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DESCRIPTIONA grammar of the Maori language, for anyone interested in learning the language or studying it
HANDBOUND AT THE
NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE.
NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGEBY
ARCIIDEACOX OF AUCKLAND
MELBOURNE, SYDNEY, AND ADELAIDEAUCKLAND:N.O.
PREFACE TO THE THIKTi EDITION.
with rules ofitself.
and an idiom
endeavour to divest his mind of European rules ofspeech,
and adopt those of the Antipodes. and most effectual courseexamplesget
frames his sentences.
and make them the models upon which he I can conceive no course more
beneficial than making a vocabulary out of them, on some plan or scheme of his own. The rules and dis-
sertations he can refer to, at his leisure, as guides in
cases of difficulty.
PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION.
minute and numerous subdivisions,l>e
correct to state that there are
spoken in this, the northern island, seven leading dialects, each more or less distinguished from the other,viz.:
the Rarawa, or that spoken to the northward;
Ngapuhi, or that spoken iu
that portion of the island as far south of Kaitaia asl>oint
Rodney on the eastern;
and Kaipara on
Waikato, or that spoken in the district lying between Point Rodney and Tauranga on the east, and Kaipara and Mokau on the west ; 4th,3rd, the
Bay of Plenty 5th, the dialect of East Cape and its neighbourhood, in which, perhaps, may be included that of Rotorua, though inthat spoken in thethe;
little differences might l>e spoken in the line of coast between Port Nicholson and Wanganui, though here, also, at least four different branches might be traced 7th, and;
two places many6th, that
that spoken between "Wanganui anddialect of
be, perhaps, considered a
mixture of those of Rotorua and Waikato.
stated to bear to each other a
be found in one which are
but the grammar of any one will give a great insightinto the texture ofall.
The Waikato dialect is very generally throughout the larger portion of the island.
deeply tinctured that of Taupo, is well known at Tauranga and the Bay of Plenty, and has been carried to the summits of Taranaki by the multitudes whomits fierce
warriors once dragged from thence in slavery,since been snappedto the
and whose chains have powerof the Gospel.it,
by the northward are
well acquainted with
from the number of slaves who
had been fetched from thence by the warrior Hongi ; and a little before his time it was carried to the neighbourhood of Port Nicholson by two large and distinct migrations one by Ngatitoa, who were the originalpossessors of
Kawhia another by Ngatiraukawa, who;
formerly occupied Maungatautari, and as far as Taupo. The four tribes, also, who now occupy the banks ofthe Thames, resided formerly for a very long period in Waikato, and, being sprung from the same stock,
speak a language so similar that ascarcelytell
the difference between the dialects of the
two people.*Marutuahu, from Kawhia, is the great progenitor of the tribes, and his name is often used to designate that Kawhia, we may add, is the place at which, according people. to the accounts of the people of Waikato, Taranaki, as well as*
those of Ngatiruanui, the early immigrants, landed.
origin of this people,
what part !' this it was not coloni/.edi.
migrations from ditlerent islands,
as yet buried in darkn That it was not occupied by merely one migration
ever been the opinion of the author since lu> h< of the different condition and habits of the peopl tlif East Cape and those of Waikato. survey oflias
the different dialects will confirm the conjecture,
nowhere can we get a better illustration than at Taupo. For that magnificent lake, in the centre of the island,and the point of meeting for two parties, as they approach from either coast, presents also a remarkablediversity in the languages spokenrii
on the eastern and
the eastern, the dialect con
ponds closely with that of Rotorua, from which it is ;nt about a four days' journey ; on the north rii, which is occupied by a remnant left by the tiraukawa in their great migration to the south-
ward, the dialectin
remarkably similar to that spoken
The points ofprinciples of the
between the fundamentalthose of Maori
Hebrew language and:
have been occasionally noticed not, however, because author entertains any opinion that the two* These remarks might also be extended to Rotorua lakes, on the north-western extremity also of which are resulini, r ivnmaiit of Njatiraukawa, whose dialect is, a.s far ie author recolleets, different from that spoken byosiTiONS.
Remarks on them Proper meaning of na, ma.
CHAPTERPrimitive and derivative adverbsClassification
OP THE ADVERBS.andlist
and adverbial exprcX.
CHAPTERAtu, mai, ake, iho,ai,
OF THE PARTICLES.ano, ra, koa, u, hoki, kau.
CHAPTEROf the conjunctions.
OF THE SYNTAX.Preliminary Remarks.
Terms explained Complex and incomplex propositions Remarks on the general features of MaoriEpanorthosis.
CHAPTER XIV. SYNTAX OF THE ARTICLE.Ko anirearticleIts peculiar features
of the article ta?d
CHAPTER XV.SYNTAX OF THE NOUN.Nounsin apposition Article prefixed to them Preposition
Exceptions Clauses in epanorthosis, irregularity of The answer to a question, construction
Possessive Case denotesIntensity Date of an act
Useful in predication Used instead of other cases Position of, when the governing word is twice repeated Governing word often omitted Material, or quality, of a thing how denoted by a sub-
stantive of the substantive often used for that of the adjec-
Objective Case.Position of
words govern others
prefixed to a verb Te prefixed to proper names
and ranf/i and A. distinction between.
SYNTAX OF THE ADJECTIVES.Position of adjectives
Verbal adjectives Exceptionsadjectives to one substantive adjective to two or more substantives Of the forms occasionally assumed by the adjective Comparison of adjectives.
SYNTAX OFParticles prefixed to numeralsl'ase following1'osition of
;ion of numeral ami n-liaka as numeral prefixes.
SYNTAX OF PRONG IN-.Position of pronouns Often omitted Singular and dual often denote a tribe Other uses of A pronoun in the singular will refer to a noun in the plural In the third person will refer to the first or second
Used for the conjunction and The noun belonging to the pronoun often omittedlitlatict-
pronouns, the substitutes for them.
Demomtratice Pronouns.Useful as auxiliaries
Other peculiarities ofJVH, na, and ra Interrogative pronouns (strange use of).
CHAPTER XIX.SYNTAX OP THE VERB.Tim Verbal Particle*.I
A nn K ana
-listinction between no verbal particle prefixed used in connection with the verbirnes
l\'/mka t uses of
XViAdverbs as auxiliaries
Defect of substantive verb, Prepositions as auxiliaries
assume the form
finite verb may follow the oblique case Predication performed by the possessive case Compound tenses Other circumstances which affect the time
or voice of
verb Verbs associated to qualify each otherRepetition of verbs Of other words Passive verbs, use of
Sometimes supplanted by the active Neuter verbs which assume the passive form.
CHAPTER XX.OF THE PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBS, AND CONJUNCTIONS.
EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS.