late pregnancy & preparing for foaling colin mitchell bvm&s certep mrcvs hexham

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  • Late Pregnancy & Preparing for FoalingColin Mitchell BVM&S CertEP MRCVSHexham

  • ContentMare nutritionRoutine careVaccinationsPreparations for foaling

  • DefinitionsMare in foal for 11 monthsGestation = pregnancy = in foalLactation / lactating mare feeding foalWomb = uterus

  • Mare NutritionBy 7 months of gestation foetus 17% of birth weight60% birth weight in last 3 monthsTotal weight gain at full term 10 12 %Foal birth weight approx 8 10 %Average TB mare 500 kg (not in foal)Average TB foal 45 kg

  • Mare Requirement

  • Early mid gestationEarly demands insignificant but not unimportantGood quality pasture may meet energy and protein requirementsNeed general mineral supplement

  • Early mid gestationLittle / no conc feed required unless :LactatingPasture / hay quality or quantity declinesDo not suddenly increase or decrease the mares intake

  • ExerciseCan ride quietly and safely up to 6 / 7 monthsHealthy pregnant mare benefits from natural free exercise up to and including last few daysLittle proven risk from natural movement

  • Late gestationFrom 7 months feed small, but increasing amount of conc to dietLast 3 months, energy demand increases :9th month: 10 %10th month: 15 %11th month: 20 %Space restrictions

  • Space Restrictions

  • Late gestationAverage 550 600 kg TB mare in last month of pregnancy, receives:concentratead lib pasture / hay / haylage

  • Which Concentrate feed ?Ca & Pr : EnergyDiffer from maintenance to pregnancy & lactationCommercially available conc mixesdesigned for the purpose are advantageous

  • Late gestationForage quality monitor & feed as appropriateBeware of starving if obese and overfeeding if leanNo sea-weed

  • Nutrition - complexitiesGrain based diet raises blood glucose and insulin for 4 6 hoursFeeding 1 2 high starch meals daily ??Surges / changes in insulin, growth hormone, glucose and thyroid hormoneDevelopmental orthopaedic disease

  • Source of energyFibre and oil based diets reduce these hormone fluctuationsMay reduce incidence of DOD

  • Feeding oilConcentrated source of energy2 times the energy of carbohydratesHorses digest well no temperament problemsIntroduce graduallyRemember the 100 rule

  • The 100 ruleDo not exceed 100ml veg oil per 100kg bodyweightFor every 100ml fed supplement 100iu vitamin E

  • FarrieryRoutine trimming every 6 weeksHave re-shod if usually shodTry not to attempt anything newCheck ingredients of any hoof supplementsSedatives ???

  • Dental CareRoutine rasping every 6 12monthsFibre very important dietary constituentCareful handlingCare with sedatives

  • Worming StrategyShould have one in place alreadyMost quite safe check labelCare with handlingGood worming + good dental care => Efficient use of good quality fibre

  • VaccinationsTetanus a priorityInfluenza Herpes Virus ( EHV )

  • TetanusPrimary course: 2 injections 4-6 weeksBoosters: yearly / other yearRepeat booster 4-6 weeks prior to foalingTetanus anti-toxin often given to mare and foal on first day additionally

  • Antibody level Time booster booster

  • Antibody level Time booster booster FF

  • InfluenzaUsually combined with tetanusIf programme up to date - ?continueNot usually required by foal at an early age

  • Herpes Virus ( EHV )75% of all horses carriersVery widespreadHighly contagiousViral recrudescence

  • EHV disease syndromesRespiratory diseaseAbortionNeonatal foal diseaseParalytic form uncommonSexually Transmitted Disease

  • Equine AbortionCord abnormalities46%Placental abnormalities25%Foetal abnormalities18%EHV6%Twinning3%Maternal illness2%

  • EHV - vaccinationGiven at 5, 7 & 9 months of pregnancyOffers protection against abortionCan be used to reduce level of EHV in environmentYard situation ??

  • ColostrumFoal needs colostrum for :WarmthEnergyLaxativeImmune system protection from environmental bugs

  • As foaling approachesMare needs to be in foaling environment at least 3 weeks prior to foalingCaslicks removal15 x 15 box thick straw bedOverhead lightTail bandage

  • Wash & dry rear end & hind limbs of mare with warm waterCCTVEmergency numbersClean towelsAntibiotic spray

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