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A grammar of the Maori language, for anyone interested in learning the language or studying it

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HANDBOUND AT THE

UNIVERSITY OF

TORONTO PRESS

GRAMMAROF THE

NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE.

2

GRAMMAROF THE

NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGEBY

K.

MAUNSELL,

LL.D.

ARCIIDEACOX OF AUCKLAND

THIRD EDITION

MELBOURNE, SYDNEY, AND ADELAIDEAUCKLAND:N.O.

LENNOX......

(late E.

WAYTE)

M

X\\II

PREFACE TO THE THIKTi EDITION.

THEa

reader hasstrange

here

before

him the

analysis

of

"

language,"

unlike

anything known

in

Europe,

with rules ofitself.

constructiontherefore,

and an idiom

peculiar to

He must,

when

speaking,

endeavour to divest his mind of European rules ofspeech,

Hisbeto

wisest, shortest,tJie

and adopt those of the Antipodes. and most effectual courseexamplesget

will

study

them

off

by

heart, think

of them,

frames his sentences.

and make them the models upon which he I can conceive no course more

beneficial than making a vocabulary out of them, on some plan or scheme of his own. The rules and dis-

sertations he can refer to, at his leisure, as guides in

cases of difficulty.

J%,

1882.

PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION.

INDEPENDENTLYit

of

minute and numerous subdivisions,l>e

may, perhaps,

correct to state that there are

spoken in this, the northern island, seven leading dialects, each more or less distinguished from the other,viz.:

1st,

the Rarawa, or that spoken to the northward;

of

Kaitaia

2nd,

the

Ngapuhi, or that spoken iu

that portion of the island as far south of Kaitaia asl>oint

Rodney on the eastern;

coast,

and Kaipara on

the western

Waikato, or that spoken in the district lying between Point Rodney and Tauranga on the east, and Kaipara and Mokau on the west ; 4th,3rd, the

Bay of Plenty 5th, the dialect of East Cape and its neighbourhood, in which, perhaps, may be included that of Rotorua, though inthat spoken in thethe;

these

detected

little differences might l>e spoken in the line of coast between Port Nicholson and Wanganui, though here, also, at least four different branches might be traced 7th, and;

two places many6th, that

;

last,

that spoken between "Wanganui anddialect of

Mokau.

The

Taupo may

be, perhaps, considered a

mixture of those of Rotorua and Waikato.

Vlli

PREFACE.

All these

may be

stated to bear to each other a

remarkable radical

affinity.

Many

words,

it is

true,;

may

be found in one which are

unknown

in another

but the grammar of any one will give a great insightinto the texture ofall.

The Waikato dialect is very generally throughout the larger portion of the island.

knownIt has

deeply tinctured that of Taupo, is well known at Tauranga and the Bay of Plenty, and has been carried to the summits of Taranaki by the multitudes whomits fierce

warriors once dragged from thence in slavery,since been snappedto the

and whose chains have powerof the Gospel.it,

Ngapuhi

by the northward are

well acquainted with

from the number of slaves who

had been fetched from thence by the warrior Hongi ; and a little before his time it was carried to the neighbourhood of Port Nicholson by two large and distinct migrations one by Ngatitoa, who were the originalpossessors of

Kawhia another by Ngatiraukawa, who;

formerly occupied Maungatautari, and as far as Taupo. The four tribes, also, who now occupy the banks ofthe Thames, resided formerly for a very long period in Waikato, and, being sprung from the same stock,

speak a language so similar that ascarcelytell

critical ear

can

the difference between the dialects of the

two people.*Marutuahu, from Kawhia, is the great progenitor of the tribes, and his name is often used to designate that Kawhia, we may add, is the place at which, according people. to the accounts of the people of Waikato, Taranaki, as well as*

Thames

those of Ngatiruanui, the early immigrants, landed.

1'KKi

IX

The

origin of this people,

first

occupied,

whether

what part !' this it was not coloni/.edi.

l>y

ditl'erent

migrations from ditlerent islands,

are point.-

as yet buried in darkn That it was not occupied by merely one migration

ever been the opinion of the author since lu> h< of the different condition and habits of the peopl tlif East Cape and those of Waikato. survey oflias

A

the different dialects will confirm the conjecture,

and

nowhere can we get a better illustration than at Taupo. For that magnificent lake, in the centre of the island,and the point of meeting for two parties, as they approach from either coast, presents also a remarkablediversity in the languages spokenrii

on the eastern and

hanks.

On

the eastern, the dialect con

ponds closely with that of Rotorua, from which it is ;nt about a four days' journey ; on the north rii, which is occupied by a remnant left by the tiraukawa in their great migration to the south-

ward, the dialectin

is

remarkably similar to that spoken

Waikato.*

The points ofprinciples of the

similarity

between the fundamentalthose of Maori

Hebrew language and:

have been occasionally noticed not, however, because author entertains any opinion that the two* These remarks might also be extended to Rotorua lakes, on the north-western extremity also of which are resulini, r ivnmaiit of Njatiraukawa, whose dialect is, a.s far ie author recolleets, different from that spoken byosiTiONS.

Remarks on them Proper meaning of na, ma.

Sec.

CHAPTERPrimitive and derivative adverbsClassification

IX.

OP THE ADVERBS.andlist

of adverbs

and adverbial exprcX.

CHAPTERAtu, mai, ake, iho,ai,

OF THE PARTICLES.ano, ra, koa, u, hoki, kau.

CHAPTEROf the conjunctions.

XI.

CHAPTEROf theinterjections.

XII.

CHAPTER

XIII.

OF THE SYNTAX.Preliminary Remarks.

Terms explained Complex and incomplex propositions Remarks on the general features of MaoriEpanorthosis.

CHAPTER XIV. SYNTAX OF THE ARTICLE.Ko anirearticleIts peculiar features

The omissionandte

of the article ta?d

The

particle a.

XIV

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XV.SYNTAX OF THE NOUN.Nounsin apposition Article prefixed to them Preposition

Exceptions Clauses in epanorthosis, irregularity of The answer to a question, construction

of.

Possessive Case denotesIntensity Date of an act

Useful in predication Used instead of other cases Position of, when the governing word is twice repeated Governing word often omitted Material, or quality, of a thing how denoted by a sub-

The formtive.

stantive of the substantive often used for that of the adjec-

Objective Case.Position of

How compoundKaiNfjat'i

words govern others

prefixed to a verb Te prefixed to proper names

O

and ranf/i and A. distinction between.

CHAPTER

XVI.

SYNTAX OF THE ADJECTIVES.Position of adjectives

Verbal adjectives Exceptionsadjectives to one substantive adjective to two or more substantives Of the forms occasionally assumed by the adjective Comparison of adjectives.

Many

One

CONTENTS.(

XV

I1A1TKK XVII.Nr.MKKAI.-.

SYNTAX OFParticles prefixed to numeralsl'ase following1'osition of

numeral

Tua

;ion of numeral ami n-liaka as numeral prefixes.

CHAPTER

XVIII.

SYNTAX OF PRONG IN-.Position of pronouns Often omitted Singular and dual often denote a tribe Other uses of A pronoun in the singular will refer to a noun in the plural In the third person will refer to the first or second

person

Used for the conjunction and The noun belonging to the pronoun often omittedlitlatict-

pronouns, the substitutes for them.

Demomtratice Pronouns.Useful as auxiliaries

Other peculiarities ofJVH, na, and ra Interrogative pronouns (strange use of).

CHAPTER XIX.SYNTAX OP THE VERB.Tim Verbal Particle*.I

A nn K ana

KaI

KnnA;,/

ts

-listinction between no verbal particle prefixed used in connection with the verbirnes

l\'/mka t uses of

XViAdverbs as auxiliaries

CONTENTS.

Defect of substantive verb, Prepositions as auxiliaries

howto

supplied

Tendency

of

Maori verb

assume the form

of

a sub-

stantive

The

finite verb may follow the oblique case Predication performed by the possessive case Compound tenses Other circumstances which affect the time

or voice of

a

verb Verbs associated to qualify each otherRepetition of verbs Of other words Passive verbs, use of

Sometimes supplanted by the active Neuter verbs which assume the passive form.

CHAPTER XX.OF THE PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBS, AND CONJUNCTIONS.

EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS.

adj.

adjectiv