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<p>Lean Six SigmaBrett Ellis, Ph.D., P.E., C.S.S.B.B.</p> <p>IEEE SeminarWells Conference Center</p> <p>University of Maine, Orono, MaineNovember 8, 2018</p> <p>Brett D. Ellis, Ph.D., P.E., C.S.S.B.B. Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Technology, University of Maine</p> <p> B.S. in Mechanical Engineering University of Houston M.S. in Mechanical Engineering N.C. State University Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology 21 years experience in Mechanical Engineering</p> <p> Primarily in materials and product development 10 years experience at Southeastern Container, Inc.</p> <p> Product Development Manager Commercialized numerous bottles, preforms, and finishes</p> <p> Reduced commercialization time from 1.5 years to as little as 21 days Reduced mean bottle mass by ~7%</p> <p>Redesigned water bottlesLighter finishes (-1.3 g) Redesigned preforms (-0.7 g)</p> <p>Lean Six Sigma Lean Manufacturing (LM) a continuous improvement </p> <p>methodology that seeks to understand value (i.e., what customers are willing to pay for) and eliminate wastes (i.e.,what customers are unwilling to pay for)</p> <p> Six Sigma (6) a continuous improvement methodology to reduce defects to extremely low levels</p> <p>LEAN MANUFACTURING</p> <p>Value/Non-Value Added (V/NVA)</p> <p> Value Added Activity Any activity the customer would be willing to pay for if they knew the process occurred</p> <p> Non-Value Added Activity Any activity that does not add value to the product or service</p> <p> Most studies1 indicate that value is added &lt; 5% of the time; &gt;95% of the time is wasted.</p> <p>1: http://leanmanufacturingtools.org/89/value-add-vs-non-value-adding-processes/</p> <p>Defects Non-conforming productionOverproduction Producing too muchTransportation Forklifts, conveyors, trucksWaiting Idle operatorsInventory Parts, WIP, inventory, suppliesMotion Unnecessary motion, e.g., walkingProcessing Burr removal, reshaping, inspection</p> <p>DOTWIMP</p> <p>7 Types of Muda (i.e., Wastes)</p> <p>Sustain Commit to previous 4 stepsStandardize Make cleaning &amp; checking routineScrub Clean; method to keep everything cleanStraighten A place for everything, everything in its placeSort Eliminate all un-needed items; major cleaning1. S</p> <p>2. S3. S4. S5. S</p> <p>5S</p> <p>Source: QCI (2014). CSSBB Primer, p. IX-38.https://totalqualitymanagement.wordpress.com/2010/03/23/some-images-of-5s-houskeeping-in-factories-and-offices/</p> <p>Chemical cabinet Before 5S Chemical cabinet After 5S</p> <p>https://totalqualitymanagement.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/figure12.gifhttps://totalqualitymanagement.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/figure12.gifhttps://totalqualitymanagement.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/figure12.gifhttps://totalqualitymanagement.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/figure12.gif</p> <p>Continuous Flow: Efficient &amp; Faster</p> <p>Traditional BatchLayout</p> <p>Continuous FlowLayout</p> <p>Poke-Yoke: Mistake Proofing</p> <p>Poke-Yoke A mistake-proofing device or procedure to prevent or detect an errorSource: http://www.leanblog.org/2011/03/simple-brilliant-error-proofing-at-the-world-famous-in-n-out-burger/</p> <p>http://www.maderalabs.com/?p=1241http://www.ainsmag.co.uk/newsimages/ab237/4398ab1h.jpgQCI (2014). CSSBB Primer, p. VI-3.</p> <p>In-N-Out Burger trays wont fit in </p> <p>trash can</p> <p>Diesel and gas nozzles</p> <p>Collision between cars and trains</p> <p>http://lwlink3.linkwithin.com/api/click?format=go&amp;jsonp=vglnk_147243874156610&amp;key=8a69ede45b8445f6b533712ba9899ffb&amp;libId=isffzh3x0100r7tw000DA33napo30&amp;loc=http://www.leanblog.org/2011/03/simple-brilliant-error-proofing-at-the-world-famous-in-n-out-burger/&amp;v=1&amp;out=http://cdn.leanblog.