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  • 8/8/2019 Mass Communication (1)




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    MASS MEDIA? Refers to various audiovisual culture

    industries that send content from a

    particular source to a wide audience. For example, recorded music and


    A means of public communicationreaching audience

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    PUBLIC MEDIA The term public media has a similar

    meaning: it is the sum of the public massdistributors of news and entertainment (:NEWSPAPERS, TV and RADIO, BOOK(publishers), etc.

    To this have been added more recentlythe INTERNET, PODCASTING,BLOGGING

    All of these public media sources havebetter informed the general public ofwhat

    is going on in the world today.

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    The mass-media audience has beenviewed by

    some commentators as forming aMASSSOCIETY with specialcharacteristics, which

    render it especially susceptible tothe influenceof modern mass-media techniquessuch as


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    It is also gaining popularity in theblogosphere

    when referring to the mainstream media (MSM).

    The mass-media audience can be easilypersuaded one way or another (depending on

    the subject of discussion) whether or not they

    want to believe the media.

    Mass media can be one of the hardest forms of

    media to

    decipher what is true and what is not.

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    Mass media are tools for the

    transfer of information, concepts,

    and ideas to both general and

    specific audiencesThey are important tools in advancing public goals

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    COMMUNICATION The twentieth century in the States was

    characterized by the transformation of

    artisans, localhobbies and small businesses into highlycentralized,rationalized industries working like

    production lines, andthe entertainment and informational mediawere no different

    In the process pleasure was turned into


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    And when governments occasionally intervened toregulate, or alternative technologies destabilizedestablished forms and interests, ways were found ofaccommodating threats or capitalizing on others'

    innovations, resulting in renewed corporate control overeach medium. For instance, when newspapers wereconfronted withradio and then TV, they bought into these sectors asquickly as possible, where cross-ownership lawspermitted.

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    Even the Internet, initiallycelebrated as a source of

    freedom from centralized control,has gradually comeunder corporate domination.

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    These tensions are played out in thehistory of radio and motion pictures.

    Radio began in the 1920s as a meansof two-waycommunication, a source ofagricultural stock-price and

    weather information, a boon tomilitary technology, and aresource for ethnic culturalmaintenance.

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    Then radio became a broadcast medium ofnetworked

    mass entertainment dominated bycorporations in the1930s that was confronted with wartimecensorship and

    the advent of television as an alternativein the 1940s.

    Growing the 1980s and 1990s & carryi ngon in 21st century

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    TAKEN-Using mass media can be

    counterproductive if the channels

    used arenot audience-appropriate, or if themessage being delivered is tooemotional,

    fear arousing, or controversial.Undesirable side effects usually canbeavoided through proper formative

    research, knowledge of the audience,

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    To audiences and message testing.

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    MEDIA- Short-term Objectives are: Exposing audiences to concepts

    Creating awareness and knowledgeAltering outdated or incorrectknowledge &Enhancing audience recall of

    particular advertisements or publicserviceannouncements (PSAs), promotions,orprogram names.

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    objectives All of the earlier ones, as well as

    changes inattitudes,behaviors, and

    perceptions of social norms.

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    Long-term Objectives

    include: all of the earlier tasks, plus focused

    restructuring of perceived social

    norms,and maintenance of behavior change.Evidence of achieving these three

    tiers ofobjectives is useful in evaluating theeffectiveness of mass media.

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    ypes an unctions oMass

    Media The mass media are capable of


    short-term, intermediate-term, andlong-term effects on audiences.

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    Mass media performs three

    key functions: Educating

    Shaping public relations &

    Advocating for a particular policy or pointof view

    As education tools, media not only impartknowledge, but can be part of larger

    efforts (e.g.,social marketing) to promote actionshavingsocial utility.g for a particular policy or

    point of view

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    As public relations tools, media assistorganizations in achieving credibility and

    respectamong public health opinion leaders,stakeholders, and other gatekeepers.

    Finally, as advocacy tools, mass media

    assistleaders in setting a policy agenda, shapingdebates about controversial issues andgaining support for particular viewpoints

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    FUNCTIONS OF MEDIA Surveillance of the environment

    Interpretation of the information

    Prescription for Conduct Transmission Of Heritage


    National Development

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    SURVEILLANCE Surveillance refers to what we popularly

    call the news and information role of the

    media.The media have taken the place ofsentinels and lookouts. Surveillance isapparently an important function and thedegree of audience dependence on the

    media for news supports this observation.

