Marine Parks

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Malaysia is situated at the epicenter of the worlds coral diversity


<ul> <li> Marine Parks <ul><li>Malaysia is situated at the epicenter of the worlds coral diversity </li></ul><ul><li>The extensive coral reefs found off the countrys coastline teem with a staggering variety of fascinating marine life </li></ul></li> <li> Marine Parks <ul><li>Coral reefs are vital breeding as well as feeding grounds and provided sanctuary for over 4,000 species of fish </li></ul><ul><li>Uniquely exquisite, they are well protected and preserved in numerous marine parks located throughout the country </li></ul><ul><li>Dive into our waters and explore the hidden depths, which abound with wondrous underwater gems </li></ul><ul><li>The multihued and vibrant colors of the reef as well as its inhabitants some beautiful, others bizarre have never failed to fascinate </li></ul></li> <li> Marine Parks <ul><li>Labuan Marine Park </li></ul><ul><li>Pulau Tiga Park </li></ul><ul><li>Tunku Abdul Rahman Park </li></ul><ul><li>Turtle Islands Park </li></ul></li> <li> Labuan Marine Park <ul><li>The Federal Territory of Labuan is located 115km south of Kota Kinabalu and only 8km off the Sabah mainland at the northern tip of Brunei bay </li></ul><ul><li>An international offshore financial centre, Labuan is also a busy duty free port </li></ul></li> <li> Labuan Marine Park <ul><li>This marine park covers the three most southerly islands of Kuraman, Rusukan Besar and Rusukan Kecil </li></ul><ul><li>These pristine islands are only two to three kilometer from the southern tip of Labuan Island </li></ul></li> <li> Labuan Marine Park <ul><li>The park encompasses 10km sq of pristine waters within its tree secluded islets </li></ul><ul><li>It features long sandy beaches, reef atolls, jungle trails and quite tidal pools </li></ul><ul><li>A great variety of marine life and corals can be found on and around these wrecks with the older ones boasting soft corals </li></ul></li> <li> Labuan Marine Park <ul><li>Barracuda, grouper, lion fish and other reef fish are plentiful and marine turtles; giant clams as well as whale sharks are quite common </li></ul><ul><li>The four wrecks dive sites are known as the American, Australian, Blue Water and Cement Wrecks </li></ul></li> <li> The American Wrecks <ul><li>The American Wrecks is the USS Salute, which was built in 1943 and sunk by a mine in 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>It sits on a sandy bottom at 33m below sea level and is located southwest of Pulau Rusukan Kecil </li></ul></li> <li> The Australian Wreck <ul><li>The Australian Wreck is 23km from Labuan and southwest of Pulau Rusukan Besar </li></ul><ul><li>A freighter built in 1900 at Rotterdam </li></ul><ul><li>It was captured by the Japanese in 1942 and sunk by the Royal Australian Air Force in 1945 </li></ul></li> <li> The Cement Wreck <ul><li>The Cement Wreck, MV Tung Hwang, was freighter carrying cement, which sank in 1980 after hitting a sand bank </li></ul><ul><li>It sits upright in 30m of water with its mast only 8m below the surface </li></ul></li> <li> The Blue Water Wreck <ul><li>The MV Mabini Padre or the Blue Water Wreck, sits 34km away from Labuan, northwest of Pulau Kuruman </li></ul><ul><li>It sank in November 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>The Blue Water Wreck normally has the best visibility </li></ul></li> <li> Labuan Marine Park <ul><li>The type of diving on these wrecks ranges from novice to experienced wreck diving with penetrations possible into the hulls </li></ul><ul><li>Diving the wrecks can be arranged through Borneo Divers who have a PADI 5 star Dive centre located at Labuan </li></ul><ul><li>Here they run PADI courses from Discover Scuba to Divemaster, also catering for TDI Nitrox and advanced wreck diving courses </li></ul></li> <li> Pulau Tiga Park <ul><li>Pulau Tiga is an island situated within the Pulau Tiga Park that was gazette in 1978 and located about 35 nautical miles southwest of Kota Kinabalu </li></ul><ul><li>It covers 158km sq, most of which is sea </li></ul><ul><li>Three islands make up Pulau Tiga Park; they are Pulau Tiga, Pulau Kalampunian Damit or better known as Snake Island and Pulau Kalampunian Besar </li></ul><ul><li>Pulau tiga is the largest island at 607ha in size followed by Pulau Kalampunian Besar and Pulau Kalampunian Damit </li></ul></li> <li> Pulau Tiga <ul><li>Pulau Tiga is believed to have been formed by the eruption of several mud volcanoes, which with the combination of subterranean gas pressure and expelled muddy sediment could have built up the island to its present height of approximately 100m above sea level </li></ul><ul><li>Pulau Tiga itself is one of Sabahs few undisturbed offshore island </li></ul><ul><li>Having been declared a forest reserve in 1933, the park has particularly interesting flora and fauna </li></ul></li> <li> Pulau Tiga <ul><li>The islands host a great variety of bird life </li></ul><ul><li>Large Megapodes (Megapodius freycinet) about the size of domestic fowl are commonly encountered </li></ul><ul><li>The name Megapode was derived from their big feet (mega: big, podes: feet) </li></ul></li> <li> Pulau Tiga <ul><li>These birds have an unusual method of hatching their young </li></ul><ul><li>While most birds use body heat to incubate their eggs, megapodes use environmental heat </li></ul><ul><li>They hatch their eggs in incubators </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs are deposited in an excavated cavity in the ground and are left to be incubated by natural heat, either from the sun, fermentation of vegetation or even heat from the mud volcanoes </li></ul></li> <li> Pulau Kalampunan Besar <ul><li>Pulau Kalampunan Besar, formed from sand, clay and coral fragments, changes shape constantly according to weather and monsoon patterns, vegetation is scarce on this low-lying island </li></ul><ul><li>Snakes, especially sea snakes (laticauda colubrine) are common </li></ul><ul><li>These amphibian sea snakes come ashore to breed, earning Pulau Kalampunian Besar the nickname of Snake Island </li></ul></li> <li> Pulau kalampunian Damit <ul><li>Pulau kalampunian Damit is of a different proposition </li></ul><ul><li>Comprising mixed sandstone, limestone and shale, this island stands out from the sea and is known as a breeding ground for sea snakes </li></ul></li> <li> Pulau Tiga Park <ul><li>Pulau Tiga was chosen as the location for the first US CBS TV series Survivor </li></ul><ul><li>Pulau Tiga resort offers PADI dive courses and many dives sits for the novice and experienced divers including some unexplored dive locations </li></ul></li> <li> Tunku Abdul Rahman Park <ul><li>Tunku Abdul Rahman Park was declared a national park in 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>It covers an area of 50km sq and includes islands as well as their surrounding reefs </li></ul><ul><li>Geologically, the islands are part of the Crocker Range but became isolated when sea levels rose at the end of the last ice age </li></ul><ul><li>The marine park is a cluster of islands comprising Pulau Gaya, Pulau Manukan, Pulau Mamutik Pulau Sulug and Pulau Sapi </li></ul></li> <li> Pulau Gaya <ul><li>Pulau Gaya is the largest of the islands at 15km sq the others are Manukan, Mamutik, Sapi and Sulug </li></ul><ul><li>Pulau Gayas highest point is 300m above sea level and the land gently slopes down through primary forest to beaches, bays and sandy coves </li></ul><ul><li>With 20km of marked trails, including a plank walk across a mangrove forest, fringing reefs and excellent beaches, it is an easy getaway from the mainland </li></ul><ul><li>A new exclusive island resort pampers holidaymakers who wish to spend a few days away from the city </li></ul></li> <li> Manukan <ul><li>Manukan, the second largest island, is the most developed </li></ul><ul><li>The park headquarters is located here and the accommodations as well as services are excellent </li></ul><ul><li>Nature trails, diving and snorkeling are the main activities available </li></ul><ul><li>Manukan has many beach barbecue sets for you to cook your own food </li></ul></li> <li> Mamutik, Sulug and Sapi <ul><li>Mamutik, Sulug and Sapi are smaller islands Pulau sapi has 5km of nature trails and Pulau Sulug, the most remote island, has a long sand sit that drops sharply near an extensive coral reef, which is home to giant clams </li></ul></li> <li> Tunku Abdul Rahman Park <ul><li>During the cooler months from November to February, plankton blooms attract krill which in turn attract whale sharks, the worlds largest fish </li></ul><ul><li>At times, the density of the kill can be so thick in these murky conditions underwater encounters with these colossal animals can be exciting as they suddenly appear out of the gloom </li></ul></li> <li> Turtle Islands Park <ul><li>Gazette as a marine park in 1977 to protect the breeding habitat of these sea turtles, </li></ul><ul><li>About 40km northeast of Sandakan on Sabahs east coast </li></ul><ul><li>The turtle islands park include Pulau Selingan, Pulau Gulisan and Pulau Bakungan Kechil </li></ul><ul><li>Covering a total area of 1,740ha </li></ul><ul><li>The park provides accommodation for visitors </li></ul></li> <li> Turtle Islands Park <ul><li>Green and hawksbill turtle come ashore throughout the year to lay their eggs </li></ul><ul><li>The peak nesting season for the green turtle is from July to October while more hawksbill turtles come ashore between February and April </li></ul></li> <li> Turtle Islands Park <ul><li>The turtles come at night and haul themselves up to an area above the high watermark where they use their rear flippers to excavate an egg chamber </li></ul><ul><li>Laying average 50 to 80 eggs, they then cover the eggs with sand to conceal the site </li></ul><ul><li>In order to fully protect these delicate breeding grounds park staff are resident on all three islands </li></ul></li> <li> Turtle Islands Park <ul><li>All new turtles that come ashore are tagged by park rangers and measured to gain a clearer picture of growth, distribution and population </li></ul><ul><li>Freshly laid eggs are dug up and relocated to