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/in-n-out-error-proof-tray.jpg&amp;ref=http://www.google.com/url?sa%3Di%26rct%3Dj%26q%3D%26esrc%3Ds%26source%3Dimages%26cd%3D%26ved%3D0ahUKEwjW0rDKzeXOAhVL8CYKHZFLA80QjRwIBw%26url%3Dhttp://www.leanblog.org/2011/03/simple-brilliant-error-proofing-at-the-world-famous-in-n-out-burger/%26bvm%3Dbv.131286987,d.eWE%26psig%3DAFQjCNEoISpgqbnNR2g4iNQEMF2kvdX5fQ%26ust%3D1472525073880635&amp;title=Simple%20Brilliant%20Error%20Proofing%20at%20the%20Amazing%20In-N-Out%20Burger%20|%20Lean%20Blog&amp;txt=http://lwlink3.linkwithin.com/api/click?format=go&amp;jsonp=vglnk_147243874156610&amp;key=8a69ede45b8445f6b533712ba9899ffb&amp;libId=isffzh3x0100r7tw000DA33napo30&amp;loc=http://www.leanblog.org/2011/03/simple-brilliant-error-proofing-at-the-world-famous-in-n-out-burger/&amp;v=1&amp;out=http://cdn.leanblog.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/in-n-out-error-proof-tray.jpg&amp;ref=http://www.google.com/url?sa%3Di%26rct%3Dj%26q%3D%26esrc%3Ds%26source%3Dimages%26cd%3D%26ved%3D0ahUKEwjW0rDKzeXOAhVL8CYKHZFLA80QjRwIBw%26url%3Dhttp://www.leanblog.org/2011/03/simple-brilliant-error-proofing-at-the-world-famous-in-n-out-burger/%26bvm%3Dbv.131286987,d.eWE%26psig%3DAFQjCNEoISpgqbnNR2g4iNQEMF2kvdX5fQ%26ust%3D1472525073880635&amp;title=Simple%20Brilliant%20Error%20Proofing%20at%20the%20Amazing%20In-N-Out%20Burger%20|%20Lean%20Blog&amp;txt=http://www.maderalabs.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/20131227_084229.jpghttp://www.maderalabs.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/20131227_084229.jpg</p> <p>Lean Manufacturing: Example</p> <p>Source: http://cmuscm.blogspot.com/2014/01/mcdonalds-secret-sauce-for-supply-chain_21.htmlhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KanbanQCI (2014). CSSBB Primer, p. VI-3.</p> <p>SIX SIGMA</p> <p>Six Sigma, 6 Six Sigma is a methodology to reduce defects to very low </p> <p>levels. </p> <p>-7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7</p> <p>Prob</p> <p>abili</p> <p>ty</p> <p>Standard deviation, </p> <p>x_</p> <p>+6( )21</p> <p>1</p> <p>Nii</p> <p>x xN</p> <p> =</p> <p>=</p> <p>1 Assuming 5 characters per word, 300 words per page, and 250 pages in a book.http://www.quora.com/How-many-characters-of-text-letters-are-in-an-average-book </p> <p> A 6 process produces ~3.4 Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO) ~1.3 incorrect characters in a 250-page book1</p> <p> ~1 defective Christmas light for ~500 houses2</p> <p>Christmas lights</p> <p>Not 6</p> <p>2 Assuming 2,000 lights per house. Typical light user uses 1 to 3 wreaths, garland, and ~10 strings of lights. http://www.christmaslightsetc.com/pages/how-much-power.htm </p> <p>Why is Six Sigma Important Problem-solving approaches that employ only</p> <p>theoretical equations have shortcomings: Rely upon highly-specialized skill sets to produce a solution Not guaranteed to produce a unique solution Focus on the mechanics of a problem. What about other </p> <p>factors, e.g., operators, measurement system, atmospheric humidity, interactions?</p> <p> Theoretical approaches are typically deterministic, whereas real-world systems respond stochastically</p> <p> Even if a useful solution can be obtained, do other approaches produce a useful solution quicker or cheaper?</p> <p> Six Sigma addresses these shortcoming via a systematic, empirical approach</p> <p>Why is Six Sigma Important Motorola saved ~$16 billion in the first five years of </p> <p>implementation</p> <p> GE saved ~$12 billion in the first five years of implementation</p> <p> Maine companies utilizing Lean Six Sigma Pratt &amp; Whitney, GE, Jackson Lab, IDEXX, Nichols Portland, </p> <p>LLC, Owens Corning, Ensign-Bickford Aerospace &amp; Defense, MaineHealth, AdvancePierre Foods, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, New Balance, LL Bean, etc.</p> <p>What is the Cost of Poor Quality?