ãgjhkebw *Ecoobkw&833?#+ Fh la`cfcwhtcak ob tbfw wswtêlbw bz~bptw pbxrcbpt xr–rkb gakichkgb¤ wriicwhktb ´ wact ãth`fcb ohkw fh ¤ yhfcoctã ob wswtêlbw h`wtphctw ´ * c`co+& ~ ?8#& xrbycbkkbkt pbkopb ~pãwbktw bt hggb~th`fbw obw ¤ ~acktw o–hggêw ´ jrlhckw ar kakjrlhckw0+ Wclakoak& cobktcichkt gb xr–cf oãwcekb gallb ¤ fbw ephkobw bw~êgbw obpãhfctãw tbgjkcxrbw ́ & h ãehfblbkt arybpt fh yacb hr xrbwtcakkblbkt gaktbl~aphckwrp fbw ocw~awctciw bk gakwcoãphkt fh ihåak oakt fbw lhgjckbw ~pbkkbkt fh iaplb obpãwbhrz tbgjkcxrbw ~hp fbwxrbfw ¤ fh gaktckrctã bktpb fb gbktpb ob ~paorgtcak bt fbw~acktw o–rtcfcwhtcak wb lhcktcbkt î tphybpw f–bw~hgb bt î tphybpw fb tbl~w ´ *0>>2& ~8>>#+ Cf karw ckyctb î cktbppaebp fh ihåak oakt ¤ bk ~pbkhkt fh oclbkwcak obw pãwbhrz &fh pãhfctã tbgjkcxrb pbtarpkb bk ick o–ãyafrtcak ybpw fb lcfcbr xr–bffb laocicb btwtprgtrpb *ar ~frtÿt tbztrpb# bk tbkhkt gal~tb ob wbw fcekbw eãkãphfbw ´ *c`co+&

~8>8#+ F–hebktcyctã obw ocw~awctciw lhtãpcbfw oact ítpb cktbppaeãb ohkw gbttb ãyafrtcako–bkwbl`fb bk thkt xrb gakwtctrhkt bt gakwtctrãb obw ~pagbwwrw ob wtprgtrphtcakwobw lakobw wagchrz+ Bk lílb tbl~w cf w–hect o–ãtrocbp fbw gakicerphtcakww~ãgcicxrbw ~hp fbwxrbfw gbw ocw~awctciw lhtãpcbfw ãxrc~bkt bt ghopbkt f–hgtcyctãwagchfb& bt oakt gbttb hgtcyctã lbt bk iaplb fbw hebkgblbktw+ Rk tbf xrbwtcakkblbktwr~~awb ob oã~hwwbp fb tphoctcakkbf gfcyheb& ~aptã ~hp f–h~~pãjbkwcak bwwbktchfcwtbob fh tbgjkcxrb& bktpb hgtcyctãw ob gakgb~tcak& xrc wbphcbkt or wbrf pbwwapt obwwgcbkgbw ob f–ckeãkcbrp& ckiaplhtcxrbw ar or obwcek& bt wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw btwagchfbw *Ibbk`bpe& 0>>?#+ Fbw gaffh`aphtcakw xrb fbw gjbpgjbrpw ~hptcbw ~pbkhktbwob gbttb h~~pagjb akt oãybfa~~ãbw hybg obw gjbpgjbrpw obw oalhckbw ob pbgjbpgjb~pãgctãw gakwtctrbkt rk wagfb cl~apthkt ohkw gbttb ~bpw~bgtcyb xrc gakwcwtb î

cktbppaebp fbw ocw~awctciw gallb ~pagbwwrw cktbphgtciw ob gakgb~tcak& oboã~facblbkt& bt o–rwhebw+ Î rkb ãgjbffb ~frw fhpeb& fbw gaffh`aphtcakw ãtpactbw btwrcycbw thkt hr ~fhk khtcakhf xr–cktbpkhtcakhf7 ~bplbttbkt ob gakicerpbp rkboskhlcxrb ob pbgjbpgjb î fh iacw iaptblbkt hkgpãb faghfblbkt bt gfhcpblbkt ckwgpctbohkw fbw hyhkgãbw ob fh pbgjbpgjb obw ocybpwbw ocwgc~fckbw la`cfcwãbw+

Ohkw fb ghopb or Fh`bBz WLW& fbw w~ãgchfcwtbw obw ocw~awctciw wbpakt la`cfcwãwohkw ~frwcbrpw a~ãphtcakw wtprgtrphktbw& kathllbkt = ¤ _CG bt pãwbhrz ´& ¤ hptbihgtwtbgjkcxrbw ´ bt ¤ tphkwiaplhtcak obw lakobw ~paorgtciw ´+

_bppctacpbw

0 Obw ~bpwakkbfw ob `apo xrc hggrbcffbkt fbw ~hwwhebpw ohkw rk hycak hrz ocybpw gakoctcakkblbktwhttbwthkt ob f–apceckb obw ~paorctw lcw bk ybktb+++7 Gi+ fbrp lbktcak ~frw oãthcffãb ohkw fbw a~ãphtcakw wtprgtrphktbw hptcgrfãbw wrp gbttb h~~pagjb+

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Fh xrhtpcêlb h~~pagjb& bwt gbktpãb wrp fbw ¤ tbppctacpbw ́ + Bk Iphkåhcw& fh katcakpbkyacb& fb ~frw garphllbkt& î f–coãb o– rk hebkgblbkt w~htchf ob pbwwarpgbwlhtãpcbffbw bt wsl`afcxrbw ~pa~pb î wtprgtrpbp fbw gakoctcakw ~phtcxrbw o–bzcwtbkgbo–rk ckocycor ar o–rk gaffbgtci wagchf bt o–ckiaplbp bk pbtarp gbt ckocycor ar gbgaffbgtci wrp wh ~pa~pb cobktctã ´ *Ob`hp`cbrz bt ob @bpkhpos& 0>>7#+ Bk gb wbkw bffbckgap~apb tart hrthkt fh katcak ob ¤ tbppctaps ´ bt gbffb ob ¤ ~fhgb ´ ohkw o–hrtpbwgaktbztbw ã~cwtãlcxrbw+ F–bktpãb ~hp fb ¤ tbppctacpb ´ bwt ~bptckbktb ohkw fbwpbgjbpgjbw tarfarwhckbw bk eãaeph~jcb jrlhckb bt hlãkheblbkt& xrc wb waktoãybfa~~ãbw ohkw rk ochfaerb ãtpact hybg fh wagcafaecb bt f–ãgakalcb+ Fh katcak obtbppctacpb ~bplbt bk biibt o–h`apobp fbw ~jãkalêkbw w~htchrz bk ihcwhkt pbwwaptcpfbrp cktpcghtcak hybg fbw hgtcyctãw wagchfbw bt ~afctcxrbw *Mhcffbt& 0>>3#& kathllbkt fbw

~pagbwwrw wagca,rp`hckw hckwc xrb fbw pbfhtcakw gpacwãbw bktpb iaplbw ãyafrtcybw orghopb ob ycb bt ob f–jh`ctht& laobw o–jh`ctbp bt pãerfhtcak ~r`fcxrb+ Fbw~hptcgrfhpctãw bt fb wrggêw ãgakalcxrb ob _arfarwb h ~bplcw ob oãybfa~~bp rkbbz~bptcwb wrp fbw wswtêlbw ckorwtpcbfw faghrz iakoãw wrp f–ckkayhtcak& kathllbkt ~hpf–cobktcicghtcak ob f–ãlbpebkgb ob gfrwtbpw ãgakalcxrbw xrc kb wakt ~frw iakoãw wrprkb w~ãgchfcwhtcak ~hp ~paorct& lhcw wrp fh gakgbktphtcak o–rk ts~b ob gal~ãtbkgbtbgjkcxrb *Epawwbttc& ]rfchkc& Ercffhrlb& 0>>9#+ Orphkt fh obpkcêpb oãgbkkcb& fbwgjbpgjbrpw tarfarwhckw akt ckybwtc obw tbpphckw pã~hptcw ohkw fb lakob bktcbp *^fcb}&0>>7& ^bsparz&0>8>& Parsbp& 0>8> Jharbw,Maryb& 0>88 ~hp bzbl~fb#& bt oãybfa~~ãbk obw pbgjbpgjbw apceckhfbw wrp fbw la`cfctãw bt fbw lcephtcakw& tjêlb wrp fbxrbf cfwwakt pbgakkrw cktbpkhtcakhfblbkt& bk ~hptcgrfcbp î tphybpw fh katcak ob ¤ tbppctacpbgcpgrfhtacpb ´ oãybfa~~ãb ~hp Hfhck _hppcrw *0>>0# bt obw tphyhrz wrp fbw gcpgrfhtcakw

ãgakalcxrbw fbw ~frw gaktbl~aphckbw *^fcb}+ 0>8>#+ Fbw gjbpgjbrpw ob WLW akt bkartpb oãybfa~~ã rkb bz~bptcwb cl~apthktb obw lãtjaobw ob f–hkhfswb w~htchfb î~hptcp ob ephkobw `hwbw ob oakkãbw eãafaghfcwãbw+

A~ãphtcakw ob pbgjbpgjbWakt fcwtãbw bt ~pãwbktãbw wallhcpblbkt cgc fbw a~ãphtcakw ob pbgjbpgjb xrc

wbpakt bkeheãbw fapw obw obrz ~pblcêpbw hkkãbw& wact warw iaplb o–a~ãphtcakwtprgtrphktb lcwb bk abrypb oêw fh ~pblcêpb hkkãb& wact warw iaplb ob tphyhcf ob~pãoãickctcak o–a~ãphtcak oãybfa~~ãb ~hp fh wrctb+ Obw ybpwcakw ~frw oãybfa~~ãbwicerpbkt ohkw fbw hkkbzbw or ~pambt+

A~ãphtcak 8 = ¤ _CG bt pãwbhrz wagchrz = ãyafrtcak obw pãwbhrz ~bpwakkbfwbt obw ~phtcxrbw pbfhtcakkbffbw bk fcbk hybg fb oãybfa~~blbkt obwocw~awctciw ob gallrkcghtcak ´ *hkclhtbrpw = Lcgjbf Epawwbttc& BllhkrbfBybka#

Fbw fcbkw gakwtctrãw ¤ bk fcekb ´ wakt,cfw ociiãpbktw obw fcbkw ¤ apockhcpbw ´hkhfswãw mrwxr–î ~pãwbkt ~hp fbw ãtrobw ob pãwbhrz wagchrz 1 F–bzcwtbkgb obwlasbkw ob gallrkcghtcak ãfbgtpakcxrb ckifrb,t,bffb wrp thcffb bt fh wtprgtrpb obwpãwbhrz ~bpwakkbfw 1 Ckifrb,t,bffb wrp fb ts~b ob pbfhtcak *~frw ob fcbkw bktpb~bpwakkbw hshkt ob iaptbw wclcfhpctãw wagchfbw ~hp bzbl~fb# 1 Wrp fbrp pã~hptctcakohkw f–bw~hgb 1 Wrp fbw pbfhtcakw ob tphyhcf 1

^arp pã~akopb î gbw xrbwtcakw& gbttb a~ãphtcak ob pbgjbpgjb gal~pbkoph = 8+ Obwbkxrítbw xrhktcthtcybw ar lcztbw hybg fb wargc ob fh gal~hphcwak hybg obwbkxrítbw ~hwwãbw 4 0+ Obw bkxrítbw ~hp a`wbpyhtcakw bt bktpbtcbkw wrp obw~a~rfhtcakw w~ãgcicxrbw 4 7+ Obw hkhfswbw ob tphgbw ãfbgtpakcxrbw = gh~trpbw

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Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

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o–ãgphk 4 oakkãbw bztphctbw or ub`& kathllbkt î ~hptcp ob ocw~awctciw ob wagch`cfctã&rtcfcwãw bk gaktbztb ~pcyã ar ~paibwwcakkbf+

A~ãphtcak 0 = ¤ Lcephtcakw bt pãwbhrz ´ *hkclhtbrp = Afcycbp ^fcb}& Gjhkthf@apobw,@bkhsark& Hfhck _hppcrw#

Gbttb a~ãphtcak bwt rkb ~fhtbiaplb o–ãgjhkebw bl~cpcxrbw bt lãtjaoafaecxrbw îf–cktbpwbgtcak obw pbgjbpgjbw wrp fbw lcephtcakw bt fbw pãwbhrz+ Bffb hptcgrfbph obwpbgjbpgjbw gakorctbw ohkw ociiãpbktbw pãecakw or lakob *Hfeãpcb& @pãwcf& Gjckb&Iphkgb& Wãkãehf# wrp fh lhkcêpb oakt fb pãwbhr ob ~fhgbw lhpgjhkobw&eãkãphfblbkt ckiaplbffbw ohkw fbrp ãlbpebkgb& wakt ckwãpãbw ohkw fbw bw~hgbwrp`hckw hr wbck obwxrbfw bffbw ~pbkkbkt rk pÿfb gpacwwhkt+ Gallbkt lbwrpbp bt

ghptaeph~jcbp fbrp bl~pcwb w~htchfb 1 Fbrp ~acow ãgakalcxrb faghf ar pãecakhf 1 Obwlaoêfbw ob lhpgjãw tphkwkhtcakhrz kb wb obwwckbkt,cfw ~hw 1 Cfw tbkobkt î obybkcpobw bkmbrz ob ~pblcbp ~fhk obw earybpkhkgbw rp`hckbw xrc gakorcwbkt ~aryacpw~r`fcgw bt hgtbrpw ob fh w~jêpb ãgakalcxrb î gakwtprcpb rkb karybffb clheb obycffbw xrc kb ~brybkt ~frw ítpb ~bkwãbw whkw tbkcp gal~tb obw biibtw ob fhlakochfcwhtcak+

A~ãphtcak 7 = ¤ Wtprgtrphtcakw or lakob wgcbktcicxrb ´ *hkclhtbrpw = ObkcwBgdbpt& Lcgjbf Epawwbttc& Gapckkb @akkbt#

