lean operations “ eliminate waste through continuous improvement ”
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Lean OperationsEliminate WasteThrough Continuous Improvement
A Little History!Benjamin FranklinPoor Richards Almanac: He that idly loses 5s. [shillings] worth of time, loses 5s., and might as prudently throw 5s. into the river. He that loses 5s. not only loses that sum, but all the other advantages that might be made by turning it in dealing, which, by the time a young man becomes old, amounts to a comfortable bag of money."
A Little History!GilbrethSaw that masons bent over to pick up bricks from the ground. The bricklayer was therefore lowering and raising his entire upper body to get a 5 pound (2.3 kg) brick but this inefficiency had been built into the job through long practice. Introduction of a non-stooping scaffold, which delivered the bricks at waist level, allowed masons to work about three times as quickly, and with less effort.
A Little History!Ford: Eliminate Waste"I believe that the average farmer puts to a really useful purpose only about 5 %. of the energy he expends. Not only is everything done by hand, but seldom is a thought given to a logical arrangement. A farmer doing his chores will walk up and down a rickety ladder a dozen times. He will carry water for years instead of putting in a few lengths of pipe. His whole idea, when there is extra work to do, is to hire extra men. He thinks of putting money into improvements as an expense. It is waste motion waste effort that makes farm prices high and profits low."
A Little History!Ford: Design for manufacturingStart with an article that suits and then study to find some way of eliminating the entirely useless parts. This applies to everything a shoe, a dress, a house, a piece of machinery, a railroad, a steamship, an airplane. As we cut out useless parts and simplify necessary ones, we also cut down the cost of making. ...But also it is to be remembered that all the parts are designed so that they can be most easily made."
A Little History!Ohno put ideas into practice systematicallyWhen bombarded with questions from our group on what inspired his thinking, Ohno just laughed and said he learned it all from Henry Ford's book."
Waste: ClassificationWaste from overproduction Inventory wasteWaste from waiting timeTransportation wasteProcessing wasteWaste of motionWaste from product defects
TPS: Toyota Production SystemA system that continually searches for and eliminates waste throughout the value chain.
Views every enterprise activity as an operation and applies its waste reduction concepts to each activity - from Customers to the Board of Directors to Support Staff to Production Plants to Suppliers.
Reducing Waste: Quality at SourceFailsafe design (Poka-Yoke)Stopping work immediately when problem occurs (Jidoka)Line-stopping empowerment (Andon)TPS: Toyota Production System
Poka-YokePoka-yoke page: http://csob.berry.edu/faculty/jgrout/pokayoke.shtml
Reducing Waste: Quality at SourceDefects found at:Current ProcessNext ProcessEnd of LineFinal InspectionEnd UserImpact to the Company: VeryMinor MinorDelay Rework Reschedulingof work SignificantRework Delay inDelivery AdditionalInspection WarrantyCosts AdministrativeCosts Reputation Loss ofMarket Share
Reducing Waste: Increase Problem Visibility Inventory
Reducing Waste: Push versus Pull SystemTPS System uses Kanbans
Reducing Waste: From Functional Layout
...to Cell Layout
Reducing Waste: Cut Batch SizesBatch Mfg. (Lot Size = 4)
Flow Mfg. (Lot Size = 1)
TimeExample Process: A B C D A B C D4444 A B C DTime11
Synchronize: HeijunkaMixed, Level/Balanced Production Batch Production Schedule Mixed Production Schedule (AAAABBBB...) (ABAB...)
Apr/12.........15..................30 Apr/12..........15...................30Products A BtimeFGItimeFGI
Continuous Improvement: KaizenIncrease visibility of wasteStandardize workTargeted improvementsActive worker involvementSupplier involvementTime for experimentationExploratory stress
TPS: Toyota Production SystemA system that continually searches for and eliminates waste throughout the value chain.Poka-YokeJidokaAndonKanbanHeijunkaKaizen
Management By Stress: Does S in TPS Stand for Stress (1)?Empower employees Employees responsible for errors.Drive out waste No slack in the human system.Kaizen Improvements discovered by workers are co-opted by management.Workers design their jobs Workers do industrial engineering jobs without the pay.
Management By Stress: Does S in TPS Stand for Stress (2)?Reduce indirect labor Make workers do managements job.Reduced buffers More stress and less room for error or fatigue.Respect for workers As long as workers define their personal goals as satisfying managements agendaProductivity enhancements are dramatic Workers work real hard, with little spare time.
If Youre Curious to know more..Lean Blog: http://kanban.blogspot.com/Books:Ohno, Taiichi (1988), Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-Scale Production, Productivity Press.Womack, James P., Jones, Daniel T., and Roos, Daniel (1991), The Machine That Changed the World: The Story of Lean Production, Harper PerennialWomack, James P. and Jones, Daniel T. (1998), Lean Thinking Free Press. Levinson, William A. (2002), Henry Ford's Lean Vision: Enduring Principles from the First Ford Motor Plant, Productivity PressFord, Henry and Crowther, Samuel (2003), My Life and Work, Kessinger Press.
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