Lecture 3 Ancient Greek Philosophy Socrates and Plato.
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Ancient Greek PhilosophySocrates and Plato
The Branches of PhilosophyMetaphysics - Whats what? Reality
Epistemology - What do we know? - Knowledge (Or whats true?) (& Truth) Ethics/Axiology - Whats good? Value
Confucius 551 -479 B.C.Socrates (469-399BC)Plato (427-BC 347) Aristotle ( 384-BC322 )
Plato (427-BC 347)
Aristotle ( 384-BC322 )
Sayings concerning or from SocratesThe wisdom of a Socrates. Socrates laid the foundations of logic. The soul also acquired an independent and immortal existence in Socrates; The unexamined life is not worth living.-- Socrates
Other man live to eat, while I eat to live.( Socrates) One thing I know, that is I know nothing. (Socrates Greek) Plato : ancient Athenian philosopher (428-347 BC); pupil of Socrates; teacher of Aristotle. :428-347
Socrates was the first of the three great Athenian philosophers (the other two are Plato and Aristotle). He was not from a rich family. His father was probably a stone-carver, and Socrates also worked in stone, especially as a not-very-good sculptor. Socrates' mother was a midwife. We do not have any surviving pictures of Socrates that were made while he was alive, or by anyone who ever saw him, but he is supposed to have been ugly.
Socrates taught orally and did not put his doctrines into writing.He did not write books. His student, Plato, wrote dialogues that reflect his views. These are accounts of debates.
But when Socrates was in his forties or so, he began to think about the world around him, and try to answer some difficult questions. He asked, "What is wisdom?" and "What is beauty?" and "What is the right thing to do?" He knew that these questions were hard to answer, and he thought it would be better to have a lot of people discuss the answers together, so that they might come up with more ideas.
Socrates soon had a group of young men who listened to him and learned from him how to think. Plato was one of these young men. Socrates never charged them any money. But in 399 BC, some of the Athenians got mad at Socrates for what he was teaching the young men. They charged him in court with impiety (not respecting the gods) and corrupting the youth (teaching young men bad things).
He refuses to escape from death sentence. Socrates's argument proceeds from the statement of a perfectly general moral principle to its application in his particular case: One ought never to do wrong (even in response to the evil committed by another). But it is always wrong to disobey the state. Hence, one ought never to disobey the state. And since avoiding the sentence of death handed down by the Athenian jury would be an action in disobedience the state, it follows Socrates ought not to escape.
The Trial of Socrates 399 B. C.Socrates was accused of Impiety- (refusing to acknowledge the gods recognized by the State )& Corrupting the young. Jury of 500 Found Socrates Guilty.Sentenced to Death Could have escaped into exile. Choose to accept death sentence.
Plato's dramatic picture of a man willing to face death rather than abandoning his commitment to philosophical inquiry offers up Socrates as a model for all future philosophers. Perhaps few of us are presented with the same stark choice between philosophy and death, but all of us are daily faced with opportunities to decide between convenient conventionality and our devotion to truth and reason. How we choose determines whether we, like Socrates, deserve to call our lives philosophical.
Socratic method Perhaps his most important contribution to Western thought is his dialectic method of inquiry, known as the Socratic Method which he largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts such as the Good and Justice. It was first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. To solve a problem, it would be broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer you seek.
The Death of Socrates
The influence of this approach is most strongly felt today in the use of the Scientific Method, in which hypothesis is the first stage. The development and practice of this method is one of Socrates' most enduring contributions, and is a key factor in earning his mantle as the father of political philosophy, ethics or moral philosophy, and as a figurehead of all the central themes in Western philosophy
Plato(427 BC - 347 BC)Socratic Method of TeachingTeaching by Asking Instead of by TellingSocrates(470-399 BCE) 1. The method is skeptical. It begins with Socrates' real or professed ignorance of the truth of the matter under discussion. 2. It is conversational. It employs the dialogue not only as a didactic device, but as a technique for the actual discovery of opinions amongst men. 3. It is conceptual or definitional in that it sets as the goal of knowledge the acquisition of concepts, such as the ethical concepts of justice, piety, wisdom, courage and the like. 4. The Socratic method is empirical or inductive in that the proposed definitions are criticized by reference to particular instances. Socrates always tested definitions by recourse to common experience and to general usages. 5. The method is deductive in that a given definition is tested by drawing out its implications, by deducing its consequences.
Plato(427 BC - 347 BC)Socratic Method of TeachingTeaching by Asking Instead of by TellingSocrates(470-399 BCE)The Socratic Method is a conversation, a discussion, wherein two or more people assist one another in finding the answers to difficult questions. Socrates believed that the most effective way of teaching a student to argue logically was to engage the individual in a philosophic dialogue, in which he would attempt to argue a point. In the Socratic method an interchange takes place between the professor and an individual student in front of the entire class, which trains the student to think on his or her feet - while in front of an audience.Through questions and answers, and further questions and further answers, the (sometimes randomly) chosen student will hopefully develop, and defend positions that may have first been only vague intuitions.
If anything in general can be said about the philosophical beliefs of Socrates, it is that he was morally, intellectually, and politically at odds with his fellow Athenians. When he is on trial for heresy and corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens, he uses his method to demonstrate to the jurors that their moral values are wrong-headed. He tells them they are concerned with their families, careers, and political responsibilities when they ought to be worried about the "welfare of their souls."
Opinion on Knowledge
Socrates often said his wisdom was limited to an awareness of his own ignorance. Socrates believed wrongdoing was a consequence of ignorance and those who did wrong knew no better. The one thing Socrates consistently claimed to have knowledge of was "the art of love" which he connected with the concept of "the love of wisdom", i.e., philosophy. He never actually claimed to be wise, only to understand the path a lover of wisdom must take in pursuing it.
Opinion on Virtue
Socrates believed the best way for people to live was to focus on self-development rather than the pursuit of material wealth. The idea that humans possessed certain virtues formed a common thread in Socrates' teachings. These virtues represented the most important qualities for a person to have, foremost of which were the philosophical or intellectual virtues. Socrates stressed that "virtue was the most valuable of all possessions; the ideal life was spent in search of the Good. Truth lies beneath the shadows of existence, and it is the job of the philosopher to show the rest how little they really know."
Socrates and his Student Plato
Plato 428-384 B.C.Plato, the student of Socrates, founded the first University in the year 387- called the Academy.Science and knowledge were the chief goals of study. The mind was trained to cut thru rhetoric.
Plato in his Academy
Platos PhilosophyAllegory of the CavePhilosopher KingPlatonic Love
Allegory of the CavePlato ask us to imaginethat men believe the shadows are real.This is told in class, and it is told well.
Lessons of the Cave Allegory:
Constantly challenge what we consider to be reality.
Think dialectically (idea, counter-idea, new idea).
Rely upon reasoning over false material indications of reality.
three class structureHead; ReasonChest; SpiritAbdomen; Appetite
Platonic Love ()The combination of flesh is not pure, is dirtyLove and sexual passion are two opposed status If a person is really in love with someone, he will never think of having sex with that person.
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