Fb lakob wgcbktcicxrb bwt rkb w~jêpb o–hgtcyctã wrp fh xrbffb ~brybkt ítpb tbwtãbwrkb ephkob ~hptcb obw h~~pagjbw oãybfa~~ãbw ~hp fbw gjbpgjbrpw ob WLW+F–a~ãphtcak w–h~~rcbph ~arp rkb ~hptcb jcwtapcxrb wrp obw oakkãbw jcwtapcxrbw

gakgbpkhkt fbw ãproctw ar gaffbgtcakkbrpw w–cktãpbwwhkt hrz hktcxrctãw bktpb fb ZYCb

bt fb ZCZb wcêgfb bt fbw jcwtapcbkw ob f–Hktcxrctã bktpb fh ick or ZYCCCb bt fb oã`rt orZCZb+ ^arp obw hkhfswbw ~frw gaktbl~aphckbw& fb ~pambt la`cfcwbph fbw warpgbw`c`fcalãtpcxrbw& oakt fbw gjbpgjbrpw or ~pambt akt rkb `akkb bz~ãpcbkgb& hwwagcãbwî obw ãtrobw ob tbpphck wrp fbw ~phtcxrbw ob gcthtcakw+ F–a`mbgtci gallrk bwt obgal~pbkopb gallbkt cktbphecwwbkt ob ihåak oskhlcxrb fbw wtprgtrpbw ob pãwbhrzbt fbw gaktbkrw wgcbktcicxrbw+ H ~hptcp obw lílbw warpgbw ob oakkãbw& fbwgjbpgjbrpw ob WLW wakt bkeheãw hybg o–hrtpbw ãxrc~bw ohkw f–ãfh`aphtcak o–rkbeãaeph~jcb obw hgtcyctãw wgcbktcicxrbw+ Cf w–hect o–ãtrocbp fbw faecxrbw w~htchfbwhgtrbffbw ob f–hgtcyctã wgcbktcicxrb hr kcybhr faghf *ycffbw& pãecakw#& khtcakhf btcktbpkhtcakhf& bk fbw hptcgrfhkt î rkb hkhfswb jcwtapcxrb ob fh gakwtprgtcak obw

ckwtctrtcakw wgcbktcicxrbw bt ob fbrp oã~facblbkt ohkw f–bw~hgb orphkt fbw obrzobpkcbpw wcêgfbw+

A~ãphtcak ? = ¤ _phkwiaplhtcak obw lakobw ~paorgtciw ́ *hkclhtbrpw =^cbppb _pc`arfbt ! Ohkcêfb Ehffchka ! Mbhk,Lhpg Afcycbp ! Mbhk,Lhpg ]rfchkc ! Mãpÿlb Ycgbktb ! Afcycbp @pawwhpo ! Mahxrcl Jhhw#F–a~ãphtcak ¤ tphkwiaplhtcakw obw lakobw ~paorgtciw ́ ycwb î hwwagcbp obwgal~ãtbkgbw o–ãgakalcwtbw& ob eãaeph~jbw& ob wagcafaerbw bt o–jcwtapcbkw ~arph~~paiakocp fh gakkhcwwhkgb obw lãghkcwlbw o–cktbphgtcakw bt ob wtprgtrphtcak obwpãwbhrz bt obw gaffbgtciw xrc earybpkbkt fbw oskhlcxrbw o–ckkayhtcak+ Rkb ~pblcêpba~ãphtcak wbph fhkgãb hybg f–hgxrcwctcak bt f–hkhfswb o–rkb `hwb ob oakkãbw obw~paephllbw brpa~ãbkw wrp fh tãfã~jakcb la`cfb ob 83:9 î kaw marpw+ Fh obrzcêlb

a~ãphtcak ~aptbph wrp f–hkhfswb obw gaffh`aphtcakw wgcbkgb,ckorwtpcb bk fcbk hybg fh~afctcxrb obw ~ÿfbw ob gal~ãtctcyctã+ Rkb tpacwcêlb a~ãphtcak ~pbkoph ~arp a`mbt

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Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

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f–ckifrbkgb obw pãwbhrz wagchrz bt ob f–bkycpakkblbkt w~htchf wrp fbw ~pagbwwrwo–ckkayhtcak obw icplbw& bt kathllbkt obw icplbw hepa,hfclbkthcpbw+ Obrz hrtpbwa~ãphtcakw bkick w–cktãpbwwbpakt hr oãybfa~~blbkt ob `hwb ob oakkãbw bto–hkhfswbw ob pãwbhrz ohkw fb wbgtbrp ob f–hãpakhrtcxrb+

A~ãphtcak 2 = ¤ Fbw karybffbw iaplbw or ycbcffcwwblbkt ́ *hkclhtpcgbw =Lakcxrb Lbl`phoa& Hfcgb Parsbp#

Fh wagcafaecb or ¤ ephko àeb ´ hkhfswb fb ycbcffcwwblbkt gallb rk ~pagbwwrw btgallb rkb wãpcb ob tphkwctcakw thkt `caeph~jcxrbw xrb pbfhtcakkbffbw xrc tphybpwbktbt oakkbkt or wbkw î gbttb obpkcêpb ~hptcb or ~hpgarpw ob ycb+ Bffb lbt bk hyhktkathllbkt f–h`wbkgb ob fckãhpctã ohkw gbw ~hpgarpw bt fbrp jãtãpaeãkãctã+ Ak whct

~hp bzbl~fb xrb& lílb wc f–bw~ãphkgb ob ycb whkw ckgh~hgctã hrelbktb ohkw fbwtphkgjbw o–àeb fbw ~frw ãfbyãbw& fbw ckãehfctãw wagchfbw bt ob ebkpb ~bpwcwtbkt+F–hkhfswb ob gbw tphkwctcakw bt ob gbw wctrhtcakw wbphct pãhfcwãb ~hp obw wrcycwfakectrockhrz+ Karw ~pa~awakw ob wrcypb obrz gajaptbw ob ~bpwakkbw àeãbw& f–rkbob 9> î 92 hkw& f–hrtpb ob 52,:2 bt fbw wrcypb wrp 2 ar 8> hkw *ãgjhktcffak GKHY&hggêw ~hp cktbpkbt…#+ Karw karw cktãpbwwbpakw î fbrp ãtht ob whktã& pãwbhr wagchf*oakt ihlcfchf#& hgtcyctãw& ~phtcxrbw pãwcobktcbffbw& ph~~aptw hrz ocw~awctciw ob wackw+Ohkw fb lílb tbl~w& obw bkxrítbw wbpakt pãhfcwãw hr~pêw obw a~ãphtbrpw iaghfcwhktfbrp lcwwcak wrp gbw ~r f̀cgw àeãw& ohkw fb gjhl~w whkcthcpb bt wagchf bt ohkwf–jh`ctht& bk ~pbkhkt bk gal~tb& fbw tphkwiaplhtcakw obw ~phtcxrbw& obw pãerfhtcakw~r f̀cxrbw& fbrpw cl~hgtw tbppctapchrz& lhcw hrwwc fbw biibtw obw oãybfa~~blbkttbgjkafaecxrbw ohkw gbw ociiãpbktw oalhckbw ob fh ~pcwb bk gjhpeb+

A~ãphtcak 9 = ¤ Hkhfswbw jcwtapcxrbw ob pãwbhrz wagchrz ohkw fbrpwph~~aptw hybg fbw wtprgtrpbw ob ~aryacp ´ *hkclhtbrpw = Lcgjbf @bptphko&Gjpcwtckb Oargbt& Ifapbkt Jhrtbibrcffb bt Gfhcpb Mroob ob Fhpcycêpb#

Gbttb a~ãphtcak hptcgrfbph obw hkhfswbw ob pãwbhrz wagchrz ohkw obw wctrhtcakwjcwtapcxrbw& ohkw fh ~ãpcaob lãocãyhfb bt fh ~ãpcaob laobpkb+ Fb ~pa`fêlb ob fhoskhlcxrb obw pãwbhrz wagchrz bwt hr gŗrp or xrbwtcakkblbkt wrp fb lakob~hswhk ob fh ick or Lasbk Àeb& ~ãpcaob ob iapt `arfbybpwblbkt ãgakalcxrb& wagchfbt oãlaeph~jcxrb+ Hr obfî obw ckocycorw& gallbkt wr`wcwtb fh wtprgtrpb obwpãwbhrz& fapwxrb& ~hp bzbl~fb& rkb ~a~rfhtcak bwt pbkarybfãb hrz 0!7 ~hp f–biibt obwlapthfctãw ar obw ~jãkalêkbw lcephtacpbw 1 Gallbkt fh ocw~hpctcak or wbpyheb wb

tphorct,bffb ohkw f–apehkcwhtcak wagchfb efa`hfb 1 Ob fh lílb lhkcêpb& wrp xracpb~awb f–bzbpgcgb or ~aryacp ohkw fbw wagcãtãw o–Hkgcbk Pãeclb gakwcoãpãbw& îwhyacp gbffbw or lakob lãoctbpphkãbk aggcobkthf 1 S hrphct,cf cgc rkb xrbfgakxrbw~ãgcicgctã lãoctbpphkãbkkb wbpyhkt î iakobp bt î fãectclbp gbt bzbpgcgb or ~aryacp 1G–bwt fh xrbwtcak obw pbfhcw ohkw f–bzbpgcgb or ~aryacp xrc wb tparyb ~awãb+ Wriict,cfob wb tparybp bk ~awctcak o–bzbpgbp fb ~aryacp ~arp f–bzbpgbp biibgtcyblbkt 1 Bko–hrtpbw tbplbw& f–a`tbktcak ob tctpbw& o–jakkbrpw bt gjhpebw kb ~brybkt wriicpb îgal~pbkopb fbw laohfctãw ob iakgtcakkblbkt ob gbt bzbpgcgb or ~aryacp+ Gbfhwr~~awb ob ~pbkopb bk gal~tb tarw fbw ¤ fcbkw o–jallb î jallb ´ xrc wakt hrthktob ghkhrz ~hp fbwxrbfw gcpgrfbkt fbw ãgjhkebw hwwagcãw î f–bzbpgcgb or ~aryacp+ Wc fh~pcwb bk gal~tb obw fcbkw ihlcfchrz bt!ar fcekhebpw w–cl~awb ohkw gbttbpbgakwtprgtcak& bffb kb whrphct wriicpb+ Oacybkt hrwwc ítpb gakwcoãpãw o–hrtpbw ts~bw

ob fcbkw& kak kãgbwwhcpblbkt whgphfcwãw *gallb fb wakt fbw fcbkw ihlcfchrz î tphybpw

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0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

fb whgpblbkt or lhpcheb#& xr–cf w–hecwwb ob f–hlctcã& or gfcbktãfcwlb ar bkgapb orgal~ãpheb+

A~ãphtcak 5 = ¤ Pãwbhrz bt lakobw wagchrz ohkw fbw bw~hgbw î ihc̀ fbobkwctã ́ *hkclhtbrpw = @bpkhpo Gjhpfbps& Ohkcbffb Ehffchka# *~pambtãlbpebkt#Gallbkt wb wtprgtrpbkt& wb pbgal~awbkt bt ãyafrbkt fbw lakobw wagchrz ohkw fbwbw~hgbw prphrz bk ~hptcgrfcbp fbw bw~hgbw î ihc`fb obkwctã 1 F%coãb bwt o%hkhfswbp fhwtprgtrpb& fh ocybpwctã bt f%ãyafrtcak obw pãwbhrz wagchrz bk lcfcbr prphf& o%cobktcicbpxrbffbw wakt fbw laohfctãw ob gcpgrfhtcak obw whyacpw bt obw gakkhcwwhkgbw ohkw gbwbw~hgbw+ Bffb bwt ob laktpbp fb pÿfb obw cktbphgtcakw ycffb!ghl~hekb bt gbfrc ob fh

gpacwwhkgb obw pbfhtcakw hybg fbw lakobw rp`hckw ohkw fh pbgal~awctcak obwipaktcêpbw bktpb gbw bw~hgbw+ Fbw tphyhrz î lbkbp gakgbpkbpakt bk ~hptcgrfcbpf–hkhfswb obw warpgbw ob f%ckkayhtcak ohkw fbw icplbw ckorwtpcbffbw prphfbw& fbiakgtcakkblbkt bt fb oãybfa~~blbkt obw pãwbhrz ohkw f%hepcgrftrpb prphfb bt ~ãpc,rp`hckb *fcãw kathllbkt î fh gakgbktphtcak obw bz~facthtcakw bt î fh pbgakicerphtcakobw lakobw ~paorgtciw hepcgafbw wrp fbw tbppctacpbw#& fbw gakifctw& hpphkeblbktw btocw~awctciw fcãw î fh ebwtcak obw pbwwarpgbw khtrpbffbw bt fbw oskhlcxrbw obwcktbphgtcakw bktpb fbw lcfcbrz rp`hckw bt prphrz 4 f–cktbp~ãkãtphtcak gpacwwhktbw obgbw bw~hgbw gakorcwhkt î rkb pbgal~awctcak obw tbppctacpbw bt ob fbrpbkycpakkblbkt+ Rkb httbktcak ~hptcgrfcêpb wbph httpc`rãb î f–hkhfswb obw la`cfctãw btî fh gakwtprgtcak ob wswtêlbw ob pbwwarpgbw bt obw pãwbhrz ob wafcohpctã ohkwf–cktbpgakkbzcak obw lakobw prphrz bt rp`hckw+ Fh lcwb bk ŗrypb obw ghopbw

tjãapcxrbw bt lãtjaoafaecxrbw ob WLW *bkxrítbw wrp fbw pãwbhrz wagchrz bt f–rwhebobw _CG bk lcfcbr prphf ~hp bzbl~fb# arypcph fh yacb î rk pbkarybffblbkt obwhkhfswbw wrp gbw bw~hgbw+

