lecture 3 engaging students for learning 2013

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  • 1. ECMECM Lecture 3 Engaging students for learning

2. What is your definitionWhat is your definition of learning?of learning? TASK 1 3. A Definition of LearningA Definition of Learning LEARNING process CHANGE Individual adapt perform factual information meaning, understanding, insights, ideas skills values beliefs attitudes degree of meaningfulness AUTONOMOUS ACTION is a of gaining leading to in the enabling him/her to which can vary in when internalised and integrated, enable 4. Theories of learningTheories of learning Behaviourist Cognitivist Humanist Social Theorist/s Skinner Piaget, Ausubel, Bruner and Gagne Maslow Bandura, Vygotsky, Freire Learning Theory Leaning occurs through changes in behaviour Learning is an internal mental action of processing information Learning through a process of natural growth where learners realise their potential in a supportive environment Learning is through social and cultural interaction Reason for learning Produce change in behaviour ..To develop skills and understanding in order to learn To develop an understanding about how learning occurs and to become autonomous Learning is so that the individual can participate in the social and political development of the community Role of teacher Controls learning so that the desired outcome is reached develops the learning activities Facilitates the development of the person as a whole Facilitates learning based on the learners previous experiences Role of Learner To change their behaviours to more positive actions that promote learning Each individual learner is a active constructor of knowledge To satisfy their own needs such as belonging, self- esteem, to grow intellectually and spritually Through social interaction the learner can internalise knowledge and understanding 5. What is engagement?What is engagement? We tend to think of students who are willing and enthusiastic, on task and complete their work as being engaged. According to Finn (1989) engagement is an on-going cyclical process where students have a feeling of belonging and accept of the goals of education. Engagement is not simply about being focused in class. Fredricks, Blumenfeld and Paris (2004) argue that engagement is multidimensional and can only be applied where all three components are present. It can be described as behavioural (involvement in academic and social/extracurricular activities), emotional (positive and negative reactions to schools, classrooms, teachers and peers) cognitive (thoughtfulness and willingness to comprehend complex ideas and master difficult skills). 6. Engagement and Academic success.Engagement and Academic success. Engagement has become a major focus of educational research. Academic success is dependent on the level of student engagement. Students who are engaged are more likely to learn and to value the process of learning. This is especially the case when students demonstrate meta- cognitive strategies for regulating their attention, levels of effort, linking new information to prior learning and the active monitoring their comprehension. Conversely lack of engagement or disengagement negatively affects achievement and begins or continues the downward spiral that may ked to dysfunctional school behavior and ultimately culminate in some students leaving school entirely (Marks, 2000 p.155) 7. Research shows:Research shows: Engagement has a strong correlation with:- student achievement (Marks, 2000; Voekl, 1997) school retention (Zimmerman, 2001) students at risk staying at school (Wehlage, 1992) classroom behaviour, positive student management, shared control, cooperation between teachers and students, classroom climate (encouraging student engagement) (Fredricks, 2002; Marks, 2000) 8. EngagementEngagement Levels of engagement Procedural Little e (task engagement Munns) Big E ( school is for me) Interest Sugar coating Minimally transforming experience Having fun 23 9. Factors affecting engagementFactors affecting engagement 10. Models of teaching that lead toModels of teaching that lead to engagementengagement 11. Best times for engagementBest times for engagement 12. The 5Es.what is it?The 5Es.what is it? A constructivist instructional model of teaching and learning designed to facilitate conceptual change! 13. 5Es5Es 14. Draw a concept map that explains how aDraw a concept map that explains how a light globe works?light globe works? STRATEGY TO PROBE UNDERSTANDING Battery electricity wire globe circuit heat light 15. Guidelines for developingGuidelines for developing concept mapsconcept maps Brainstorm all you know about a topic. Each concept can only be used once. The most important concept is usually placed in the middle or top of page. Concepts work out from the general to the specific. Linkages clarify and link concepts. They are the labels on the arrows or lines. Linkage labels can be used more than once. Examples: needs, helps, produces, can be, and, requires, includes, may, is a, will 16. Concept MapConcept Map Stage 3Stage 3 Battery electricity wire connecting circuit light provides heat moving through globe producing In a 17. Concept MapConcept Map Stage 4Stage 4 Battery voltage wire connecting circuit light provides heat through globe producing In a electrons pushes current called filament resistance containing With low 18. EngageEngage KWL Student questions Use of pictures Get students to draw pictures 19. ExploreExplore Hands-on experiment Reviewing secondary data Comparing similar or dissimiliar results Critiquing different views about concepts 20. ExplainExplain Students have an opportunity to Discuss Write Draw debate what they have observed in an effort to clarify their understanding 21. ElaborateElaborate Apply their knowledge to another similar but slight different situation to ensure that they have the ideas well understood. 22. Evaluate by teachers and studentsEvaluate by teachers and students Evaluate the evidence collected to determine learning Evaluate what has been learned Evaluate how it was learned Evaluate how the lesson/activity/unit went in terms of outcome 23. StudentsStudents Want teachers who know their stuff Want teachers who respond to them as individuals and show genuine interest (Smith and Wilhelm, 2002). Want classroom activities that are fun, but challenging and achievable (Lingard, 2002) Students are successful when close individual monitoring of progress is made (Ofsted, 2003) Positive outcomes occur when there is a good relationship, respect, knowledge and understanding, active listening, humour and flexibility (Martin, 2002) 24. Ingredients for success Tasks should be: * Fun * engaging * Student centred * socially constructed * Connected to student * challenging but achievable prior knowledge * Fun * Complex * culturally sensitive * Connected to assessment * require high-order thinking * Authentic * provide opportunities to * Fun develop and apply skills * Derived from students * Fun and engaging questions 25. Lesson planningLesson planning Opening Middle Closure 26. Lesson OpeningLesson Opening 5-10 minutes Should not use precious time to mark the roll be student-centred not teacher talk introduce the purpose and scope of the lesson 27. Lesson closureLesson closure Not about handing out homework. It is for drawing all the elements of the lesson together and establishing what has been/should have been learned. 28. referencesreferences Downes, T., Arthur, L., Gregson, R., Munns, G., Power, A., Sawyer, W., Singh, M. & Thistleton-Martin, J. (2005) Motivation and Engagement of Boys: Evidence-based Teaching Practices. Canberra A Report submitted to the Commonwealth Department of Education, Science and Training. Loughran, J. (2010) What Expert Teachers Do: Enhancing professional knowledge for classroom practice. Australia: Melbourne Allen and Unwin. Lyons, T. (2006) Different countries, same science classes: students experiences of school science in their own words. International Journal of Science Education 28(6), 591613. Marks, H. (2000) Student engagement in instructional activity: patterns in the elementary, middle and high school years. American Educational Research Journal 37(1), 153184. Martin, A.L. (2002). Improving the Educational Outcomes of Boys. ACT, Education, Youth and Family Services. McFadden & Munns, (2002)School Education and the social relations of pedagogy. British International Journal of Sociology of Education 23(3) 357-366