</p> <p> Prevention (0 5%) Capability studies, training, pilot </p> <p>projects, design reviews</p> <p> Appraisal (10 50%) Audits, inspecting incoming raw </p> <p>materials, inspecting final products</p> <p> Failure (40 80%) Internal: Repairs, sorting, failure </p> <p>reviews External: Recalls, warranty expenses, </p> <p>litigation Levels of Product Costs</p> <p>Prevention</p> <p>Appraisal</p> <p>Failure(Internal &amp; External)</p> <p>Quality Council of Indiana (2001). CSSBB Primer. p. III-62.</p> <p>Why Does Variability Matter? Money</p> <p>-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4</p> <p>xA_</p> <p>LSL</p> <p>, e.g., Minimum thickness of a steel beam Amount of cheese on a pizza</p> <p>-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4</p> <p>xB_</p> <p>Prob</p> <p>abili</p> <p>ty</p> <p>Normalized Critical to Quality (CTQ) parameter</p> <p>SAMPLE PROJECTS</p> <p>Project: Filling Bottles Background: Sole proprietorship manufactures, markets, &amp; sells ~$70k/year of </p> <p>niche hair care products Problem statement: Reduce the current ~19 sec/bottle filling time by 30% or ~5.7 </p> <p>sec/bottle Process improvements: </p> <p> Reduced movement of operator (~6.9 sec/bottle) Eliminated funnel by adding filling valve (~3.7 sec/bottle)</p> <p> Results: Reduced filling time by 56%, or ~10.6 sec/bottle Payback period of ~4 days on $120 capital investment</p> <p>Originalprocess</p> <p>1. Queue empty bottles</p> <p>2. Move pot</p> <p>3. Place funnels and fill</p> <p>4. Replace pot</p> <p>5. Return to counter</p> <p>6. Queue filled bottlesImprovedprocess</p> <p>1. Place 1 bottle in sink</p> <p>2. Fill bottle via valve</p> <p>3. Return filled bottle</p> <p>6</p> <p>45</p> <p>Project: Reduce Mold Change Times Background: Manufacturer performed ~12 mold changes </p> <p>/ week, each requiring ~23.3 mins</p> <p> Problem statement: Reduce the mold change time by 25% (or 5.8 mins) to 17.5 mins.</p> <p> Process improvements: Improved flow of information Reduced searching (processing) by creating cart </p> <p>parking lot Reduced movement by transporting all components </p> <p>in single trip</p> <p> Results: Mold changes reduced by ~27% to 16.8 mins Annual labor savings of ~350 hours</p> <p>Thermoforming mold change</p> <p>Project: Chemical Processing Background: Research into biomedical applications of seaweed-</p> <p>extracted polysaccharides is limited by the rate and efficiency of current extraction methods</p> <p> Problem statement: Reduce the 10-50% mass loss of ethanol within the polysaccharide water bath and centrifuge extraction process</p> <p> Process improvements: Identified how mass loss occurred Introduced re-usable centrifugal tubes and water bath mounting </p> <p>system Results:</p> <p> Net savings of $4,300 / year primary in labor Water bath setup time reduced from ~6.5 mins to ~0.3 mins (95% </p> <p>reduction) Successful processes increased from ~40% to 100%</p> <p>Re-usable centrifugal tube</p> <p>Original centrifugal tube</p> <p>Water bath mounting system</p> <p>Summary Lean Manufacturing seeks to decrease wastes &amp; add value</p> <p> Six Sigma seeks to reduce variation and defects to near zero levels.</p> <p> Lean Six Sigma initiatives can improve profitability via: Waste reductions Faster delivery Improved quality Reduced variation in products Reduced overhead costs associated with product development</p> <p>I know of no more encouraging fact than the unquestionable ability of man to elevate his life by a conscious endeavor.- Henry David Thoreau</p> <p>Ref: Thoreau (1910). Walden. p. 117.</p> <p>Brett Ellis: brett.ellis@maine.edu</p> <p>Lean Six SigmaBrett D. Ellis, Ph.D., P.E., C.S.S.B.B.Lean Six SigmaLean manufacturingValue/Non-Value Added (V/NVA)7 Types of Muda (i.e., Wastes)5SContinuous Flow: Efficient &amp; FasterPoke-Yoke: Mistake ProofingLean Manufacturing: ExampleSix SigmaSix Sigma, 6 Why is Six Sigma ImportantWhy is Six Sigma ImportantWhat is the Cost of Poor Quality?Why Does Variability Matter?Sample projectsProject: Filling BottlesProject: Reduce Mold Change TimesProject: Chemical ProcessingSummary</p>

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