Htbfcbpw lãtjaoafaecxrbwFbw htbfcbpw lãtjaoafaecxrbw akt ~arp a m̀bt ob oãybfa~~bp obw lãtjaobw

tphkwybpwhfbw rtcfcwh`fbw ~hp fbw gjbpgjbrpw bk wgcbkgbw jrlhckbw bt wagchfbw+ Cfw~pbkkbkt fh iaplb ob wãlckhcpbw o–ãgjhkeb o–bz~ãpcbkgbw bt ob laorfbw obiaplhtcak+ Xrhtpb htbfcbpw wbpakt lcw bk ~fhgb oêw fb oã`rt ob f–a~ãphtcak+ Cfw wakt cgcpãwrlãw& rkb ~pãwbkthtcak ~frw gal~fêtb icerphkt bk hkkbzb+

Htbfcbp 8 = ¤ Hkhfswb tbztrbffb ́ *hkclhtbrpw = ^hwghf Lhpgjhko& ^cbppbPhtckhro bt Bfcwh`btj ^bpparz#

Fb oãybfa~~blbkt ob fh gallrkcghtcak ãfbgtpakcxrb ~paorct ob ~frw bk ~frw obephkow gap~rw ob tbztbw& kathllbkt gbrz xrc wakt hwwagcãw î obw oã`htw ~r`fcgw+F–hkhfswb ob gbw gap~rw k–bwt pãhfcwh`fb xr–î gakoctcak ob ocw~awbp o–artcfw oblbwrpbw fbzcghfbw hoh~tãw+ F–htbfcbp ¤ hkhfswb tbztrbffb ´ h tpacw a`mbgtciw = 8+oãybfa~~bp rk faecgcbf apceckhf bk cktbphgtcak hybg fbw `bwackw lrftc~fbw obwgjbpgjbrpw ob WLW 4 0+ iaplbp fbw gjbpgjbrpw ob WLW bt fbw ãtrochktw hrztbgjkcxrbw o–hkhfswb tbztrbffb& bt 7+ apehkcwbp fh pãifbzcak wrp fbw lãtjaobwo–hkhfswb tbztrbffb bt fbrpw rwhebw+Htbfcbp 0 = Btjkaeph~jcb obw hwwagchtcakw wagca,tbgjkcxrbw *hkclhtbrpw =Iphkgd Gagjas bt Hkkb Lhsêpb#

¤ Gallbkt whcwcp fbw hebkgblbktw gal~fbzbw bktpb hgtcak wagchfb bt ocw~awctciwtbgjkcxrbw oakt oã~bko hrmarpo–jrc fh oskhlcxrb obw gakicerphtcakw

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0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

apehkcwhtcakkbffbw bt lhpgjhkobw 1 ´ Katpb ~pambt bwt ob pã~akopb î gbttb xrbwtcak&bt ~arp gbfh o–ãfh`apbp rk ghopb lãtjaoafaecxrb bt rkb ~fhtbiaplb tbgjkcxrbo–¤ hpgjãafaecb or tbl~w ~pãwbkt ´ bt o–¤ btjkaeph~jcb xrhktcthtcyb ´+ Gb ~pambt hf–hl`ctcak ob gakwtprcpb rkb h~~pagjb bt rkb lãtjaoafaecb tphkwybpwhfbw oakt karwbw~ãpakw xr–bffbw ~rcwwbkt = h# gakwtctrbp rkb gaktpc`rtcak tarfarwhckb ocwtckgtcyb btckkayhktb î fh pbgjbpgjb bk wgcbkgbw wagchfbw 4 `# iãoãpbp ociiãpbktw ~paephllbw obpbgjbpgjb bktpb fbw fh`aphtacpbw la`cfcwãw ~hp fb Fh`bBz WLW+

Htbfcbp 7 = ¤ Hkhfswb obw pãwbhrz ´ *hkclhtbrpw = Lcgjbf Epawwbttc& Gapckkb@akkbt& Hckjah ob Ibobpcga& Ipãoãpcg Hl`fhpo#

Ohkw gbt htbfcbp wbpakt ocwgrtãbw bt bkwbcekãbw o–rkb ~hpt fbw h~~pagjbw

gfhwwcxrbw ob f–hkhfswb obw pãwbhrz wagchrz *pãwbhrz ~bpwakkbfw& pãwbhrzgal~fbtw#& hybg f–h~~rc obw laoêfbw bt faecgcbfw fbw ~frw hgtrbfw *^HMBD& WCBKH# bto–hrtpb ~hpt obw h~~pagjbw ckkayhktbw w~ãgcicxrblbkt oãybfa~~ãbw ~hp fbwgjbpgjbrpw or ~pambt = fbw lãtjaobw lcztbw ~bplbtthkt o–hkhfswbp fbw gjhëkbw obpbfhtcakw la`cfcwãbw *Epawwbttc& @hptjb& Gjhryhg& 0>88#& fbw lãtjaobw o–hkhfswb obwpãwbhrz wgcbktcicxrbw î ~hptcp o–bktpbtcbkw wrp fbw gcthtcakw *Lcfhpo& 0>88# 4 fbwlaoêfbw lrftc,hebktw h~~fcxrãw î f–hkhfswb obw pãwbhrz wagchrz *Gh}h`bt& Hl`fhpo&Jhkhgjc& 0>8>#+

Htbfcbp ? = ¤ Fbw tphgbw ãfbgtpakcxrbw gallb warpgb ~arp fbw WJW ́*hkclhtbrpw = Majhkk Gjhrfbt& Ghpafckb Ohtgjhps#

^hplc fbw ihgtbrpw ckifrbkåhkt iaptblbkt fh wtprgtrphtcak obw lakobw wagchrz&

f%Cktbpkbt bt fb ub` aggr~bkt rkb ~fhgb ob ~pblcbp ~fhk+ Cfw wakt& bk biibt& î f%apceckbob kal`pb ob gjhkeblbktw xrc yakt ~hpiacw mrwxr%î `arfbybpwbp kaw ihåakw ob ycypbbkwbl`fb+ Wc fbw pbfhtcakw wagchfbw wakt hiibgtãbw ~hp gbw karybhrz artcfw& gbwobpkcbpw marbkt ãehfblbkt rk pÿfb kak kãefcebh`fb wrp fb tphyhcf ob gbffbw bt gbrz xrctàgjbkt ob fbw gal~pbkopb bt fbw hkhfswbp+ Oêw fapw& rkb pãifbzcak tjãapcxrb btlãtjaoafaecxrb w%cl~awb wrp fh ihåak oakt fb ub` ~brt bt oact ítpb rtcfcwã ohkw fbghopb ob pbgjbpgjbw bk wgcbkgbw wagchfbw+ Gbt htbfcbp bktbko tphctbp tart î fh iacw obwoclbkwcakw oagrlbkthcpbw or ub` gallb fcbr ob pbwwarpgbw bt ob lcwb îocw~awctcak ob gakkhcwwhkgbw bt or ub` gallb fcbr aó ~brybkt wb gakwtctrbp tartar ~hptcb or gap~rw obw pbgjbpgjbw oakt cf bwt cgc xrbwtcak+

Cktbpihgb hybg fh oblhkob wagchfbWLW& bk fcbk hybg fb wbpycgb ob yhfapcwhtcak ob fh pbgjbpgjb ob f–Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb fb Lcphcf& lbttph bk ~fhgb rkb gbffrfb gallrkb o–cktbpihgb hybg fhoblhkob wagchfb& gal~awãb ob gjbpgjbrpw or ~pambt bt ob ~bpwakkbfw o–h~~rc lcwî ocw~awctcak ~hp fbw ãth`fcwwblbktw& hick ob pã~akopb ob ihåak gaapoakkãb fapwxrbg–bwt kãgbwwhcpb& wact ~hp obw bz~bptcwbw& wact ~hp f–apehkcwhtcak ob oã`htw ar fboãgfbkgjblbkt o–ãtrobw h~~paiakocbw+ Gbttb gbffrfb hrph hrwwc ~arp lcwwcak ob ihcpbpblaktbp ybpw fbw gjbpgjbrpw obw tjãlhtcxrbw bt obw ~pa`fêlbw wagchrzãlbpebktw+ Bffb obyph bkick apehkcwbp fh pãifbzcak wrp fbw hw~bgtw ãtjcxrbw obwpbgjbpgjbw bt obw ãtrobw wrp fbw lakobw wagchrz+

^hp hcffbrpw& bk gb xrc gakgbpkb fbw tbgjkafaecbw ob f–ckiaplhtcak bt ob fhgallrkcghtcak& xrc iakt f–a`mbt ob kal`pbrwbw oblhkobw& wbph lcw bk ~fhgb rk Fb¤ fh`aphtacpb obw rwhebw ´ xrc h ~arp a`mbgtci ob gpãbp rk fcbr ob gakybpebkgbobw pbgjbpgjbw bt obw pãifbzcakw wrp fbw karybffbw iaplbw ob wagch`cfctã fcãbw hrz

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0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

 _CG+ Cf cl~fcxrbph obw gjbpgjbrpw ob WLW bt obw bktpb~pbkbrpw bt gakgb~tbrpw obocw~awctciw ob gallrkcghtcak+ Gb ocw~awctci ~bplbttph& ~hp bzbl~fb& ob wrcypb obwrtcfcwhtbrpw bt ob pbgakwtctrbp obw ¤ ghppcêpbw o–rwheb ´ î lílb ob pãyãfbp obw~pagbwwrw cl~awwc f̀bw î whcwcp ohkw f–ckwthkt o–rkb pbgjbpgjb rkcxrb+ Fb fh`aphtacpbobw rwhebw wbph ãehfblbkt rk fcbr ob pãifbzcak bt ob lcwb bk ~fhgb ob lãtjaobwo%bkxrítb gal~fãlbkthcpbw bt kayhtpcgbw *bkxrítbw xrhfcthtcybw bt xrhktcthtcybw&bz~ãpclbkthtcakw& fh`aphtacpb& wakobw ckiaplhtcxrbw& pbgrbcf ob tphgbw+++#+ Cf wbph oêwfapw ãtpactblbkt hptcgrfã hybg f%htbfcbp lãtjaoafaecxrb ~apthkt wrp fbw lãtjaobwo%hkhfswb or ub`+ Obw ocw~awctciw bz~ãpclbkthrz wbpakt lcw bk ~fhgb ohkw obw fcbrzhoh~tãw hrz rwhebw bt wctrhtcakw î hkhfswbp& obw artcfw ~arppakt ítpb oãybfa~~ãw xrcpã~akobkt hrz `bwackw w~ãgcicxrbw obw pbgjbpgjbw lcwbw bk ~fhgb *~paephllhtcak

ob faecgcbfw& gpãhtcak ob ocw~awctciw ob gh~trpb& whffbw ãxrc~ãbw+++#+ F–bz~ãpcbkgb obw~aptbrpw or ~pambt fbw ~fhgb ~hp hcffbrpw î fh gakmakgtcak ob kal`pbw o–ãxrc~bww~ãgchfcwãbw ohkw gbw oalhckbw& bk Iphkgb bt î f–ãtphkebp+ Hckwc obw gaffh`aphtcakwbzcwtbkt bt ~arppakt ítpb pbkiapgãbw hybg& bktpb hrtpbw& fbw ãxrc~bw o–Aphkeb Fh`w&

 _bfbgal ^hpcw_bgj& fb gafh`aphtacpb obw rwhebw ob Kcgb& f–rkcybpwctã tbgjkafaecxrbob _pasbw& fbw rkcybpwctãw ob @hpgbfakb ar ob Gafrl`ch& hr wbck obwxrbfw gbpthckwakt ãtã cktãepãw bt akt ~r hckwc oãybfa~~bp gakkhcwwhkgbw bt gaffh`aphtcakw& bkgapbbk garpw hgtrbffblbkt+

8+7+ CL^HG_ OR ^PAEPHLLB WRP  FH IAPLH_CAK! CL^HG_ AK _PHCKCKE

Lcwb bk ~fhgb o–bkwbcekblbktw ~frpcocwgc~fckhcpbw h~~rsãw wrp fbw tphyhrz ob WLWhr kcybhr oagtapht& lhwtbp bt fcgbkgb *yacp 8+8#+

8+?+ CL^HG_ WAGCA,ÃGAKALCXRB OR ^PAEPHLLB !WAGCA BGAKALCG CL^HG_

Gaapockhtcak obw pã~akwbw obw gjbpgjbrpw ob WLW î fh oblhkob wagchfb *yacp8+8+#

0+ APEHKCWH_CAK B_ EARYBPKHKGB OR ^PAMB_!APEHKC]H_CAK HKO EAYBPKHKGB

0+8+ P BW^AKWH@FB WGCBK_CICXRB B_ _BGJKCXRB!^PCKGC^HF CKYBW_CEH_AP 

Lcgjbf EPAWWB__C bwt kã bk 8325 bt cf bwt ocpbgtbrp ob pbgjbpgjbw hr GKPW& bkwagcafaecb+ Cf h biibgtrã obw ãtrobw ob lhtjãlhtcxrbw î f–Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 7*lhwtbp ob lhtjãlhtcxrbw h~~fcxrãbw bk 83:8# bt ob wagcafaecb î f–rkcybpwctã ob

 _arfarwb 0 *fcgbkgb bk 83:>& lhwtbp bk 83:0& oagtapht bk 83:2 bt jh`cfcthtcak îocpcebp obw pbgjbpgjbw bk 8335#+

Cf h ocpceã fb Gbktpb o–ãtrobw obw phtcakhfctãw bt obw whyacpw *Gbpw# gallb RLP orGKPW bt ob f–Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb fb Lcphcf bktpb 8333 bt 0>>7+ Cf h ãtã bkwrctbocpbgtbrp homackt ob f–RLP GCPRW *pãwrfthkt or pbepar~blbkt or Gbpw bt or GCBR#&

~rcw or FCWW_+ Cf bwt hgtrbffblbkt lbl`pb or Galctã khtcakhf or GKPW *wbgtcakw 79‗ ¤ Wagcafaecb& kaplbw bt pêefbw ´ ‗ bt ?0 ‗ ¤ Wgcbkgbw ob fh gallrkcghtcak ´#+ Cf hãtã lbl`pb ob ~frwcbrpw gallcwwcakw ob w~ãgchfcwtbw bt ob galctãw ob wãfbgtcak bk

