learning disabilities (cognitive)

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Students with different learning difficulties and how to accommodate them within the classrooms.


  • 1. ExceptionalitiesCognitive:Learning Disabilities, IntellectualDisabilities and Gifted/ Talented

2. Course: Special NeedsGroup: 3DLecturer: Miss HarrisGroup One members:Karen Powell- Llyod- SJ12 6788Shanice Moodie- SJ12 6782Monique Royal- SJ12 6790Alesha Nelson- SJ12 6785Nateenia Roye- SJ11 6662Shakira Marshall- SJ12 6774 3. WHAT IS LEARNING DISABILITIES?Learning disabilities (LDs) are limitations or group ofdisorders that affect the brain's ability to receive, process, store,respond to and communicate information. They are not the same asintellectual disabilities/ mental retardation, sensory impairments(vision or hearing) or autism spectrum disorders. (Inc, 2014) 4. LEARNING DISABILITIES (LD)Children with LD are of average or above-average intelligencebut still struggle to acquire skills that impact their performance inschool, at home, in the community and in the workplace. Learningdisabilities are lifelong, and the sooner they are recognized andidentified, the sooner steps can be taken to overcome the challengesthey present. 5. Learning Disabilities TerminologyDisability Area of difficultySymptoms include troublewithExamplesDyslexia Processing languageReadingWritingSpellingConfusing letter names andsounds, difficulties blendingsounds into words, slow rate ofreading, trouble rememberingafter reading textDyscalculia Math skillsComputationRemembering math factsConcepts of time and moneyDifficulty learning to count by 2s,3s, 4s, poor mental math skills,problems with spatial directionsDysgraphia Written expressionHandwritingSpellingCompositionIllegible handwriting, difficultyorganizing ideas for writingDyspraxia Fine motor skillsCoordinationManual dexterityTrouble with scissors, buttons,drawing 6. CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WITHLEARNING DISABILITIESThe hallmark sign of a learning disability is a distinct andunexplained gap between a person's level of expected achievementand their performance. Learning disabilities affect every persondifferently and they present differently at various stages ofdevelopment. LDs can range from mild to severe and it is notuncommon for people to have more than one learning disability. 7. CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WITHLEARNING DISABILITIESSome common signs of LDs are: difficulties with concentration memory problem delayed speech pronunciation problems difficulty learning new words difficulty learning to read trouble learning numbers, the alphabet etc. difficulty following directions 8. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIESIntellectual disability (ID), which was once called mentalretardation, is characterized by mental ability and a lack of skillsnecessary for day to day living. People with ID can, and may beable to learn new skills, but they learn them more slowly. Howeverthere are varying degrees of ID, from mild to profound. 9. TYPES OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIESIntellectual functioningThis is also know as IQ (Intelligence Quotient) that refers too apersons ability to learn, reason, make decision and solve problems.Adaptive behavioursSkills necessary for day- to- day life, such as being able tocommunicate effectively, interact with others and take care ofoneself.DeNoon, D. J. (2005-2014) 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WITHINTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES Less-than-average I.Q. Underdeveloped speech and language skills Poor: memory, attention, perception, imagination, thinking,computing and concentration Lag significantly in grade- level 11. GIFTED/ TALENTEDGifted and talented children are those students withoutstanding abilities, identified at preschool, elementary andsecondary levels. These students are capable of high performancewhen compared to others of similar age, experience andenvironment. (Dixon) 12. CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WHOARE GIFTED/ TALENTEDStudents where are considered gifted or talented have: An excellent memory Able to comprehend subject matter at advance level Rapid learning ability Uses previously learned things in new contexts Very responsible; can be counted on Tends to question authority 13. ACCOMMODATIONS AND MODIFICATIONSOF LDS IN THE CLASSROOMTeachers can accommodate students with learning disabilities, intellectualdisabilities and students who are gifted/ talented by: Plan a special or an extra lesson plan for students with such disabilities. Grouping students (student with different capability) Appointing students with position or responsibilities to occupy their time (giftedstudents). Ensuring that the classroom environment is conducive to the students learningand is child friendly.(Washington, 2012) 14. ACCOMMODATIONS AND MODIFICATIONSOF LDS IN THE CLASSROOM Planning the lesson in a more accessible way to suite all students includingthose with such disabilities. Using more than one way to demonstrate or explain information/ the lesson, Keeping instructions brief and uncomplicated ( repeat them word for word). Allow time for clarification or direction and essential information. Break assignments into segments of shorter tasks.(Washington, 2012) 15. REFERENCESInc, N. C. (2014). What are Learning Disabilities? Retrieved September 30, 2014, from National Center for LearningDisabilities: http://ncld.org/types-learning-disabilities/what -is-ld/what-are-learning-disabilitiesDeNoon, D. J. (2005-2014). Intellectual disability (Mental Retardation). Retrieved 30 September, 2014, fromWebMB: http: //www.webmb.com/children/intellectual-disability-mental-retardationWashington,U.O. (2012). Achieving equal access through accommodations and universal design. Retrieved September30, 2014,From Academic Accommodations for Students with Learning Disabilities:http//www.washington.edu/doit/Brochures/Academics/accomm_ld.html