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Project in District Study of Lucknow

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DISTRICT REPORT OF LUCKNOW

Submitted to: Col. Arun Dongdhe Co-ordinator PGDBM

Submitted by: Bhoopendra Tiwari PGDBM I (13-A)

AcknowledgementThis acknowledgement is not merely a list of names but an expression of deep sense of gratitude to all those who have helped in the successful completion of the project. Firstly I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my institution, EMPI Business School and Program Coordinator Col. Arun Dhongde for giving an opportunity to work on my own district Lucknow. A special thanks to Mr. R.N.Mishra, Chief secretary of Khadi Gram Udyog Mandal (Lucknow) for his precious time. Last but not the least to my family and all my friends and batch mates for their support and guidance.

Synopsis1. Introduction 2. About Lucknow 3. Language 4. Culture 5. History 6. In and around the city 7. Arts and Crafts 8. Attractions 9. Getting in, around and away 10. Geography and climate

LUCKNOWLucknow (Lakhnau) is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It had a population of 2,207,340 in 2001. Lucknow is also the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division. The name is derived from the name of the brother of the Lord Rama, Lakshmana in Hinduism who stayed here for a period of time.

Lucknow DistrictMayor Population:DINESH SHARMA 36.8 lacs 62.7% 331/km - Urban - Density

Becomes capital city: Under Awadh Rule: Car plates Main Languages: Local Transport: Area: Altitude: STD code:

around 1500 BC 16th Century UP-32 Hindi, Urdu and English Bus/Tempo/Auto-rickshaw/Taxi/Tonga/ Cycle-rickshaw 2528 sq. kms 123 sq mt. above sea level 0522

About Lucknow'Lucknow', this name is synonymous with architectural beauties of 'Lakhauri' bricks, the fragrance of 'itra', musical notes, the sound of dancers' trinklets, the sweetness of 'dussheri' mangoes, 'malai' and 'gulab revadis', and of course its 'Mehman Nawazi'. Known for its refinement in speech, entertainment, dresses and manners, Lucknow is also called the 'City of Adab'. Infact, it is here that one can experience hospitality in the true sense of the term. Various cultural ingredients have contributed to the richness of this unique city. Mention must be made of the Urdu language. Gazals, Shairi, expressive dance forms, colourful festivals, buzzing chowks and various exciting games like Patangbazi, Baterbazi & Kabutarbazi. Lucknow became the focal point of a cultural renaissance with theshifting of capital from Faizabad to Lucknow in 1776. Under royal patronage Kathak, Thumri, Khayal, Dadra, Gazals, Qawalies and Sher-o-Shairi reached their zenith point. As a centre of Islamic learning Lucknow witnessed the formation of Lucknow school of poetry under renowned poets like Anes, Dabeer, Imam-Buksh 'Nasika', Mirza Mohd. Raza Khan Burq, Atish, Mirza Shauq Asar, Josh and others. Apart from Gazals, another form of long narrative poem for which Lucknow is famous is Masnavi. Elegy writing in Urdu also reached a new height through the three forms-'marsiyas'*. 'salams'* and 'nauhas'*. Urdu as a language attained a rare degree of perfection in Lucknow and slowly Lucknow emerged as a cradle of unforgettable gazals, masnavi, elegy, hazal* and dramas.

Nawab Wajid Ali Shah, himself composed a number of songs and dramas under the pen name of , 'Akhtari Pia'. Of the famous Indian dance styles kathak is closely associated with Lucknow. This devotional dance stvle of pre-Mughal days was transformed into a highly eclectic dance form under the patronage of the Nawabs of Awadh. Pandit Iswari Prasad Mishra of Handia is said to be the founder of the Lucknow gharana of Kathak. The Kathak school founded by him was perfected by his sons Thakur Prasad, Durga Parsad. Bindadin. Kalka Prasad and the three sons of Kalka -Achchhan Maharaj, Lachchu Maharaj and Shambhu Maharaj. Today Pandit Birju Maharaj is the living doyen of this glorious house of Lucknow Turning to the festivals that make, Lucknow one-of-a-kind, mention must be made to the Moharrum festival. Commemorating the death of Alam's. Not only festivals, the people of this beautiful city 'indulge in various exciting Imam Hussain, Moharrum witnesses emotional

processions of tazias (models of Imam Hussain's mausoleum at Karbala, Iraq) &

contests that have come down from the time of the Nawabs. Kite flying is one such sport. Kites of different shapes, sizes, colours take to the skies leading to all round excitement and enjoyment The art of training pigeons which was perfected by the nobility of yesteryears is prevalent even today. The pigeon flying event is yet another exciting game that is eagerly awaited. No account of Lucknowi culture is complete