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    SURVEILLANCE Occurs when the media informs us

    about the threats of hurricanes,

    erupting volcanoes, depressedeconomic conditions, increasinginflation or military attack

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    SURVEILLANCE Has to do with the transmission of

    information that is useful and helpful ineveryday life.News about what films are

    playing at the local theatre, stock marketprices, new products, fashion ideas,recipes, teen fads and so on are theexamples of instrumental surveillance.Themass media carry out this function by

    keeping us posted about the latest news inour region and around the world.

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    INTERPRETATIONThe mass media do not supply just facts and data.

    They also provide information on the ultimatemeaning and significance of these events.

    Interpretation , comments and opinions areprovided for the readers so that they gain anadded perspective on the news stories carried bythe media.Articles devoted to an analysis of thecauses behind a particular event or a discussion of

    implications of a new govt. policy are alsoexamples of the interpretation function.

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    ENTERTAINMENT Entertainment has been a legitimate

    function of the traditional folk

    media, but the mass m,edia provide itwith a vengeance.They help to passthe time and to relax with family andfriends.

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    SYMBOLIC FUNCTION Anthroplogists of culture and communication

    discern a symbolic function of the media. Themass media provide a shared symbolic

    environment. George Gerbner, for instance, seestelevision as the central symbol of AmericanCulture today. Horace Newcomb and otherculturalists (such as James Carey and RobertWhite) percieve the media as providing a

    ritualistic and liminal experience.

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    ADVERTISING An equally important function of the media

    is that it helps to sell goods and servicesthrough sponsorship and commercials.India

    too promotes the commercial function, andthough it has not allowed itsrepresentatives to take over theprogramming of radio and television, theinfluence is still strong. This is equally true

    of the press and its dependence onadvertising.

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    DEVELOPMENT In the developing countries of Asia, Africa

    and Latin America, the mass media which

    include the traditional media have adifferent function to perform.

    Development communication that focusseson the information needs of the poor and

    the oppressed, and their socio- economicand cultural interests.

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    TYPES-TV TV is a powerful medium for

    appealing to

    mass audiencesreaches peopleregardless of age, sex, income, oreducational level.

    TV also offers sight and sound, andmakes dramatic and lifelikerepresentations of people andproducts.AUDIO+VIDEO

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    For audiences of the late 1950s, the1960s, and the 1970s, TV presented

    orreinforced certain health messagesthrough product marketing.

    Some of these messages wererelated totoothpaste, hand soaps, multiplevitamins

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    Fortified breakfast cereals andother items.

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    Radio Radio also reaches mass and diverse


    The specialization of radio stationsby listener age, taste,

    and even gender permits moreselectivity in reachingaudience segments.

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    Since placement and productioncosts are less for radio

    than for TV, radio is able to conveypublic healthmessages in greater detail.

    Thus, radio is sometimes consideredto be more efficient.

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    Radio requires somewhat greateraudience involvement

    than television, creating the need formore mentalimagery, or "image transfer.

    Thus radio canreinforcecomplementary messages portrayedin parallel fashion on TV.

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    However, the large number of radiostations may fragment the audience

    for message delivery.

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    THE INTERNET The Internet places users in firmer


    control of which messages are accessedandwhen they are accessed. It is possible toput virtually anything on-line and

    disseminate it to any location havingInternetaccess, but the user has little control overquality

    and accuracy. Internet search engines can

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    WHAT IS MASS The term 'mass' denotes great volume,

    range or extent (of people or production)

    and reception of messages.[4] Theimportant point about 'mass' is not that agiven number of individuals receives theproducts, but rather that the products are

    available in principle to a plurality ofrecipients.[5]

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    TERM MASS The term 'mass' suggests that the recipients of mediaproducts constitute a vast sea of passive, undifferentiatedindividuals. This is an image associated with some earliercritiques of 'mass culture' and Mass society which generallyassumed that the development of mass communication hashad a largely negative impact on modern social life, creatinga kind of bland and homogeneous culture which entertainsindividuals without challenging them.[6] However, with theadvancement in Media Technology, people are no longerreceiving gratification without questioning the grounds onwhich it is based.[7] Instead, people are engagingthemselves more with media products such as computers,cell phones and Internet. These have gradually became vitaltools for communications in society today.