secure sites </li></ul><ul><li>Hand placed in pits 75cm deep, the eggs are then surrounded by plastic mesh and given an information plate detailing a serial number, date of collection and the number of eggs </li></ul></li> <li> Turtle Islands Park <ul><li>The environment determines the sex of the offspring </li></ul><ul><li>As cooler nests produce males, warmer ones females, some are shaded to provide the correct sex ratio </li></ul><ul><li>After about 50 to 60 days, the eggs will hatch, usually at night, and the offspring are later released into the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Only a small number will survive to adulthood </li></ul></li> <li> Islands <ul><li>Sipadan Island </li></ul></li> <li> Sipadan Island <ul><li>The internationally famous island of Sipadan lies five degrees north of the equator in the Sulawesi Sea (Celebes Sea) </li></ul><ul><li>Lying 35km south of Semporna, on Sabahs mainland, like many tropical islands it is thickly forested and surrounded by sandy beaches </li></ul></li> <li> Sipadan Island <ul><li>Sipadan is an oceanic island and formed by living coals growing on top of an extinct undersea volcano, which rises 600m from the seabed </li></ul><ul><li>The geographic position of Sipadan puts it in the centre of the richest marine habitat in the world, the heart of the Indo-pacific basin </li></ul><ul><li>More than 3,000 species of fish and hundreds of coral species have been classified in this richest of ecosystems </li></ul></li> <li> Sipadan Island <ul><li>Sipadan is well known for its unusually large numbers of green and hawksbill turtles which gather there to mate and nest and it is not unusual for a diver to see more then 20 turtles on each dive </li></ul></li> <li> Sipadan Island <ul><li>Another unique feature to divers visiting Sipadan is the turtle tomb, an underwater limestone cave with a labyrinth of tunnels and chambers that contain many skeletal remains of turtles that became disoriented and then drowned </li></ul></li> <li> Sipadan Island <ul><li>The residential schooling barracuda and big-eye trevally, which often gather in thousands forming spectacular tornado-like formation, are one of the highlights on every divers wish list </li></ul><ul><li>With the possibility of seeing pelagic species such as mantas, eagle rays, scalloped hammerhead sharks, each dive at Sipadan is a highly anticipated event </li></ul></li> <li> Sipadan Island <ul><li>The diversity and abundance of marine life found a Sipadan gives it its reputation of being one of the ten best dive locations in the world </li></ul><ul><li>The government of Malaysia has decided that all existing onsite dive resort operators are to move their operations out of Sipadan Island by 31 st December 2004 </li></ul></li> <li> Sipadan Island <ul><li>The move is mainly to conserve and maintain a balanced marine and land eco-systems on Sipadan and its environs </li></ul><ul><li>Diving will continue in Sipadan for divers to be ferried in by operators operating from the mainland or nearby islands other than the islands of Sipadan and Ligitan </li></ul></li> <li> Marine Park rules and regulations <ul><li>Never snorkel or dive alone </li></ul><ul><li>Be familiar with your equipment before entering the sea and ensure that your skills are up to date </li></ul><ul><li>Consider a refresher course if it has been sometime sine you have been underwater </li></ul><ul><li>Always seek an environmental orientation before diving </li></ul><ul><li>Your diving instructor can brief you </li></ul></li> <li> Marine Park rules and regulations <ul><li>Do not alter underwater habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Divers and snorkelers should neither stand nor sit on corals </li></ul><ul><li>You are also prohibited from breaking off or taking any corals for souvenirs </li></ul><ul><li>Do not capture marine creatures or organism </li></ul><ul><li>Take only pictures and leave only bubbles </li></ul><ul><li>Do not feed fish or other marine organisms </li></ul></li> <li> Marine Park rules and regulations <ul><li>Do not harass marine creatures, especially turtles </li></ul><ul><li>Practice non-destructive boat anchoring, most marine parks have mooring buoys </li></ul><ul><li>Do no throw rubbish into the sea, especially plastic bags </li></ul><ul><li>It should be the goal of each diver or snorkeler to leave the environment cleaner each time they leave a site </li></ul></li> <li> Marine Park rules and regulations <ul><li>Observe all local safety rules </li></ul><ul><li>The rules and regulations may vary slightly from park to park </li></ul><ul><li>However, the main rules of etiquette is the same </li></ul><ul><li>Note: entrance fees, camera fees and other charges differ from park to park </li></ul><ul><li>However, all fees are reasonable </li></ul></li> <li> Bibliography <ul><li>National and Marine Parks. (2009). Tourism Malaysia, Ministry of Tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>Sabah Malaysia Borneo Diving. (2005). Sabah Tourism Board. </li></ul><ul><li>Not responsible for above content error and mistake </li></ul></li> </ul>