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  1. 1. Liberating the learner: enhancing and individualising the Learning Experience of undergraduate Financial Accounting students using Interactive Screencasts and Online Activities Huw Morgan, Salford Business School1
  2. 2. Effective use of TEL: BSc in Accounting and Finance Advanced Financial Accounting module (L6): 74% of final year students achieved a score over 70% [2013] 79% achieved over 70%, and three quarters achieved over 90% [2015]
  3. 3. Business Finance module (L6) January exam: 5-minute revisits: introduced 2013. Average mark: 57% [2012]; 64% [2014] Scoring over 70%: 22% [2012]; 42% [2014] Effective use of TEL: BSc in Accounting and Finance
  4. 4. Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller, 1988) Generated by the manner by which information is presented to learnersExtraneous Based on the inherent difficultyIntrinsic Processing and construction of schemas: The effective load required for learningGermane
  5. 5. Types of Learning Outcomes 5 Learning Cognitive processing during learning Retention performance Transfer performance None None Poor Poor Rote Selecting Good Poor Meaningful Selecting, organizing, integrating Good Good Reference: http://hilt.harvard.edu/event/richard-e-mayer-uc-santa-barbara
  6. 6. Two Goals of Multimedia Learning Goal Ability to: Example test item Remembering (Retention) Reproduce or recognize presented material Write down all you can remember from the passage you just read. Understanding (Transfer) Use presented material in novel situations List some ways to improve the reliability of the device you just read about. 6 Reference: http://hilt.harvard.edu/event/richard-e-mayer-uc-santa-barbara
  7. 7. Example of Mayers Research: How a Tire Pump Works 7 Presentation: Spoken words Animated graphics Mayer Interview: https://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=S3fYg6OuTIA Mayer Presentation: http://hilt.harvard.edu/event/ric hard-e-mayer-uc-santa-barbara
  8. 8. Mayers Research into Multimedia: Methodology Evidence-based: which instructional methods are effective for teaching which kinds of material to which kinds of learners. Laboratory-based, Experimental: two groups Control group learns with standard training. Treatment group learns with instructional technique added. Both groups take a transfer test. Effect size = mean score of treatment group minus mean score of control group divided by pooled standard deviation 8
  9. 9. Mayers Research into Multimedia Transfer Test Questions (examples): What could be done to make a pump more reliable; that is, to make sure it would not fail? What could be done to make a pump more effect; that is, to make it move more air more rapidly? Suppose you push down and pull up the handle of a pump several times but no air comes out. What could have gone wrong? Why does air enter a pump? Why does air exit from a pump? 9
  10. 10. Multimedia Learning Principles Coherence Redundancy Modality (Dual coding) Split-attention Signalling Sequencing Fidelity (novices) Variability (complex) Training wheels (novices) Completion-strategy Self-explanation, Self-pacing, Individualisation van Merrinboer, J. J. G. and L. Kester (2005). The Four-Component Instructional Design Model. The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. R. E. Mayer: 71-96. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN-RELEVANT VIDEO-RELEVANT [SCREENCASTS] TAILORING TO THE LEARNER
  11. 11. Instructional Design: Sequencing Basic Consolidation at date of acquisition Post-Acquisition Consolidation Consolidation Adjustments 11 It is recommended to Sequence tasks from basic to complex Eg: In Financial Accounting: Group Consolidations:
  12. 12. Instructional Design: Training Wheels Support is provided for novice learners: E.g.: Process worksheets asking leading questions: to guide through the process (risk of split attention - distraction) Constrain performance (only allow access to tools when required for the task) Decrease guidance until none (as expertise increases) 12
  13. 13. Instructional Design: Completion-strategy It is recommended that novice learners move from worked examples to partial solutions and then conventional tasks as their expertise develops 13 Fully worked examples Partial Solutions Conventional Tasks (no scaffolding)
  14. 14. Screencast Design: Coherence People learn more deeply from a multimedia message when extraneous material is excluded E.g.: seductive details: music, factoids, photos 14 Ref: Harp, S. F., & Mayer, R. E. (1998). How seductive details do their damage: A theory of cognitive interest in science learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(3), 414.