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    COMMUNICATION The aspect of 'communication' refers to the giving and taking of meaning,the transmission and reception of messages. The word 'communication' isreally equated with 'transmission', as viewed by the sender, rather than inthe fuller meaning, which includes the notions of response, sharing andinteraction.[8] Messages are produced by one set of individuals andtransmitted to others who are typically situated in settings that are

    spatially and temporally remote from the original context of production.Therefore, the term 'communication' in this context masks the social andindustrial nature of the media, promoting a tendency to think of them asinterpersonal communication.[9] Furthermore, it is known that recipientstoday do have some capacity to intervene in and contribute to the courseand content of the communicative process.[10] They are being both activeand creative towards the messages that they are conveyed of. With thecomplement of the cyberspace supported by the Internet, not only thatrecipients are participants in a structured process of symbolictransmission[11], constraints such as time and space are reordered andeliminated.

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    CHANGES OVER TIME 'Mass communication' can be seen as institutionalizedproduction and generalized diffusion of symbolic goods viathe fixation and transmission of information or symboliccontent. It is known that the systems of informationcodification has shifted from analog to digital.[12] This hasindeed advanced the communication between individuals.With the existence of Infrared, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, cellphones are no longer solely a tool for audio transmission.We can transfer photos, music documents or even gamesand email at any time and anywhere. The development ofmedia technology has indeed advanced the transmission rateand stability of information exchange.

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    MASS COMMUNICATION Characteristics of Mass Communication

    Five characteristics of masscommunication have been identified by


    niversity's John Thompson.Firstly, it "comprises both technical andinstitutional methods of production anddistribution"[13]. This is evidentthroughout the history of the media, from

    print to the Internet, each suitable forcommercial utility.

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    Secondly, it involves the "commodificationof symbolic forms",[14] as the productionof materials relies on its ability tomanufacture and sell large quantities ofthe work. Just as radio stations rely on itstime sold to advertisements, newspapers

    rely for the same reasons on its space.

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    Mass communication's thirdcharacteristic is the "separate

    contexts between the production andreception of information",[15] whilethe fourth is in its "reach to those'far removed' in time and space, incomparison to the producers".[16]

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    Mass communication, which involves"information distribution". This is a

    "one to many" form ofcommunication, whereby products aremass produced and disseminated to agreat quantity of audiences.[17]

    i erent ypes o ass

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    i erent ypes o assMedia

    Mass media are media, which can be inhand, but in addition to the entertainment,mass media also remain to be an effective

    medium for communication, disseminationof information, advertising, marketing andin general, for expressing and sharingviews, opinions and ideas. Mass media is aused to communicate and interact with a

    large number of audiences. Be it thepictorial messages of the early ages,

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    , or the high-technology media that are availabletoday, one thing that we all agree upon, is thatmass media are an inseparable part of our lives.

    Entertainment and media always go hand double-edged sword which means that there are positiveeffects of media as well as negative influences ofmedia. Here are some of the different types ofmass media:

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    Print Media : The print media includes newspapers, magazines,brochures, newsletters, books and even leafletsand pamphlets. Visual media like photography canalso be mentioned under this sub-head, since

    photography is an important mass media, whichcommunicates via visual representations.Although, it is said that the electronic or newmedia have replaced the print media, there existsa majority of audiences who prefer the printmedia for various communication purposes. Publicspeaking and event organizing can also beconsidered as a form of mass media.

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    Electronic Media This mass media includes television andradio. This category also includeselectronic media like movies, CDs and

    DVDs as well as the new hottest electronicgadgets. : For many people, it is impossibleto imagine a life without their televisionsets, be it the daily news dose or even thesoap operas.

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    New-age Media With the advent of new technologies like

    Internet, we are now enjoying the benefitsof high technology mass media, which isnot only faster than the old-school massmedia, but also has a widespread range.Mobile phones, computers and Internetare often referred to as the new-agemedia.

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    Types of Mass Media

    Print (Newspapers, Books, Magazines)



    Cable TV


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    o Internet

    oSatellite (DBS)

    at e ines ass

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    at e ines assMedia?

    Ableto Reach Many PeopleSimultaneously

    Requiresthe Useof a Technologyto Transmit Message

    aracteristics o ass

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    aracteristics o assMedia

    Audience Has Great Deal of Choice

    Communicationis Mostly One Way

    Reach Large and Vast Audiences

    Aim Messagesto Attract Largest Audience Possible

    Influence Society and Are, In Turn, Influenced bysociety

    ec no ogy A ects

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    ec no ogy A ectsMessage

    Marshall McLuhan: The Medium Isthe Message

    ias o ommunication

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    ias o ommunicationTechnology

    Predisposedto be Usedin CertainWays

    Predisposedto Certain Types ofMessages

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    Bias of Television

    Requires Minimal Skillsto Comprehend,Unlike Reading which Requires Years ofTraining

    Geared Toward Emotional Gratification(Entertainment) Rather ThanInformation

    Always Hasto Have Something Newto


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