0>!75

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

wagcafaecb+ Cf h ãtã bz~bpt ~arp f–HKP& f–HBPBW& f–CKPH& f–BKW Ghgjhk& fbw pãecakw Ëfbob Iphkgb& Pjÿkb,Hf~bw& ^paybkgb,Hf~bw Gÿtb o–H}rp+ Cf bwt lbl`pb or Galctã obpãohgtcak ob fh Pbyrb o–Hktjpa~afaecb obw Gakkhcwwhkgbw+ Cf h biibgtrã obwãyhfrhtcakw ~arp ob kal`pbrwbw pbyrbw wgcbktcicxrbw *bktpb hrtpbw Wagchf Kbtuapdw&Gal~rtbp Lbochtbo Gallrkcghtcak& Jcejbp Borghtcak& Cktbpkhtcakhf Wagcafaes & …#+

Lcgjbf Epawwbttc h biibgtrã obw pbgjbpgjbw wrp fbw pãwbhrz wagchrz& f–ckkayhtcak&fbw oskhlcxrbw w~htchfbw& fh lãtjaoafaecb obw wgcbkgbw wagchfbw bt fh tjãapcbwagcafaecxrb+ Cf h ~r`fcã ar ocpceã 5 aryphebw oakt bk ~hptcgrfcbp Wagcafaecb obf–cl~pãycwc f̀b+ Oskhlcxrbw ob f–hgtcyctã bt obw iaplbw wagchfbw *^pbwwbwRkcybpwcthcpbw ob Iphkgb& 0>>?# bt *hybg _jcbpps @fùww# Cktpaorgtcak hrz lãtjaobwwthtcwtcxrbw bk wagcafaecb *^pbwwbw Rkcybpwcthcpbw ob Iphkgb& 8333#+ Cf bwt hrwwc

hrtbrp ob 27 hptcgfbw ohkw obw pbyrbw î galctã ob fbgtrpb *oakt fh Pbyrb Iphkåhcwbob Wagcafaecb& Fbw Ghjcbpw Cktbpkhtcakhrz ob Wagcafaecb& fbw Hgtbw ob fh pbgjbpgjb bkwgcbkgbw wagchfbw& Wagcãtãw Gaktbl~aphckbw& Wagchf Kbtuapdw& Brpa~bhk ^fhkkckeWtrocbw& @rcft Bkycpaklbkt & fh Pbyrb o–ãgakalcb pãecakhfb bt rp`hckb& fbw Hkkhfbwob fh Pbgjbpgjb Rp`hckb#+ Rkb ghphgtãpcwtcxrb cl~apthktb ob wbw tphyhrz bwt whiaptb cl~fcghtcak ohkw obw gaffh`aphtcakw ~frpcocwgc~fckhcpbw hybg obw jcwtapcbkw& obweãaeph~jbw& obw ãgakalcwtbw& hckwc ~hpiacw xrb obw gjclcwtbw ar obw ~jakãtcgcbkw+Artpb wbw aryphebw ar hptcgfbw ob wagcafaecb& cf h o–hcffbrpw ~r`fcã& wbrf ar bkgaffh`aphtcak& ob kal`pbrz hptcgfbw ohkw obw pbyrbw o–ãgakalcb ar ob eãaeph~jcb&obw gaktpc`rtcakw î obw aryphebw gaffbgtciw bk jcwtacpb& bt obw hgtbw ob gaffaxrb bk~jakãtcxrb+

0+0+ APEHKCWH_CAK OR ^HP_BKHPCH_ ! ^HP_KBPWJC^

0+0+8 OBWGPC^_CAK& HOÃXRH_CAK B_ GAL^FÃLBK_HPC_àOBW RKC_BW ^HP_BKHCPBW !^HP_KBPW– OBWGPC^_CAK& PBFBYHKGB HKO GAL^FBLBK_HPC_S

Fb ~pambt pãwrftb o–rkb iaptb cl~fcghtcak obw gjbpgjbrpw obw rkctãw ~pãwbktãbw ohkwfbw ~hebw wrcyhktbw+

08!75

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

8+ ^pãwbkthtcak or FCWW_ = FH@APH_ACPB CK_BPOCWGC^FCKHCPB WAFCOHPC_ÃW&WAGCÃ_ÃW& _BPPC_ACPBW *RLP 2837#Rkctã lcztb ob pbgjbpgjb gpããb hr 8bp mhkycbp 0>>5 î ~hptcp or pbepar~blbkt ob~frwcbrpw ãxrc~bw& fb FCWW_ hwwagcb w~ãgchfcwtbw ob fh ycffb& wagcafaerbw bthktjpa~afaerbw+ Cf bwt ocpceã ~hp Obkcw Bgdbpt& hybg ~arp ocpbgtbrpw,homacktwErcffhrlb Pa}bk`bpe& Afcycbp ^fcb} bt Iphkåacw Wcgat+ Wbw lbl`pbw w–cktãpbwwbkt hrzwafcohpctãw *î fbrp iaplb& xr–cf w–hecwwb o–hebkgblbktw w~akthkãw ar obw ocw~awctciwohkw fb ghopb obw ~afctcxrbw ~r`fcxrbw#& hrz wagcãtãw *efa`hfcwhtcak bt!ariphelbkthtcak obw lakobw wagchrz& ~paorgtcak obw ckãehfctãw# bt hrz tbppctacpbw+ Fbwtbpphckw ob pbgjbpgjb wakt ~pãwbktw wrp tarw fbw gaktckbktw& ob f–Hwcb î f–Brpa~b bk~hwwhkt ~hp fbw Hlãpcxrbw+

F–rkctã gal~pbko :2 lbl`pbw ~bplhkbktw& oakt 0> gjbpgjbrpw GKPW bt ?:bkwbcekhktw,gjbpgjbrpw bt ~frw ob 88> oagtaphktw+ 85 lbl`pbw ob f–rkctã hwwrlbktobw iakgtcakw ob wartcbk tbgjkcxrb& wgcbktcicxrb bt holckcwtphtci+Fb FCWW_ bwt gal~awã obw tpacw ãxrc~bw = fb Gbktpb o%Hktjpa~afaecb Wagchfb*btjkafaecb#& fb Gbktpb o–Ãtrobw obw Phtcakhfctãw bt obw Whyacpw *wagcafaecb#& fbGbktpb Cktbpocwgc~fckhcpb o–Ãtrobw Rp`hckbw *eãaeph~jcb# iaptblbkt cl~fcxrãw ohkw fhpbgjbpgjb iakohlbkthfb bt h~~fcxrãb+ Wbw lbl`pbw gaktpc`rbkt hrz bkwbcekblbktwob 5 lhwtbpw î ickhfctã iakohlbkthfb ar ~paibwwcakkbffb& ohkw fbw oalhckbw obf–hlãkheblbkt& ob f–rp`hkcwlb& ob fh wagcafaecb& ob f–hktjpa~afaecb wagchfb*Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb,0 fb Lcphcf& BJBWW& _arfarwb,7& Hf`c#+Fb FCWW_ gaktpc`rb î fh iaplhtcak oagtaphfb ~hp fh ~pã~hphtcak ob tpacw lbktcakwob oagtapht *"Ycffbw& tbppctacpbw bt tbppctapchfctãw"& "Hktjpa~afaecb" bt "Wagcafaecb"#& ob

f–Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb,0 hckwc xr–hr oagtapht o–hktjpa~afaecb ob f–BJBWW+Fbw 9 hzbw ob pbgjbpgjb cktbpocwgc~fckhcpb or FCWW_ wakt bk gh~hgctã ob ~hptcgc~bp hrtphyhcf bt ob gaktpc`rbp î fh pãhfcwhtcak obw a`mbgtciw w~ãgcicxrbw or ~pambt WLW+8+ Ckkayhtcak bt whyacpw = pãwbhrz& lãochtcakw& tbppctacpbwPãwbhrz wagchrz& gpãhtcak hptcwtcxrb& oãybfa~~blbkt ãgakalcxrb iakoã wrpf%ckkayhtcak& hkhfswb tbppctapchfb ob f%hgtcyctã wgcbktcicxrb& whyacpw ob fh khtrpb&hgxrcwctcak ob gakkhcwwhkgb& _CG+ 0+ Pbfcecak& lãlacpb bt gakwtprgtcak obw gaffbgtciwLãlacpbw& lãlacpbw ob fh ycafbkgb& karybffbw pctrhfctãw& ~htpclackbw& cobktctãw&btjkcgctã+7+ ^hpgarpw bt bw~hgbw ob ycb

F%jh`ctbp& fb faeblbkt& f%cktbpeãkãphtcakkbf& fbw ~hwwhebw î f%àeb horftb& wafcohpctãwob yacwckheb!xrhptcbp& laobw ob ycb ~ãpcrp`hckw& pãwbhrz ob wagch`cfctã& ihlcffb&ycbcffcwwblbkt+?+ Bz~ãpcbkgbw ob whktã bt ocw~awctciw ob wackwWhktã bt tphyhcf& lhfhocbw gjpakcxrbw& jhkocgh~& oã~bkohkgbw& pbfhtcakw ob wack&~pãghpcwhtcak+2+ Lcephtcakw& ochw~aphw& ãgjhkebw& btjkcgcwhtcakLcephtcakw& gcpgrfhtcakw& ochw~aphw& "Lakochfcwhtcak ~hp fb `hw"+9+ Ycffbw& lãtpa~afbw bt pbgal~awctcakw obw tbppctacpbwEarybpkhkgb& wãepãehtcakw rp`hckbw& wswtêlbw rp`hckw& hgtcyctãw ãgakalcxrbw&oã~fhgblbktw& tbppctacpbw krlãpcxrbw& oãybfa~~blbkt rp`hck orph`fb+

0+ IPHLBW^H

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Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

IPHKGB LÃPCOCAKHFB B_ BW^HEKB = JCW_ACPB OBW WAGCÃ_ÃW OR LASBK HEB ÎF%Ã^AXRB GAK_BL^APHCKB *IPHLBW^H# ‗ RLP 2879Ocpbgtbrp = Mbhk,Lhpg Afcycbp Pbw~akwh`fb wgcbktcicxrb bt tbgjkcxrb ~arp fb Fh`bz =Lcgjbf @bptphko Kathtcak Hbpbw 0>>3 = H$F–RLP ¤ Iphkgb lãpcocakhfb bt Bw~hekb = jcwtacpb obw wagcãtãw or lasbk àeb îf%ã~axrb gaktbl~aphckb ´ *Iphlbw~h# ~pcycfãecb f–ãtrob obw wagcãtãw brpa~ãbkkbwohkw fb tbl~w fake+ Bffb gjbpgjb î bk whcwcp fbw oskhlcxrbw bt fbw gpcwbw bkla`cfcwhkt obw warpgbw bt obw lãtjaobw yhpcãbw& bl~prkthkt warybkt obw gakgb~twhrz ocwgc~fckbw wŗrpw ob f–jcwtacpb gallb f%hpgjãafaecb& fh wagcafaecb& f–ãgakalcb& fheãaeph~jcb ar f–hktjpa~afaecb+ Bffb wb gbktpb wrp f–jcwtacpb wagchfb ohkw fb tbl~w fakexrb ~phtcxrb fh ~fr~hpt obw lbl`pbw ob f–rkctã = ãyafrtcak obw ~hswhebw& obw

pãwbhrz wagchrz& obw wtprgtrpbw ihlcfchfbw& obw iaplbw ob ~paorgtcak& or eaôt& obwlcephtcakw& obw cobktctãw+++ F–RLP 2879 phwwbl`fb 35 gjbpgjbrpw bt bkwbcekhktw,gjbpgjbrpw ~r`fchktw+ Gbttb rkctã î lhmapctã rkcybpwcthcpb gal~tb î gbttb lílb ohtb2 gjbpgjbrpw GKPW bt 5 C_H+Ohkw fb ghopb or Fh`bz& fbw jcwtapcbkw ob fh wagcãtã bt ob f%ãgakalcb gpacwbpakt fbrpwh~~pagjbw bk ~pcycfãechkt rkb oãlhpgjb lcgpa,jcwtapcxrb& pbfhtcakkbffb bt~pawa~aeph~jcxrb+ Hick ob gakipaktbp fbw ~pa f̀ãlhtcxrbw hrtarp ob xrbwtcakwlhmbrpb ãtrocãbw ~hp fb epar~b = fbw ihlcffbw& fbw ãfctbw& fbw pãwbhrz& fbw ckwtctrtcakw&fbw iaplbw ob ~paorgtcak bt fbrp pãerfhtcak ar bkgapb fbw ycafbkgbw bt fh lãlacpb+7 htbfcbpw gal~fãlbkthcpbw wtprgtrpbkt gbttb tjãlhtcxrb =F%htbfcbp 8 "^paorgtcak& lhpgjãw& pãwbhrz *ZCCCb wcêgfb , ZZb wcêgfb#"& w–cktãpbwwb îrkb jcwtacpb wagchfb ob f%ãgakalcb aó w%hptcgrfbkt ~phtcxrb bt pb~pãwbkthtcakw+ Rkb

ob wbw hl`ctcakw bwt o%bkycwhebp rkb jcwtacpb tathfb obw lhpgjãw bt or lhpgjã&ob~rcw fh ~paorgtcak mrwxr%î f%apehkcwhtcak wagchfb xrb oãtbplckbkt fbw ãgjhkebwlhpgjhkow+ Fb lhpgjã bwt a`wbpyã hr lalbkt aó cf khët bt wb oãybfa~~b&wtprgtrphkt obw tbppctacpbw bt obw gallrkhrtãw î ocybpwbw ãgjbffbw+F%htbfcbp 0 ¤ Laoêfbw wagchrz& wafcohpctãw& gakifctw ´ pãifãgjct wrp f–apopb wagchf+ Fbwpbgjbpgjbw bk tbplbw o%hptcgrfhtcak o%ãgjbffbw lhgpa bt lcgpa bt ob gal`ckhcwakbktpb wtprgtrpbw!~phtcxrbw *mbr o–ãgjbffbw& wagcafaecb ob f%hgtcak bt tjãapcbw obf%hgtbrp# ckyctbkt î pbgakwcoãpbp fh xrbwtcak ob f%apopb!oãwapopb bk bwwhshkt obgal~pbkopb gallbkt w%bzbpgb& bk wctrhtcak& fb mbr obw hgtbrpw+ H ~hptcp ob tbpphckwyhpcãw& bt wrp fb tbl~w fake& bwt bkycwheãb fh xrbwtcak ob f%apopb wagchf bt obwlaoêfbw wagchrz xrc fb ~pãwbpybkt& hick ob gal~pbkopb gallbkt wth`cfctã bt

gakgapob bk ycbkkbkt î w%cl~awbp+Bkick& fbw a`mbgtciw ob f%htbfcbp 7 ¤ Ebkpb& ihlcffb& tphkwlcwwcak ´ wb oãgfckbkt bktpacw wbelbktw fcãw = cf w%hect o–h`apo o%h~~paiakocp katpb gakkhcwwhkgb ob fhiphtbpkctã bk ãtbkohkt kathllbkt katpb bw~hgb ob pbgjbpgjb î f%bkwbl`fb obf%Brpa~b+ Ak arypcph ociiãpbktbw ~cwtbw î ~hptcp obw ~pblcbpw pãwrfthtw wrp ¤ fb fcbkwagchf ´& bk ~paicthkt ob fh ~pãwbkgb ohkw katpb epar~b ob w~ãgchfcwtbw o%jcwtacpb obwibllbw bt or ebkpb+ Fh xrbwtcak or ebkpb wbph oakg gbktphfb& gallb fb wbph hrwwcgbffb ob fh tphkwlcwwcak ob `cbkw lhtãpcbfw bt cllhtãpcbfw hr wbck ob fh ihlcffb bt~frw fhpeblbkt ob tart epar~b ~hpthebhkt rkb lãlacpb gallrkb+ 7+ ^pãwbkthtcak or GBP_A^ *Gbktpb o–Btrob bt ob Pbgjbpgjb _phyhcf Apehkcwhtcak^aryacp ‗ RLP 2>??#