without a mention of the famous 'Chowk' of Lucknow. The term 'Chowk' has become synonymous with Lucknow. 'Chowk' has played a vital role in the development of the Lucknowi culture. It is the pivotal point around which the traders, engravers, painters. Artisans, weavers,singers and nautch girls flourished and grew. This main bazar of yester years has not changed much. but transformation is there. Its humming and lively characteristics represent Lucknowi culture in its modern day context. Lucknow, the Golden city of the east is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh and is popularly called the city of Nawabs and Kababs. Though it is rapidly modernising, it has still kept its past glory and is known for its cultural refinement. It is also associated with legendary hospitality, leisurely moods of life and world-renowned cuisine. The city offers plenty of places of historical interest to tourists. The popular Parsi theatre originated from the Urdu theatre, and the Tabla and Sitar were first heard on the streets of Lucknow.

LanguageBoth Hindi and Urdu are spoken in Lucknow but Urdu has been the lingua franca here for centuries. Under the rule of Nawabs, Urdu flourished and turned into one of the most refined languages. Hindu and Muslim poets like Aatish, Nasikh, Daya Shankar Naseem, Musahafi, Insha , Safi Lakhnavi and the great Meer Taqi Meer took Urdu poetry to dizzying heights. The two great poets, Mir Anis and Mir Dabeer, became legendary exponents of a unique genre of elegiacal poetry called 'Marsia' centred on Husayn bin Ali's supreme sacrifice in the battle of Karbala which is commemorated during the annual observance of Muharram. The revolutionary Ram Prasad Bismil "who was hanged by the British at Kakori near Lucknow" was hugely influenced by poetry and wrote verse under the pseudonym of "Bismil". The towns like Kakori, Daryabad, Rudauli and Malhibad produced innumerable poets and litterateurs of Urdu like Mohsin Kakorvi, Majaz Lucknowi, Josh Malihabadi and Maulana Abdul Majid Daryabadi.

CultureLucknow, the golden city of the east' is struggling to retain the old world charm that still exists in the old quarters of the city close to the Chowk area. Regarded as one of the finest cities of India, Lucknow represents a culture that combines emotional warmth, a high degree of sophistication, courtesy and a love for gracious living. The (pehle-aap) 'You-First' culture so popularised as a tagline for the society of Lucknow is waning but there still remain people who possess those beautiful qualities. This sublime cultural richness famous as 'Lakhnawi Tehzeeb' blends the cultures of two communities living side by side for centuries, sharing similar interests, speaking a common language -Urdu. Many of the cultural traits and customs peculiar to Lucknow have become living legends today. The credit for this goes to the Nawabs of Awadh, who took keen interest in every walk of life and encouraged them to attain a rare degree of perfection. It is an extremely laidback city in some respects. Anyone visiting the city via the ugly and distant airport will form a very negative first impression of the city. However, the beautiful architecture and the yellow facade of the railway station, along with its milling crowds of travellers, hawkers and the general public can put a smile on anyone's face.

HistoryThe intricate carving at a Monuments From Lucknow India. In ancient times, Lucknow was part of Kosala kingdom (modern Ayodhya) ruled over by Ikshvaku dynasty to which Lord Rama belongs. It is believed that he gave the territory comprising of modern Lucknow to his devoted brother Lakshman. Therefore, the original name of Lucknow was Lakshmanpur, popularly known as Lakhanpur or Lachmanpur. Lucknow's medieval history begins with its elevation to a capital city under the Nawabs of Awadh. The architectural contributions of the Awadh rulers, many paintings of whom are maintained at the Art Gallery today, include numerous mosques and palaces. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chhota Imambara, and the Roomi Darwaza are notable examples, although neglect by the authorities has put them in danger of turning into ruins. Claude Martin's palace, "Constantia" now houses one of five schools founded under his will. Photograph by John Edward Sache, working in India 1865 - 1882 The province of Awadh (anglicized to Oudh) was annexed by the British rulers of India in 1856. In the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the garrison based at the Residency in Lucknow was besieged by rebel forces. The famous Siege of Lucknow was relieved first by forces under the command of Sir Henry Havelock and Sir James Outram, followed by a stronger force under Sir Colin Campbell. Today the ruins of the

Residency, and the picturesque Shaheed Smarak offer reminiscences of Lucknow's role in the Mutiny. During the uprising and the siege of the Residency in 1857, it was the students of La Martiniere College that went ahead to defend the Residency. For the valour that they displayed, La Martiniere College at Lucknow is the only college in the world that has received battle honours of the British Empire. Other architectural delights in Lucknow include the Vidhan Sabha (State P

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