  15. 15. Screencast Design: Redundancy The Redundancy principle means keeping the information to a minimum. Presenting the same information in a different way can harm learning because of demands on cognitive load. 15 As the air in this updraft cools, water vapor condenses into water droplets and forms a cloud. AUDIO: As the air in this updraft cools, water vapor condenses into water droplets and forms a cloud. VISUAL:
  16. 16. Screencast Design: Modality (Dual coding) The Modality principle recommends a combination of narration and visual animation: each is processed through the separate audio and visual channels thus reducing cognitive load. 16 WORKING MEMORY Pictorial Model Verbal Model Pictures Words integrating LONG-TERM MEMORY selecting images selecting words organizing images organizing words SENSORY MEMORY Ears Eyes Prior Knowledge Prior Knowledge MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATION Images Sounds Ref: Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. R. E. Mayer: p43.
  17. 17. Screencast Design: Split-attention (Contiguity) The Split-attention principle suggests presenting mutually- referring information: 17 As the air in this updraft cools, water vapor condenses into water droplets and forms a cloud. Close to each other on the screen (Spatial Contiguity) Simultaneously not successively (Temporal Contiguity)
  18. 18. Screencast Design: Signalling The Signalling principle uses highlighting methods to focus attention on critical aspects of a task. People learn more deeply when cues are added highlighting the main ideas. 18
  19. 19. Tailored to Learner: Segmenting Principle People learn more deeply when a narrated animation is presented in learner-paced segments than as a continuous unit. 19 As the air in this updraft cools, water vapor condenses into water droplets and forms a cloud. Continue Ref: The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. R. E. Mayer: Ch 11
  20. 20. Tailored to Learner: Pre-Training Principle People learn more deeply from a narrated animation when they have had training in the names and characteristics of the main concepts. 20
  21. 21. Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) Model Ref: Van Merrinboer, J. J. and P. A. Kirschner (2012). Ten steps to complex learning: A systematic approach to four-component instructional design, Routledge. Component 1: Task Classes
  22. 22. Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) Model Ref: Van Merrinboer, J. J. and P. A. Kirschner (2012). Ten steps to complex learning: A systematic approach to four-component instructional design, Routledge. Component 1: Task Classes Component 2: Supportive Information
  23. 23. Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) Model Ref: Van Merrinboer, J. J. and P. A. Kirschner (2012). Ten steps to complex learning: A systematic approach to four-component instructional design, Routledge. Component 1: Task Classes Component 2: Supportive Information Component 3: Procedural information
  24. 24. PreView Videos: Supportive (screenshot)
  25. 25. ReView Videos: Procedural (screenshot)
  26. 26. Pilot Research: PreViews and ReViews 2013-14 and 2014-15 (two cohorts, with tweaks in 2014-15) Material available for 3 weeks (active period)... ...then available for subsequent revision Statistics tracking: record of hits on videos and tests. Data from Student Records, test results, exam result Focus Groups (2013-14) 26
  27. 27. I think it makes the lecture a bit more easy to understand, rather than just falling into the deep end ... .. with the videos, you could go watch it all over again until you get it, and its quite helpful 'cause like, the first time I watched the videos, before I went to the lectures, I kind of understood what groups were about. So it was like, straightforward when I went to the lectures. Focus Groups ...On use before lectures (PreView):
  28. 28. Yeah, having the videos there, it's like, if you forget something, or you need to go over something again then you have that there for you - so you can do it in your own time. You're not pressured, you can fit it round your schedule and it's really helpful because it acts as a - like a revision tip as well. Yeah because in lecture if we miss one idea, there is no way to go back but in this video there is opportunity to go again on something, so its very, very advantageous. ...On use after lectures (ReView): Focus Groups
  29. 29. It would encourage people to do more work as they go along. Rather than leaving it til the last minute. The tasks build up on each other, so its like, you do a little bit, then carry on, then carry on, until your last one, which is a big question. It's very good. Focus Groups Encouraging self-study
  30. 30. Individualisation M5: ... in the video, you can stop him, make some notes, play him again... F3: Make some notes, listen over it... M5: ... in the lecture, you cannot stop him and play him again, stop him and play him again. ... laughter ... M5: Sorry Huw. Focus Groups
  31. 31. For some of the video I've noticed I can skip parts of the video, because I already have an understanding of it, or I've read about it. [M1, G2] I just went straight onto the worked examples then. I didn