Fb GBP_A^ bwt ocpceã ~hp Yckgbkt Wclarfck *^P# bt gal~pbko ? gjbpgjbrpw GKPW&

?9 bkwbcekhktw,gjbpgjbrpw lbl`pbw ~bplhkbktw& 89 C_H! @CH_AW bk h~~rc î fhpbgjbpgjb& 99 oagtaphktw bt 20 bkwbcekhktw,gjbpgjbrpw lbl`pbw hwwagcãw+

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Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

Fbw hgtcyctãw ob pbgjbpgjb or GBP_A^ ~aptbkt wrp f–hgtcak ~r`fcxrb& fb tphyhcf& fbpcwxrb& fh wagcafaecb ob fh gakwallhtcak bt obw lhpgjãw& f–hfclbkthtcak bt fh whktã&fbw iaplhtcakw& xrhfcicghtcakw bt wswtêlbw rkcybpwcthcpbw& fb ebkpb& f–bkycpakkblbktbt fb tarpcwlb+ Fh ~pblcêpb ~pcapctã tphkwybpwhfb ob f–bkwbl`fb ob wbw lbl`pbw bwtob lcbrz gal~pbkopb fb tphyhcf ob pãerfhtcak î f–ŗrypb ohkw kaw wagcãtãw bkgal`ckhkt fbw oskhlcxrbw gaffbgtcybw bt apehkcwhtcakkbffbw ~pa~pbw hrz faecxrbw~paibwwcakkbffbw bt hrz tphmbgtacpbw ckocycorbffbw& fbw oskhlcxrbw ckwtctrtcakkbffbww~ãgcicxrbw hrz ~afctcxrbw ~r f̀cxrbw bt hr iakgtcakkblbkt obw lhpgjãw bt fbwoskhlcxrbw wagcãthfbw+ Fh wbgakob bwt ob gal`ckbp rkb ãtrob ob fh ~paorgtcak obf–apopb wagchf bt obw ~pagbwwrw ob oãwhmrwtblbkt& wtcelhtcwhtcak bt pãwcwthkgb bt fhtpacwcêlb ycwb î gakorcpb rkb pãifbzcak lãtjaoafaecxrb wrp fbw yacbw î hoa~tbp ~arp

httbckopb gbw a`mbgtciw+Fbw tphyhrz hr wbck or GBP_A^ wakt apoakkãw hrtarp ob tpacw hzbw =¤ Oskhlcxrbw gaffbgtcybw ́ & ¤ Oskhlcxrbw ckwtctrtcakkbffbw ́ bt ¤ Oskhlcxrbwwagcãthfbw ´+

Wakt pbepar~ãbw hr wbck or ~pblcbp hzb& fbw ãxrc~bw W^A_ *Wswtêlbw ^paorgtciwbt Apehkcwhtcak or _phyhcf#& WHEBWWB *Whyacpw Ebkpb bt ph~~aptw wagchrz ob wbzb# btf–ãxrc~b ob pbgjbpgjb tarfarwhckb ^L_ *^paibwwcakw bt Lhpgjã or _phyhcf# hwwagcãbhr GBPBX+ F–ãxrc~b W^A_ hkclb fb Lhwtbp LHOA ¤ LHkheblbkt Obw Apehkcwhtcakw&*Jhkaá# bt marb rk pÿfb *bk ~hptbkhpcht hybg f–ãxrc~b _H^HW# ob gaapockhtcak hr wbckor Lhwtbp LH^B *¤ Lhkheblbkt ob f–Hgtcak ^r`fcxrb bt obw Bktpb~pcwbw ´#+ F–ãxrc~bWHEBWWB hkclb fb Lhwtbp E^W *¤ Ebkpb bt ^afctcxrbw Wagchfbw ´#+ Fb GBP_A^ eêpb rkgbktpb ob oagrlbkthtcak hybg rk iakow bk lhtcêpb ob wagcafaecb or ebkpb xrc ihct

pãiãpbkgb bk Iphkgb bt bk Brpa~b bt cf h bktpb~pcw o–cktbpgakkbgtbp fbw ~pckgc~hrzhrtpbw iakow iphkåhcw ohkw gb oalhckb+

Fb wbgako hzb rkct fbw ãxrc~bw _H^HW *_bppctacpbw& Hgtcak ^r`fcxrb& Hgtbrpw# bt _PHLB *_bgjkcxrbw& Pbfhtcakw Hgtcakw& Lhpgjã& Bw~hgb ~r`fcg#+ _H^HW marb rk pÿfbob gaapockhtcak *bk ~hptbkhpcht hybg W^A_# hr wbck or Lhwtbp LH^B& thkocw xrb

 _PHLB marb rk pÿfb o–hkclhtcak *bk ~hptbkhpcht hybg obw gjbpgjbrpw or FCWW_ bt fbwhrtpbw ãxrc~bw or GBP_A^# hr wbck or Lhwtbp PBW *¤ Pbgjbpgjb bt Btrob ob fhWagcafaecb ´#+

Fb tpacwcêlb hzb pbepar~b fbw ãxrc~bw ob pbgjbpgjb _HW *_arpcwlb& Hfclbkthtcak&Whktã#& ^B^W *^afctcxrbw Bkycpakkblbkthfbw bt ^phtcxrbw Wagchfbw# bt BGAPWB*Bxrc~b Gallrkcghtcak Pcwxrbw Whktã Bkycpakkblbkt#+ F–ãxrc~b _HW gaapoakkb bt

hkclb rk ephko kal`pb ob iaplhtcakw ob kcybhr Lhwtbp = ¤ Lhkheblbkt obwCkorwtpcbw or _arpcwlb bt ob f–Jÿtbffbpcb ́ & ¤ Hfclbkthtcak ́ bt ¤ _arpcwlb btOãybfa~~blbkt ´ *Wctb ob Iacz#+ Wakt ãehfblbkt hkclãw ~hp _HW obw Lhwtbpw bkLhfhcwcb& ^afaekb& Bxrhtbrp bt hr Ycbtkhl+ F–ãxrc~b ^B^W hkclb fb Lhwtbp¤ ^afctcxrbw Bkycpakkblbkthfbw bt ^phtcxrbw Wagchfbw ´+ F–ãxrc~b BGAPWB eêpb rkL0P ¤ Ckiaplhtcak,Gallrkcghtcak ́ bt rk Lhwtbp *L8 bt L0 ~pa bt L0P# = ¤Gallrkcghtcak or pcwxrb whktã ! bkycpakkblbkt ´+?+ ^pãwbkthtcak ob Oskhlcxrbw prphfbw RLP LH 8>?Fb fh`aphtacpb ¤ Oskhlcxrbw prphfbw ´ phwwbl`fb obw bkwbcekhktw,gjbpgjbrpw bt obwgjbpgjbrpw eãaeph~jbw& ãgakalcwtbw& wagcafaerbw& xrc tphyhcffbkt bkcktbpocwgc~fckhpctã& wrp fb "prphf"+ Gbw bkwbcekhktw h~~hptcbkkbkt ~pckgc~hfblbkt îtpacw ckwtctrtcakw hwwagcãbw ohkw fb fh`aphtacpb = f%Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb CC,Fb Lcphcf

*R_L#& bt ~frw w~ãgchfblbkt wak Oã~hptblbkt ob eãaeph~jcb& f%Ckwtctrt Khtcakhf^afstbgjkcxrb ob _arfarwb,CK^_& hr tphybpw ob f%Ãgafb Khtcakhfb Wr~ãpcbrpb

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Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

Hepakalcxrb ob _arfarwb , BKWH_& f%Ãgafb Khtcakhfb ob Iaplhtcak Hepakalcxrb,BKIH+F–ãxrc~b gal~tb 0: Bkwbcekhktw,gjbpgjbrpw oakt 3 JOP& 7&2 B_^ C_H!@CH_AWW 4 80gjbpgjbrpw hwwagcãw bt ?7 oagtaphktw+

Fb fh`aphtacpb gbktpb wbw pbgjbpgjbw wrp fh tphkwctcak bt fbw karybffbw prphfctãw ohkwfbw ~hsw or Kapo bt or Wro+ F%a`mbgtci bwt ob pãbzhlckbp fh ~bptckbkgb ob fh prphfctãbt or tbppctacpb ~arp f%ãtrob obw oskhlcxrbw wagca,ãgakalcxrbw bt obw laobwo%apehkcwhtcak w~htchfb obw wagcãtãw or Kapo bt or Wro+Fbw tjêlbw ob pbgjbpgjb ~aptbkt wrp =8# fh ocybpwctã obw hepcgrftrpbw& bkycpakkblbktw bt tbppctacpbw ~paorgtciw+ Cf w–hect ob

xrbwtcakkbp fh iakgtcak ~paorgtcyb obw tbppctacpbw prphrz bt fh ~pblcêpb o–bktpbtartbw& f–hepcgrftrpb& wrp fbw ãyafrtcakw bt fh gabzcwtbkgb ob ocybpw laoêfbwo–hepcgrftrpb ihgb hrz ãyafrtcakw obw lhpgjãw& ob fh oblhkob& obw gaktphcktbw oroãybfa~~blbkt orph`fb 40# fb ihct o–jh`ctbp& gakwallbp& bt tphyhcffbp ohkw fbw bw~hgbw prphrz ar gallbktycypb fh gal~fbzctã bt f–ckgbptctrob obw tbppctacpbw ob fh prphfctã+ Fbw pbgjbpgjbwycwbkt î hkhfswbp fh ihåak oakt wb gakwtprcwbkt ob karybhrz tbppctacpbw obpãiãpbkgbw& wb eêpb fh gal~fbzctã hggprb or ph~~apt î f–bw~hgb prphf& wb ycybkt obkarybhrz laobw ob wagchfctãw ohkw rkb oskhlcxrb gcpgrfhtacpb& ~frpcbffb& ob f–bktpb,obrz bktpb ycffbw bt ghl~hekb+ Bffbw w–biiapgbkt hrwwc o–cktãepbp f–ãtrob obwph~~aptw oskhlcxrbw bktpb fbw jallbw bt fbw ibllbw bt bktpb eãkãphtcakw 47# fb pbkarybffblbkt *tbppctapchfcwhtcak# ob f–hgtcak ~r`fcxrb = obw tbppctacpbw prphrz

ob ~pambtw+ F–a`mbgtci ~pckgc~hf bwt o–cobktcicbp fbw laobw ob gakwtprgtcak ob fh prphfctã~hp f–hkhfswb obw lãghkcwlbw ob ~paorgtcak ob f–hgtcak ~r`fcxrb tbppctapchfcwãb bkcktbppaebhkt fbw faecxrbw o–ãyafrtcak obw pãiãpbktcbfw obw ~afctcxrbw ~r`fcxrbw& fbwlaobw ob earybpkhkgb bt fbw ts~bw ob pbwwarpgbw+ H xrbffb ãgjbffb bt hybg xrbfwwswtêlbw o–hgtbrpw w–apehkcwbkt fbw kcybhrz ~pãekhktw ob f–cktbpybktcak ~r`fcxrb bkiakgtcak obw ~pa`fêlbw ~awãw ~hp fh tphkwiaplhtcak hggãfãpãb obw wagcãtãw bt obwbw~hgbw prphrz 1

 

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Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

