Lesson 3 – UNDERSTANDING NETWORKING. Network relationship types Network features OSI Networking model Network hardware components OVERVIEW

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Lesson 3 UNDERSTANDING NETWORKING </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Network relationship types Network features OSI Networking model Network hardware components OVERVIEW </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Peer-to-peer Client / server NETWORK RELATIONSHIP TYPES </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Computers on the Network communicate with each other as equals. Peer-to-peer relationships </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Each computer: Shares resources. Sets up and maintains security. Accesses Network resources. Peer-to-peer relationships </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> A distinction exists between computers that make available Network resources and computers that use those resources. Client / server relationships </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Resources are centrally managed and hosted. Client computers do not share resources with other client computers / servers. Server computers make available, manage, and administer shared resources. Client / server relationships </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Use less expensive hardware. Easy to administer. No NOS required. More built-in redundancy. Pros for Peer-to-peer Networks </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> May hurt users performance. Not very secure. Hard to back up. Cons for Peer-to-peer Networks </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Very secure. Better performance. Centralized back up. Very reliable. Pros for Client / server Networks </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Require professional administration. More hardware intensive. Cons for Client / server Networks </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> File sharing Printer sharing Application services E-mail Remote Access Wide Area Network Internet and intranet Network security NETWORK FEATURES </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Originally, the primary reason to have a Network. Provides central storage for common documents, databases, and work files. Requires a shared directory or disk drive. Incorporates File Locking. File sharing </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Most common ways of sharing printers are: Printer queues. Workstations that access printers directly. Printer sharing </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Printer server function can be filled by: A fileserver with the printer connected to it. A computer connected to the Network, with the printer connected to the computer. An in-built print server on a printers NIC. A dedicated Network print server. Printer sharing </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Advantages: Reduces disk space needed. Easier to administer the application. Application services </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> E-mail systems are divided into: File-based. Client / server. E-mail </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> File-based e-mail system: Consists of a set of files kept in a shared location on a server. E-mail </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Client / server based e-mail system: Contains messages and handles e-mail interconnections, inside and outside the company. E-mail </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Users use this feature to access files and e-mail from a remote location, such as their homes. Remote Access </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Methods: Set up Remote Access Service (RAS) connection on a Windows NT server. Use a dedicated RAS. Employ a workstation on the Network. Set up a Virtual Private Network (VPN). Install Windows Terminal Server or Citrix MetaFrame. Remote Access </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> WAN is the connection of multiple Local Area Networks (LANs). It is created when users of one LAN need frequent access to the resources on another LAN. Wide Area Network </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> An Internet connection for a Network consists of a telecommunications network connection to an Internet Service Provider (ISP). Internet and intranet </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Network components : Leased 56KB line ISDN line, or a fractional or full DS1 (T-1) connection Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit (CSU/DSU) Router Firewall Web server Internet and intranet </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> This internally focused Network: Mimics the Internet. May also host Internet-type services like FTP servers. Is not usually accessible from outside the LAN. Internet and Intranet </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Provided by: Features of the NOS. Physical cabling plant. The Networks connection with other Networks. Client workstations. Actions of the users. Security policies. Etc. Network security </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Conceptual model. Used in Network design and engineering Network solutions. Defines methods and protocols needed to connect one computer to another. OSI NETWORKING MODEL </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> The 7 layered OSI Model </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> 7 layers of the OSI Model Defines the properties of the physical medium used to make a Network connection. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 7 layers of the OSI Model Connection can be either: Point-to-point Multipoint Transmission can be either: Half-duplex Full-duplex </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> 7 layers of the OSI Model Defines standards that assign meaning to the bits carried by the physical layer. </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> 7 layers of the OSI Model This layer is sub-divided into: Logical Link Control Medium Access Control </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> 7 layers of the OSI Model Defines how data packets get from one point to another on a Network and what goes into each packet. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> 7 layers of the OSI Model Manages the flow of information from one Network node to another. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> 7 layers of the OSI Model Defines the connection from a user to a Network server or from a peer on a Network to another peer. </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> 7 layers of the OSI Model Takes the data supplied by the lower-level layers and trans- forms it so it can be presented to the system. </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> 7 layers of the OSI Model Controls how the operating system and its applications interact with the Network. </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> How data travels through the OSI layers </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Servers Hubs, Switches, and Routers Cabling and Cable Plants Workstation Hardware NETWORK HARDWARE COMPONENTS </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> A server is any computer that performs Network functions for other computers. Servers </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Types of servers: File server. Print servers. Application servers. E-mail servers. Networking servers that provide Network services (automatic assignment of TCP/IP addresses). Servers </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Types of servers: Routing servers (routing of packets from one Network to another). Web servers (encryption/decryption and other security services). Virtual Private Network (VPN) servers. Internet servers. Remote Access servers. Servers </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Typically run some Network Operating System (NOS) like: Windows 2000 Server and Advanced Server Windows NT Server Novell NetWare UNIX Servers </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> A true server-class computer will have: Built-in redundancy with multiple power supplies and fans. High-performance designs. Monitoring software and hardware. Servers </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> A hub (concentrator) connects a number of network cables to a Network. Network connections on a hub share a single collision domain. Hubs, Switches, and Routers </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> A typical Network hub Hubs, Switches, and Routers </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> A switch makes a Network connection private. It collects data from each connection and forwards it to a Network backbone. Switches connect many hubs to a single backbone. Hubs, Switches, and Routers </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Using switches and hubs in concert Hubs, Switches, and Routers </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> A router routes data packets from one Network to another. Two Networks connect to a router using their own wiring and connection type. Hubs, Switches, and Routers </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Types of Network cable: Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Coaxial Cable (coax) Fiber Optic Cabling and Cable Plants </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Any computer on a Network is referred to as a Network workstation (or Network Client). Workstation Hardware </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Network relationship types: Peer-to-Peer networks Client / server Networks SUMMARY </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Network features: File sharing Printer sharing Application services E-mail Remote Access Wide Area Network Internet and intranet Network security Summary </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) Networking Model: Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-link Physical Summary </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Network Hardware Components: Server types Hubs, Switches, and Routers Summary </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Cabling and the Physical Plant: UTP STP Coax Fiber Wireless Summary </li> </ul>