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2+ ^pãwbkthtcak ob ^FJ *^htpclackb& Fcttãphtrpb& Jcwtacpb ‗ BH ?827#^FJ h ~arp oalhckb o%ãtrob f%hkhfswb obw ph~~aptw bt obw laobw o%hptcgrfhtcak

bktpb ~hwwã bt ~pãwbkt& wbfak rkb h~~pagjb ob khtrpb ~jcfafaecxrb& jcwtapcxrb btjbplãkbrtcxrb+ Fbw gjhl~w obw fcttãphtrpbw bt obw wgcbkgbw jcwtapcxrbw wakth~~pãjbkoãw gallb obw fcbrz bt obw bkmbrz ob lãlacpb& gallb obw bw~hgbw obgpãhtcyctã bt o–cktbphgtcak& wbfak rkb lãtjaob tphkwybpwhfb bt gal~hphtcwtb bktpbocwgc~fckbw& bktpb hcpbw grftrpbffb bt bktpb ~ãpcaobw& ob f%Hktcxrctã hr tpêwgaktbl~aphck+ _pacw hzbw wb oãehebkt = opbwwbp f%ãtht obw fcbrz obw ~htpclackbwgrftrpbfw& bt pãifãgjcp wrp fbw lhkcêpbw oakt kaw wagcãtãw wb fbw h~~pa~pcbkt 4 ãtrocbpfbw ~jãkalêkbw ob gakwtprgtcak& tphkwlcwwcak& tphorgtcak bt tphkw~awctcak obwwhyacpw 4 hkhfswbp fh ~awctcak obw wagcãtãw o–jcbp bt o–hrmarpo–jrc xrhkt î fh katcak ob

¤ ~htpclackb ´ bt ob ¤ lãlacpb ´+Hr wbck ob ^FJ& f–ãxrc~b BPHWLB bwt fh wbrfb bk Iphkgb î tphyhcffbpw~ãgcicxrblbkt wrp fh pãgb~tcak ob f–Hktcxrctã+ Bffb bz~fapb fbw ociiãpbktbw iaplbw obpbfhtcak oskhlcxrb bt gpctcxrb xrc pbkobkt fbw lakobw hkgcbkw gaktbl~aphckw& îtphybpw fbw hptcgrfhtcakw bktpb ~pãwbkt& ~hwwã bt hybkcp+ Ak frc oact fh gpãhtcak bk0>>2 ob fh pbyrb ¤ Hkh`hwbw+ _phoctcakw bt pãgb~tcakw ob f–Hktcxrctã ´+ ^hplc wbwhzbw& ak pbfêybph ¤ Fb ~hptheb obw whyacpw = jcwtapcaeph~jcb& ~jcfawa~jcb&fcttãphtrpb ´ bt ¤ Pãwbhrz wgcbktcicxrbw bt jcwtacpb obw whyacpw wrp f%Hktcxrctã *ZCZb ,ZZb wcêgfbw# ́ & î fh gpacwãb ob ~frwcbrpw h~~pagjbw bt ocwgc~fckbw fcttãphcpbw&jcwtapcxrbw bt wagchfbw+ Rk obw a`mbgtciw bwt ob gbpkbp fbw ~pagbwwrw ob wtprgtrphtcakbt ob oãwtprgtrphtcak obw pãwbhrz whyhktw bk iakgtcak obw gaktbztbw jcwtapcxrbw bteãa,~afctcxrbw+ Bk w–ckw~cphkt obw artcfw lcw hr ~ackt î f–Rkcybpwctã ob Wthkiapo ohkw

fb ghopb or ~pambt ¤ Lh~~cke tjb Pb~r`fcg ai Fbttbpw ´& ak ycwb rkb ghptaeph~jcb obwãgjhkebw bt rkb pbgakwtctrtcak obw tbppctacpbw whyhktw+

^FJ,BPHWLB h ~hptcgc~ã î f–HGC bt hr EOPC ¤ Fbw lakobw fbttpãw ´& gaapoakkãb~hp G+ Mhga` *GKPW ^hpcw# bt î f–bktpb~pcwb ãoctapchfb ob ¤ Fbw fcbrz ob whyacp ´& 8&¤ Bw~hgbw bt gallrkhrtãw ´ *jtt~=!!fcbrzobwhyacp+js~atjbwbw+ape!fcbrz,ob,whyacp,8 #4h apehkcwã ~frwcbrpw Gaffaxrbw& Marpkãbw o–ãtrob bt Wãlckhcpbw wrp f–hpgjãafaecb obwwhyacpw bt fh wagch`cfctã whyhktb 4 bwt cl~fcxrãb ohkw obw tphyhrz ob pbgjbpgjb wrpobw gappbw~akohkgbw whyhktbw 4 h gaapoakkã rk ^^P ~arp fh pãhfcwhtcak o–rk¤ ^apthcf ckiaplhtcxrb wrp fbw gappbw~akohkgbw ob whyhktw hktcxrcwhktw iphkga~jakbwobw ZCZb,ZZb wcêgfbw ´& bk ~jhwb ob tbwt+

^FJ pbepar~b hr tathf ?7 bkwbcekhktw,gjbpgjbrpw lbl p̀bw ~bplhkbktw& ?>

oagtaphktw& 77 bkwbcekhktw,gjbpgjbrpw lbl`pbw hwwagcãw bt 8 ebwtcakkhcpb bk h~~rcî fh pbgjbpgjb+Ocpbgtbrp = Ohkcbf FHGPACZOcpbgtbrpw o–ãxrc~b = Mbhk,Lhpg FRGB *GPH_H#& Mbhk,Sybw FHRPCGJBWWB *BFJ#& Gapckkb

@AKKB_ *BPHWLB#+Fbw bkwbcekhktw,gjbpgjbrpw ob ^FJ wakt hwwagcãw î tpacw Lhwtbpw = fb Lhwtbp

‖Fbttpbw“& fb Lhwtbp ‖Wgcbkgbw ob f%Hktcxrctã“& fb Lhwtbp brpa~ãbk ‖Brpa~bhk Lhwtbpck Gfhwwcghf Grftrpbw“ *gakwaptcrl ob 88 rkcybpwctãw#+ Cfw wakt cl~fcxrãw ohkw obrzÃgafbw Oagtaphfbw = _BWG bt Hff~jN+

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

9+ ^pãwbkthtcak or FBPB^W

FBPB^W& BH ?080& F H@APH_ACPB  O–B_ROB  B_   OB PBGJBPGJB  WRP  F–BGAKALCB& FBW ^AFC_CXRBW  B_   FBW  WSW_ÊLBW WAGCHRZ 

OCPBG_BRP = GJHPCFHAW D B^JHFCHGAW& ^PAIBWWBRP O–ÃGAKALCB Î F–BKIH+OCPBG_BRPW  HOMACK_W = AFCYCBP @PAWWHPO& ^PAIBWWBRP  O–ÃGAKALCB  Π F–CB^ _ARFARWB 4 LBO D BGJCOC&LHË_PB OB GAKIÃPBKGBW JOP ΠF–RKCYBPWC_à _ARFARWB FB LCPHCF+BIIBG_CIW = 85 ^BPLHKBK_W OAK_ 87 JOP& 8> HWWAGCÃW& 79 OAG_APHK_W B_ ^AW_,OAG_APHK_W+

Fb FBPB^W bwt ãxrc~b o–hggrbcf o–R_8 bt h rkb gakybktcak ob gaffh`aphtcak hybgf–BKIH xrc frc gakiêpb rkb pbgakkhcwwhkgb ~hp fb Lckcwtêpb ob f–Hepcgrftrpb *¤ RLP ´

FBPB^W or Lckcwtêpb ob f–Hepcgrftrpb#+ Rkb gakybktcak bwt bk garpw ob wcekhtrpb xrcobyphct ckwtctrtcakkhfcwbp fb phtthgjblbkt wbgakohcpb ob f–ãxrc~b î f–CB^,_arfarwb& îf–Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb Fb Lcphcf bt î f–BKIH& fb phtthgjblbkt ~pckgc~hf pbwthkt îf–Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb 8,Gh~ctafb+ Bk biibt& fb FBPB^W ~pcycfãecb rkb h~~pagjb~frpcocwgc~fckhcpb bt bl~cpcxrb obw ~pa`fãlhtcxrbw ãgakalcxrbw xrc f–h hlbkã îãth`fcp obw pbfhtcakw hkgcbkkbw bt orph`fbw hybg gbw ãth`fcwwblbktw+F–rkctã gal~tb obrz hzbw ob pbgjbpgjb =

Hzb 8 = Bw~hgb bt tbppctacpbwGb ~pblcbp hzb bwt oãybfa~~ã hr fh`aphtacpb ob~rcw fbw hkkãbw 83:>+ Fbwpbgjbpgjbw lbkãbw wb oã~facbkt hrtarp ob obrz tjêlbw = rk tjêlb ~pckgc~hfblbktlcgpa,ãgakalcxrb& gakwhgpã hrz tphyhrz gpacwhkt fbw pbgjbpgjbw bk ãgakalcb

eãaeph~jcxrb bt bk ãgakalcb ckorwtpcbffb *Hzb 8+8# 4 rk tjêlb lãwa,ãgakalcxrb&gakwhgpã hrz laoêfbw ob oãybfa~~blbkt faghf bt hrz xrbwtcakw ob earybpkhkgbobw tbppctacpbw *Hzb 8+0#+

Hzb 0+ Oskhlcxrb obw apehkcwhtcakw ohkw f–ãgakalcb ob fh gakkhcwwhkgbickhkgchpcwãbKã hrtarp obw xrbwtcakw ob pbgjbpgjb pbfhtcybw hrz pbfhtcakw ickhkgcêpbw bt îf–ãyafrtcak obw wtprgtrpbw hgtcakkhpchfbw obw epar~bw& fb FBPB^W oãybfa~~bhgtrbffblbkt wbw pbgjbpgjbw bk fbw pbgbktphkt ohkw obrz ocpbgtcakw = gbffb orgjhkeblbkt apehkcwhtcakkbf bt ob f–ãgakalcb ob fh gakkhcwwhkgb *Hzb 0+8# 4 gbffb orfcbk bktpb fbw oclbkwcakw ickhkgcêpbw bt ~paorgtcybw obw wtphtãecbw lcwbw bk ŗrypb

~hp fbw epar~bw *Hzb 0+0#+

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

5+ ^pãwbkthtcak or FHWW^Fb Fh`aphtacpb obw wgcbkgbw wagchfbw or ~afctcxrb w%htthgjb o%rkb ~hpt hr

ghphgtêpb w~ãgcicxrb obw ~jãkalêkbw ~afctcxrbw& fbwxrbfw wb ph~~aptbkt hrz~pagbwwrw ob earybpkblbkt& bktbkorw gallb f%bkwbl`fb obw hgtcyctãw tbkohkt îlhcktbkcp ar î laocicbp f%apopb wagchf ohkw rkb ar obw wagcãtãw ~afctcxrbw& bt akttarmarpw î yacp& ~br ar ~par& hybg f%rwheb ob laohfctãw ob gabpgctcak bt ob~bpwrhwcak pbårbw gallb fãectclbw ~hpgb xrb fãectclãbw 4 bt o%hrtpb ~hpt warfcekbtart f%cktãpít wgcbktcicxrb o%rkb ~frphfctã o%h~~pagjbw or ~afctcxrb bk wbw iaplbwociiãpbkgcãbw+

G%bwt ~arpxrac fb FhWW^ hggrbcffb obw ~afctcwtbw& obw mrpcwtbw& obw jcwtapcbkw& obwwagcafaerbw& obw gjbpgjbrpw bk wgcbkgb ob f%ckiaplhtcak bt ob fh gallrkcghtcak& obw

hktjpa~afaerbw bt obw ãgakalcwtbw xrc& tart bk ãtrochkt fbw ~jãkalêkbw ~afctcxrbwgjhgrk wbfak wak ghopb o%hkhfswb ~pa~pb& fbw h~~pãjbkobkt î ~hptcp o%rkb lílb~bpw~bgtcyb , xrb& ~hp wtãkaeph~jcb& f%ak ~arpphct ocpb ¤hr gakgpbt´ bt ¤~hp bk `hw´*`attal r~#+ Xr%cf w%hecwwb o%ãtrocbp fbw ckwtctrtcakw ~afctcga,holckcwtphtcybwearybpkhktbw gallb rkcybpw ob ~phtcxrbw hr gakgpbt ar o%ãtrocbp fh pãgb~tcak btfbw rwhebw octw ¤apockhcpbw´ ar ¤wblc,~paihkbw´ or ocwgarpw obw ~paibwwcakkbfw orgjhl~ ~afctcxrb& kathllbkt ohkw fbrp oclbkwcak brpa~ãbkkb& g%bwt tarmarpwf%ãgakalcb cktbphgtcakkbffb obw ~phtcxrbw gakgpêtbw,pãbffbw obw hgtbrpw wagchrz xrcpbtcbkt tart ~hptcgrfcêpblbkt f%cktãpít obw gjbpgjbrpw or fh`aphtacpb+

Gbttb ~bpw~bgtcyb gallrkb wb oãgfckb bk obrz ~pckgc~hrz hzbw ob pbgjbpgjbw =Hzb 8 = ¤ Earybpkblbktw& holckcwtphtcakw bt ~afctcxrbw ~r`fcxrbw ´+Fbw pbgjbpgjbw gakorctbw hr wbck ob f%hzb 8 gaktckrbpakt î w%ckwgpcpb ohkw fh

~bpw~bgtcyb ob f%ãtrob o%ckwtctrtcakw earybpkhktbw bk ~bp~ãtrbffb pbgal~awctcak& hrkal p̀b obwxrbffbw f%Btht& lhcw hrwwc `cbk wôp fbw ocybpw ¤ kcybhrz obearybpkblbkt ´& ~pcw ohkw obw gakicerphtcakw bt ¤ mbrz o%ãgjbffbw ´ xrc yakt or faghfbk ~hwwhkt ~hp fb pãecakhf bt fb wthta,khtcakhf mrwxr%î f%RB+

Hzb 0 = ¤ Lãochw& grftrpbw bt ~afctcxrb ´+Fbw ~bpw~bgtcybw ob pbgjbpgjbw ob f%hzb 0 wb oãgfckbkt hrtarp ob 0 ~pambtw obpbgjbpgjb+ Fb ~paephllb ob pbgjbpgjb ¤ Fbw tphkwiaplhtcakw obw ãgakalcbwcktbpkbw obw gjhl~w marpkhfcwtcxrb bt ~afctcxrb ´ ycwbph î ãyhfrbp bt î tjãapcwbp fbwtphkwiaplhtcakw bk garpw obw gjhl~w marpkhfcwtcxrb bt ~afctcxrb+ Cf w–hect o–ckctcbp rkbpãifbzcak ~pa~pb wrp fbw tphkwiaplhtcakw gakmacktbw bt ckocwwagch`fbw obw gjhl~w

 marpkhfcwtcxrb bt ~afctcxrb khtcakhrz+ Fb wbgako ~paephllb& ¤ Wagchfcwhtcakw&

Bkeheblbktw bt la`cfcwhtcakw ~afctcxrbw ~phtcxrbw ´ wb pboã~facb hrtarp or gakgb~tob ~afctcwhtcak ~phtcxrb+ Cf w%hect ob oãybfa~~bp fbw hgxrcw o%rkb wagcafaecb ~afctcxrbxrc gaktckrb bk Iphkgb î ihcpb ~pbryb bt î ihcpb wbw ~pbrybw& tart bk cktãephkt fbwgpctcxrbw bt gbpthckw h~~aptw pãbfw *xracxrb gakirw bt ckãehrz# obw xrbfxrbw tphyhrzyãpcth`fblbkt jbrpcwtcxrbw obw Grftrphf Wtrocbw ob @cplckejhl oakt wakt cwwrbw fbwwagcafaecbw octbw ob fh ¤ pãgb~tcak ´& fbw Ebkobp wtrocbw& fbw Wr`hftbpk wtrocbwobybkrbw ^awt,gafakchf wtrocbw+ Rkb iacw pbwagcafaecwãbw& gbw ~bpw~bgtcybw hkefa,hlãpcghckbw ~arpphcbkt bk biibt rtcfblbkt iãgakobp fbw tphyhrz wrp fbw la`cfcwhtcakw&f%bkeheblbkt bt fb mreblbkt ~afctcxrbw+ 

0:!75

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

:+ RLP 80?: ‗ CKPH!CK^ = tbhlw CAOH *Ckkayhtcakw& Apehkcwhtcakw btOskhlcxrbw hepa,ckorwtpcbffbw# hko LBOCH_CAKWCaoh hko Lãochtcakw hpb tua tbhlw ai wagchf wgcbkgbw ck tjb lrftcocwgc~fckhps RLP*wagchf wgcbkgbw hko `catbgjkcghf wgcbkgbw# HECP& ujcgj ckgfrobw 92 ~bplhkbktlbl`bpw hko 78 kak ~bplhkbkt lbl`bpw+ _jb RLP hko tjb tua tbhlw jhybpbgbcybo Hbpbw H phtcke *0>>8 ta 0>8? H ephocke#+

 _jb wgcbktcicg a`mbgtcyb ai tjb tbhl CAOH *bgakalcgw# cw ta obwgpc`b& hkhfswb hkolaobf tjb ckkayhtcak oskhlcgw ai hgtapw ck tjb iaao ckorwtps hko tjbcp cktbphgtcakuctj kbtuapd hko tbppctapchf oskhlcgw+ _jb pbwbhpgj la c̀fc}bw tjb gakgb~trhfiphlbuapdw ai tjb dkaufboeb bgakals hko apehkc}htcakhf bgakalcgw ck ctwh~~pahgj ta dkaufboeb gpbhtcak hko ocwwblckhtcak lbtjaow uctjck hko `btubbk

apehkc}htcakw hw warpgbw ai gal~btctcybkbww+ Ck h gaktbzt ai ckgpbhwcke ~pbwwrpbipal lhpdbtw& tjb gjhffbkeb cw ta cl~payb rkobpwthkocke ai jau hepa,ckorwtpchfhgtapw hpb apehkc}bo ta lbbt tjb a`mbgtcybw ai wrwthckh`fb obybfa~lbkt hko aiibpkbu ~paorgtw ckgap~aphtcke bkycpaklbkthf hko jbhftj gakwtphcktw+

 _jb lhck pbwbhpgj xrbwtcakw gakgbpk 8# tjb obtbplckcke wtprgtrphf hko w~htchfckkayhtcak ihgtapw hiibgtcke tjb apehkcwhtcak hw hk ckocycorhf wthdbjafobp hko 0# tjbkbu laobw ai ckocycorhf hko gaffbgtcyb gaapockhtcak uctjck tjb wbgtapw rkobp~ckkcketjb ckkayhtcak wtphtbecbw ai tjb apehkc}htcakw hko la`cfc}cke h wbt ai wswtblw hkofaghfctcbw *w~htchf& apehkc}htcakhf& ckwtctrtcakhf hko gaekctcyb#& ck apobp ta ckkayhtb+

 _jb apceckhfcts ai arp h~~pahgj cw fckdbo ta ctw mackt gakwcobphtcak ai tjbapehkc}htcakhf hko w~htchf oclbkwcakw ai ckkayhtcak ~pagbwwbw+ _jb pbwbhpgjlbtjaoafaes cw `hwbo ak h wcekcicghkt la`cfc}htcak ai ohth`hwbw ipal wrpybsw ai 

aiicgchf wthtcwtcgw hko icbfo wrpybsw ~paorgbo `s tjb tbhl+ _jb Caoh tbhl jhwobybfa~bo h fakewthkocke ~afcgs ai ckgfrwcak hko gaffh`aphtcak uctj tjb WagchfWgcbkgb fh`aphtapcbw ck _arfarwb tjht hffauw ct ta bz~hko ctw ~pagborpbw hko bz~hkoctw wbgtapchf h~~pahgjbw+ Hw h pbwrft ct cw ckyafybo& iap bzhl~fb& ck h FBPB^W uapdckeepar~ ak Hepa,ckorwtpchf Oskhlcgw+ Ct gaktpc`rtbw ta tjb PbW_a *Wagchf Kbtuapdw ck_arfarwb# epar~ hko cw uapdcke uctj tjb FCWW_& tjb Gbpta~ hko Iphlbw~h tjparejpbecakhf ~pambgtw *wrgj hw Faghf Wdcffw Wswtblw 0>>2,0>>5 hko tjb IRC Ebauckb~pambgt 0>>5,0>88#+ _jb tbhl hfwa gaktpc`rtbw ta tjb Brpa~bhk Lakctapcke Gbktpbiap faghfc}bo BrpaFCA ckkayhtcak ohth+

Gakgbpkcke Lãochtcakw *lhkheblbkt hko eãaeph~jcb#& tjb a m̀bgtcyb ai cw ta

~paorgb dkaufboeb h`art tjb ~pagbwwbw& lbgjhkcwlw hko taafw ai lbochtcak`btubbk ihplbpw& faghf hgtapw& hebktw hko ckwtctrtcakw tjht hggal~hks obybfa~lbkt*obybfa~lbkt hebkgcbw& faghf hrtjapctcbw& ckwtctrtcakw tphckcke& rkcakw&gaa~bphtcybw &+++#+ _jb hcl cw ta ~paycob hk hkhfswcw hko tjb hggal~hkscke gjhkebwck ihplcke+ _jb tua tbhlw hpb cktbephtbo ckta tjb ephorhtb wgjaaf _BWG hko wbybphfai ctw lbl`bpw hpb ckyafybo ck ^jO tbhgjcke+

0+0+0 XRHFCICGH_CAK& PßFB B_ CL^FCGH_CAK OBW RKC_BW^HP_BKHCPBW ! XRHFCICGH_CAK& PAFB HKO CKYAFYBLBK_ AI _JB ^HP_KBP RKC_W =

Kal!Wrpkhlb

^pãkal!Icpwt khlb

^awtb!^awctcak

Ocwgc~fckb!Oalhck

Rkctã~hptbkhcp

Bth`fcwwblbkt~hptbkhcpb!Ape

Pÿfb ohkw fb ~pambt *? fcekbwlhz+# ! Gaktpc`rtcak ck tjb

03!75

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

b!^hptkbp hkc}htcak apgal~hks

~pambgt *? fckbw lhz#

Hl`fhpo Ipãoãpcg Lhëtpb obGakiãpbkgbw

Ckiaplhtcxrb

RLP22>2

Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 8

Hkclhtbrp ob f–htbfcbp wrpf–hkhfswb obw pãwbhrzwagchrz& gappbw~akohkt CPC_

@bptphko Lcgjbf ^paibwwbrp Jcwtacpb RLP2879 Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0*CRI wbkcap#

Hkclhtbrp ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ pãwbhrz ob ~aryacp ´&gappbw~akohkt IPHLBW^H

@akkbt Gapckkb ^paibwwbrp Jcwtacpb BH ?827 Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0*CRI wbkcap#

Hkclhtpcgb ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ lakobw wgcbktcicxrbw ´&gappbw~akohktb ^FJ

@apobw,@bkhsark

Gjhkthf OP Wagcafaecb RLP2837

GKPW Hkclhtpcgb ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ pãwbhrz bt lcephtcak ´

@pawwhpo Afcycbp ^paibwwbrp Bgakalcb BH?080 Rkcybpwctã ob

 _arfarwb 8

Hkclhtbrp ob f–a~ãphtcak

¤ lakobw ~paorgtciw ´&gappbw~akohkt FBPB^WGjhpfbps obfhLhwwbfcêpb

@bpkhpo ^paibwwbrp Eãaeph~jcb LH8>? Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0

Hkclhtbrp ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ tphkwiaplhtcak obwph~~aptw prphf,rp`hck ´&gappbw~akohkt ¤ OskhlcxrbwPrphfbw ´

Gagjas Iphkgd ^paibwwbrp Wagcafaecb RLP2>??

Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0

Hkclhtbrp ob f–htbfcbp¤ btjkaeph~jcb obw rwhebw

Gjhrfbt Majhkk GP Wagcafaecb RLP2837

GKPW Hkclhtbrp ob f–htbfcbp¤ tphgbw krlãpcxrbw ´

Ohtgjhps Ghpafckb Lhëtpb obGakiãpbkgbw

Wagcafaecb RLP2837

Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0

Hkclhtpcgb ob f–htbfcbp¤ tphgbw krlãpcxrbw ´

Ob Ibobpcga Hckjah Lhëtpb obGakiãpbkgbw

Wagcafaecb RLP2837

Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0

Hkclhtpcgb ob f–htbfcbp¤ hkhfswb ob pãwbhrz ´

Ohpphw Bpcg ^paibwwbrp Wgcbkgb

^afctcxrb

BH?582 Ckwtctrt

o–Btrobw^afctcxrbw ob _arfarwb

Gappbw~akohkt FHWW^

Odhdc _haricx Lhëtpb obGakiãpbkgbw

Ckiaplhtcxrb

RLP22>2

Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0

Hkclhtbrp ob f–htbfcbp¤ hkhfswbw ob pãwbhrz ´

Oargbt Gjpcwtckb Lhëtpb obGakiãpbkgbw

Jcwtacpb RLP2879 Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0

Hkclhtpcgb ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ pãwbhrz ob ~aryacp ´

Bgdbpt Obkcw OP Eãaeph~jcb RLP2837

GKPW Hkclhtbrp obf–a~ãphtcak ¤ lakobwwgcbktcicxrbw ´&gappbw~akohkt FCWW_

Bybka Bllhkrbf ^paibwwbrp Eãaeph~jcb RLP 2837

Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0

Hkclhtbrp ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ _CG bt pãwbhrz ´

Ehffchka Ohkcêfb OP Bgakalcb RLP80?:

CKPH Hkclhtpcgb ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ lakobw ~paorgtciw ´&gappbw~akohktb CAOH

Epawwbttc Lcgjbf OP Wagcafaecb RLP 2837

GKPW Pbw~akwh`fb wgcbktcicxrb or~pambt+Hkclhtbrp obw a~ãphtcakw¤ _CG bt pãwbhrz ´ bt¤ Lakobw wgcbktcicxrbw ´+Hkclhtbrp ob f–htbfcbp¤ hkhfswb obw pãwbhrz ´+

Jhhw Mahxrcl Ckeãkcbrp Wagcafaecb RLP2>??

GBPBX Hkclhtbrp ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ lakobw ~paorgtciw ´

Jhrtbibrcffb Ifapbkt Lhëtpb obGakiãpbkgbw

Jcwtacpb RLP2879 Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0

Hkclhtbrp ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ pãwbhrz ob ~aryacp ´

 Mroob obFhpcycêpb

Gfhcpb Lhëtpb obGakiãpbkgbw

Jcwtacpb RLP2879 Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0

Hkclhtpcgb ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ pãwbhrz ob ~aryacp ´

Lhpgjhko ^hwghf ^paibwwbrp Ckiaplhtcakbt

Gallrkcghtcak

BH :05 Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 7

Hkclhtbrp ob f–htbfcbp¤ hkhfswb tbztrbffb ´

Lhsêpb Hkkb ^paibwwbrp Ckiaplhtcak RLP Rkcybpwctã ob Hkclhtbrp ob f–htbfcbp

7>!75

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

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btGallrkcghtcak

2>?? _arfarwb 7 ¤ btjkaeph~jcb obw rwhebw

Lbl`phoa Lakcxrb Ckeãkcbrp Wagcafaecb RLP2837

GKPW Hkclhtpcgb ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ karybffbw iaplbw orycbcffcwwblbkt ´

Laktjr`bpt Bpuhkb Bkwbcekhktbgaktphgtrbffb

Ckiaplhtcakbtgallrkcghtcak

BH ?582 Ckwtctrto–Btrobw^afctcxrbw ob _arfarwb

Hkclhtpcgb or ¤ fh`aphtacpbobw rwhebw ´

Afcycbp Mbhk,Lhpg ^paibwwbrp Jcwtacpb RLP2879 Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0

Hkclhtbrp ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ lakobw ~paorgtciw ´

^bpparz Bfcwh`btj Gjbpgjbrpb Eãaeph~jcb RLP2837

GKPW Hkclhtpcgb ob f–htbfcbp¤ hkhfswb tbztrbffb ´

^fcb} Afcycbp Ocpbgtbrp ob

pbgjbpgjbw

Eãaeph~jcb RLP

2837

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*lãohcffb ob`pak}b#

Hkclhtbrp ob f–a~ãphtcak

¤ lcephtcakw bt pãwbhrz ´

Phtckhro ^cbppb Lhëtpb obGakiãpbkgbw

CkiaplhtcakbtGallrkcghtcak

BH :05 Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 7

Hkclhtbrp ob f–htbfcbp¤ hkhfswb tbztrbffb ´

Parsbp Hfcgb Lhëtpb obGakiãpbkgbw

Eãaeph~jcb RLP2837

Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0

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Wclarfck Yckgbkt ^paibwwbrp Wagcafaecb RLP2>??

Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0

Gappbw~akohkt GBP_A^

Ycgbktb Mãpÿlb Lhëtpb obGakiãpbkgbw

Bgakalcb BH ?080 Ckwtctrto–Btrobw^afctcxrbw ob _arfarwb

Hkclhtbrp ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ lakobw ~paorgtciw ´

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ãlãpctb

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Rkcybpwctã ob

 _arfarwb 0

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¤ lcephtcakw bt pãwbhrz ´ _pc`arfbt ^cbppb Ckeãkcbrp Bgakalcb HECP RLP 80?: Hkclhtbrp ob f–a~ãphtcak

¤ lakobw ~paorgtciw ´Ubcw`bck Mrfcbk Lhëtpb ob

GakiãpbkgbwWgcbkgb^afctcxrb

BH ?582 Ckwtctrto–Btrobw^afctcxrbw ob _arfarwb

Hkclhtbrp ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ pãwbhrz bt _CG ´

]rfchkc Mbhk,Lhpg Lhëtpb obGakiãpbkgbw

Eãaeph~jcb RLP2837

Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb 0

Hkclhtbrp ob f–a~ãphtcak¤ lakobw ~paorgtciw ´

 

Kal or ~hptbkhcpb Hiicfchtcak Biibgtciw ! Ghtãeapcb ob ~bpwakkbf  

*gjbpgjbrpw& ckeãkcbrpw& oagtaphkt …#

FCWW_GKPW& Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb 0& Bgafb obw JhrtbwBtrobw bk Wgcbkgbw Wagchfbw

:2 ~bplhkbktw *oakt 07 GKPW# 489? kak ~bplhkbktw

IPHLBW^H GKPW& Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb fb Lcphcf8>0 ~bplhkbktw *oakt 3 GKPW# 4009 kak ~bplhkbktw

GBP_A^ GKPW& Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb 097 ~bplhkbktw *oakt 88 GKPW# 4809 oagtaphktw

Oskhlcxrbw Prphfbw05 ~bplhkbktw& 20 kak~bplhkbktw

^FJ Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb 0 29 ~bplhkbktw& 2> oagtaphktw

FBPB^W Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb 80> ~bplhkbktw 4 79 kak~bplhkbktw

FHWW^ Ckwtctrt o–ãtrobw ~afctcxrbw ob _arfarwb87 ~bplhkbktw& 87 kak~bplhkbktw

HECP *ãxrc~bw CAOH btLãochtcakw# CKPH ‗ WHO& CK^ 2 ~bplhkbktw& 2 kak ~bplhkbktw

78!75

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

0+7+ EARYBPKHKGB !EAYBPKHKGB

Gallb tarw fbw fh`aphtacpbw o–bzgbffbkgb& WLW bwt rk ~pambt ob fake tbplb& gb xrccl~fcxrb rkb apehkcwhtcak ckoã~bkohktb obw ~bpwakkbw xrc fb gakåacybkt hr oã~hpt+Gbttb apehkcwhtcak pb~awb wrp fh gakwtctrtcak ob ? ckwthkgbw =

, Rk Gakwbcf o–Holckcwtphtcak gal~awã or pbw~akwh`fb or Fh`Bz& obpb~pãwbkthktw obw rkctãw ob pbgjbpgjb cl~fcxrãbw& or ~ÿfb ^HGW& obw ycgb,~pãwcobktw pbgjbpgjb obw ãth`fcwwblbktw gakgbpkãw& bt ob 7 pb~pãwbkthktw obfh wagcãtã gcycfb+ Cf kallb fbw lbl p̀bw or galctã ob ~cfatheb bt fbpbw~akwh`fb or Fh`Bz wrp ~pa~awctcak ob gbfrc,gc hckwc xrb fbw lbl`pbw or

Gakwbcf Wgcbktcicxrb wrp ~pa~awctcak or Galctã ob ^cfatheb+ Cf ãyhfrbhkkrbffblbkt fb iakgtcakkblbkt apehkcwhtcakkbf or Fh`Bz bt w–h~~rcb wrp fbwbz~bptcwbw or Gakwbcf Wgcbktcicxrb+ Fb Gakwbcf o–Holckcwtphtcak ybcffb î fhgajãpbkgb obw hgtcyctãw or Fh`Bz hybg fbw apcbkthtcakw obwfh`aphtacpbw bt obw ãth`fcwwblbktw& hckwc xr–hrz biibtw o–bktphëkblbktob gbfrc,gc wrp f–bkwbl`fb ob fh gallrkhrtã wgcbktcicxrb faghfb+

, Rk Galctã ob ^cfatheb& ~pa~awã ~hp fb pbw~akwh`fb or Fh`Bz& bt pbkarybfãtarw fbw 0 hkw+ Cf bwt gakwtctrã obw ~pckgc~hrz pbw~akwh`fbw obw a~ãphtcakw obpbgjbpgjb bt obw hgtcyctãw ob wãlckhcpb+ Cf oãgcob obw httpc`rtcakw o–hffaghtcakw&bk gakgbpthtcak hybg fbw ocpbgtbrpw ob fh`aphtacpbw bt hybg fbw ãgafbw

oagtaphfbw *hrzxrbffbw fbw oawwcbpw ob ghkocohtw wakt warlcw# ~arp fbw tjêwbw&hybg fbw ocpbgtbrpw ob fh`aphtacpbw ~arp fbw hffaghtcakw ~awt,oagtaphfbw+ Cfoãgcob obw a~ãphtcakw ob pbgjbpgjb î bkehebp bt fbw eêpb hrxratcocbk+

, Rkb Hwwbl`fãb Eãkãphfb obw gjbpgjbrpw ~bplhkbktw bt kak ~bplhkbktwcl~fcxrãw ohkw fb ~pambt wb pãrkct rkb iacw ~hp hk+ Bffb oakkb wak hycw wrp fbwapcbkthtcakw or fh`aphtacpb+

Rk Gakwbcf Wgcbktcicxrb& gal~awã ob 8> bz~bptw cktbpkhtcakhrz w~ãgchfcwãw ohkwfbw tjêlbw or ~pambt *pãwbhrz wagchrz& ocw~awctciw& pãerfhtcak& tbppctacpbw#+ Fb Gakwbcfwgcbktcicxrb ãyhfrb tarw fbw obrz hkw f–hgtcyctã or Fh`Bz *tjêwbw fhkgãbw& a~ãphtcakw

ob pbgjbpgjb& gaffaxrbw#+ Cf ybcffb î fh `akkb ckwbptcak obw hgtcyctãw or Fh`Bzohkw fbw oskhlcxrbw wgcbktcicxrbw cktbpkhtcakhfbw+ Akt o–apbw bt oãmî oakkbfbrp hggapo ~arp ~hptcgc~bp î gb galctã = _al Wkcmobpw& Rkcybpwctãw ob Epakckebk btAziapo& Hkopã ^btctht& ~paibwwbrp î f–Rkcybpwctã ob Fhrwhkkb& ~pãwcobkt obf–Hwwagchtcak Cktbpkhtcakhfb obw Wagcafaerbw ob Fhkerb Iphkåhcwb 4 Lhpg,JbkpsWarfbt& ~paibwwbrp ob wagcafaecb î f–Rkcybpwctã ob Ipc`arpe& ocpbgtbrp ob fh pbyrb¤ WagcafaecbW ´& Ococbp Uphkdbk& ~paibwwbrp ob wagcafaecb î f–Rkcybpwctã ob Fcêeb&ycgb,~pãwcobkt ob f–Hwwagchtcak Cktbpkhtcakhfb obw Wagcafaerbw ob Fhkerb Iphkåhcwb 4Yfhoclcp Dafawway& ^paibwwbrp& Ocpbgtbrp or Gbktpb o%Btrobw Eãa~afctcxrbw& Ckwtctrtob Eãaeph~jcb ob f%Hghoãlcb obw Wgcbkgbw ob Prwwcb& ycgb,~pãwcobkt ob f%RkcakEãaeph~jcxrb Cktbpkhtcakhfb& Wb`hwtchk Fbkt}& ^paibwwbrp ob eãaeph~jcb& Ocpbgtbrp

or Fbc`kc},Ckwtctrt iöp Fïkobpdrkob& Fbc~}ce 4 Mhgxrbw Pbybf& jcwtapcbk& Ocpbgtbrpo–ãtrobw ãlãpctb î f–Bgafb obw Jhrtbw Btrobw bk Wgcbkgbw Wagchfbw& Pcgjhpo F+

70!75

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

0>88

Hgpakslb or ~pambt !Hgpaksl

OAGRLBK_ WGCBK_CICXRB @ !WGCBK_CICG WR@LCWWCAK IAPL @

Dhehk& ^paibwwbrp o–jcwtacpb î f–Rkcybpwctã Majkw Ja~dckw& Mbhk,@bkaët ]cllbplhkk&ãgakalcwtb& Ocpbgtbrp ob pbgjbpgjbw hr GKPW& ocpbgtbrp or EPBXHL+

Fb pbw~akwh f̀b or Fh`Bz wbph hwwcwtã o–rk gaapockhtbrp tbgjkcxrb& lcw îocw~awctcak ~hp rkb obw ckwthkgbw ar pãlrkãpã wrp fb ~pambt+

0+?+ W_PH_ÃECB OBW B_H@FCWWBLBK_W!CKW_C_R_CAKHF W_PH_BES

Fb ^PBW ¤ Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb h oãickc fh wtphtãecb wrcyhktb =¤ _jb ^PBW ‖Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb“ *Pbwbhpgj hko Jcejbp Borghtcak gfrwtbp# uhw

iarkobo ck 0>>5 `s 9 JB Ckwtctrtcakw= Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb C Gh~ctafb *Fhu&Bgakalcgw& Lhkheblbkt#& Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb CC Fb Lcphcf *Hptw& Fctbphtrpb&Jrlhkctcbw hko Fhkerhebw#& Rkcybpwctã _arfarwb CCC ^hrf,Wh`htcbp *Wgcbkgb&

 _bgjkafaecbw hko Jbhftj#& Ckwtctrt Khtcakhf ^afstbgjkcxrb ob _arfarwb *BkeckbbpckeWgjaaf#& Ckwtctrt Khtcakhf obw Wgcbkgbw H~~fcxrãbw ob _arfarwb *H~~fcbo Wgcbkgbw#&Ckwtctrt Wr~ãpcbrp ob f–Hãpakhrtcxrb bt ob f–Bw~hgb *Hbpakhrtcgw hko W~hgb# hko& ckhooctcak& 88 JB hwwagchtb lbl`bpw+ _jb hclw ai tjb ^PBW ‖Rkcybpwctã ob _arfarwb“hpb ta bkjhkgb tjb httphgtcybkbww ai _arfarwb hghoblcg ckwtctrtcakw& ta ehck hfbhocke boeb ck tjb hpbhw ai tphckcke hko pbwbhpgj hko ta aiibp tjb `bwt a~~aptrkctcbwta wtrobktw+ H efa`hf wtphtbes cw ~pa~awbo `s tjb Rkcybpwcts ai _arfarwb hghoblcggallrkcts ta pcwb ta tjb gjhffbkebw ai tjb dkaufboeb bgakals ck h gaktbzt ai 

efa`hfcwhtcak ck pbwbhpgj hko jcejbp borghtcak+ _jb Rkcybpwcts ai _arfarwb ucff `b ckh ~awctcak ta gal~btb ck tjb cktbpkhtcakhf hpbkh& httphgtcke walb ai tjb uapfo%w `bwtpbwbhpgjbpw hko wtrobktw ckta ctw ycptrhf ghl~rw ai bzgbffbkgb+ Ct ucff pbyafrtcakcwbtjb _arfarwb hghoblcg fhkowgh~b ak tua gprgchf fbybfw= eaybpkhkgb hkohttphgtcybkbww ´+Ohkw rk gaktbztb faghf aó fbw wgcbkgbw ob fh khtrpb bt ob fh tbgjkcxrb akt rkbephkob ~fhgb& fb Fh`Bz WLW h ~arp a`mbgtci ob gakwtprcpb î ~hptcp ob iapgbw tpêwpãbffbw oãmî ~pãwbktbw ohkw fbw rkctãw ob pbgjbpgjb cl~fcxrãbw *~pêw ob ?>>gjbpgjbrpw#& rk yhwtb epar~blbkt ob gjbpgjbrpw bk wgcbkgbw wagchfbw& ycwc`fb btbiicghgb& gh~h`fb ob ochfaerbp hybg kaw gaffêerbw obw hrtpbw wgcbkgbw bt ob oakkbpfbw artcfw o–rkb gal~pãjbkwcak obw lakobw wagchrz kak pãorgtc`fbw î fh khtrpb arfh tbgjkcxrb+

7+ MRW_CICGH_CAK OBW LASBKW OBLHKOÃW! IRKOCKE MRW_CICGH_CAK

7+8+8 ^PAEPHLLB OB PBGJBPGJB ! PBWBHPGJ ^PAMBG_

Fb ~pambt ob pbgjbpgjb ckgfrt fbw tjêwbw& fbw ~awt,oagtaphtw& fbw a~ãphtcakwwtprgtrphktbw& fbw ~pambtw ãlbpebktw bt fbw htbfcbpw+

Fb th`fbhr 8 bwt iakoã wrp fbw `hwbw wrcyhktbw =, rkb hrelbkthtcak ob 0 ~hp hk *ckifhtcak lasbkkb#

, obw a~ãphtcakw& ~pambtw bt htbfcbpw xrc wb oãgal~awbkt hckwc = 8> o–ãxrc~blbkt*hgjht ob `hwbw ob oakkãbw# 4 8> obw ~pbwthtcakw ob wbpycgb& ?> ob whfhcpbw

77!75

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H^^BF H ^PAMB_W FH@BZ! GHFF IAP  ^PA^AWHFW

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7?!75

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