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Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond July 20-21, 2004 Technology Briefing on Materials at Farnborough 04 Airshow Slide 2 Alain Garcia Executive Vice President Airbus Engineering Jrgen Klenner Senior Vice President Airbus Engineering Presented by July 20-21, 2004 Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond Technology Briefing on Materials at Farnborough 04 Airshow Slide 3 3Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond Superior airframe: Airbus vision AIRBUSENVIRONMENT CUSTOMER Environmentally friendly airframe Highest performance Maintenance free airframe Slide 4 4Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond The Airbus airframe philosophy Airbus sustained leadership in advanced aircraft structures by: Being always at the forefront of technology. Applying the most advanced structure technologies as a prime goal since the beginning of Airbus. Considering customer needs, performance, environment/health & safety aspects. Pushing new technologies, carefully evaluated and introduced step-by-step as soon as they are matured. Fostering the competition between different materials to exploit their physical potentials and enhance their performance. Slide 5 5Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond Materials for airframes Metals (Al-alloys) Composites (CFRP) Fiber Metal Laminates Broad experience Repairability Static behavior Improvement potential Strengths Fatigue behavior Low density No corrosion Best suited for smart structures Improved fatigue Better tailoring Higher fire resistance Less corrosion (compared to Al-alloys) High density Fatigue behavior Corrosion behavior High costs of new alloys Weaknesses Impact behavior No plasticity Repairability Recycling Lower stiffness Higher density Less industrialized process (compared to CFRP) Slide 6 6Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond What the airframe requires Bending Bending and Torsion Impact Shear stress due to trans- verse shear and torsion Compression due to bending, stability, static strength, corrosion resistance High local loads Hoop stress Impact Shear stress Hoop stress and longi- tudinal stress Longitudinal stress Static/residual strength Crack growth Upper skin: Compression/stability Lower skin: Tension/crack growth Slide 7 7Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond Composites vs. metal: The benefit of competition 1970 1980 19902000 2020 2010 CFRP design Fairings Pressure bulkhead Keel beam Floor panels Al-Li LBW, extrusions Metal design GLARE , LBW, EBW, Ti alloys CFRP Fuselage Fuselage section Center wing box Adaptive Structures, SHM FSW, Al-Sc advanced Al casting Successor GLARE Moveables, Rudder VTP, HTP Flaps, CFRP Wing effect effetc effect Al-Li Slide 8 8Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond How Airbus airframes have evolved 1974 (EIS) 2009 GFRP fairings, radome, fin leading edges CFRP movables: spoilers, airbrakes, rudder CFRP primary structure: fin (A310-300) A300/A310 CFRP primary structure: flaps, horizontal tailplane (HTP) Automated Tape laying Laser Beam Welding (LBW) (A318) A320 CFRP primary structure: HTP as fuel tank CFRP primary structure: pressure bulkhead, keel beam, floor panels (A340-600) Resin infusion techniques Thermoplastic CFRP (A340-600) New Al-alloys A330/A340 CFRP primary structure: Center Wing Box, Rear fuselage, wing ribs Higher modulus carbon fibers Upper fuselage: fiber metal laminate LBW, Electron Beam Welding Resin film infusion Automated fiber placement New Al-, Ti-alloys A380 CFRP wing further airframe innovations A400M Slide 9 9Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond Airbus: The leader in CFRP technology CFRP structural weight % A300 A310/200 A320 A340-300 A340-600 A380 A400M Year Slide 10 10Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond Advanced metal technologies Laser Beam Welding (LBW) New Al-alloys: e.g. Al-Li New Ti-alloys Electron Beam Welding Friction Stir Welding Extrusions, Castings, Example: section 18, lower panel Stringer to skin LBW Airbus: The leader in metal technology Stringer guiding system Beam guidance Slide 11 11Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond Fiber metal laminates (FML) GLARE application in A380 upper fuselage and D-noses (HTP, VTP) High performance FML (e.g. improved static strength, improved stiffness) GLARE Micrograph Composite material (GFRP) Aluminum material 500 m Example: section 18, main deck panel Airbus: The leader in fiber metal laminates (FML) Slide 12 12Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond A380: The most advanced airframe (examples) CFRP Floor Beams for Upper Deck CFRP Wing Ribs CFRP Section 19.1 CFRP Section 19 GLARE CFRP Center Wing Box Integral Structures (LBW) More Ti & New Ti-processing (electron beam welding) Slide 13 13Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond New horizon: The intelligent aircraft structure Further approaching the Superior Airframe Vision, Airbus is aiming at the intelligent structure: Best suited to local airframe needs, i.e. optimised hybrid design Self-monitoring and reacting Adaptable to changing requirements Highest tolerance towards external effects to enable: Leading edge of performance Minimum maintenance, extended operational life Highest possible environmental friendliness Slide 14 14Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond Structure Health Monitoring Aspect of Airbus intelligent airframe SHM system: The SHM System checks the structure and evaluates the follow up actions for maintenance. Human nervous system: The brain detects intensity and location of pain and judges when to go to the doctor. Evaluation SHM 1 st Generation: Maintenance cost reduction, increased aircraft availability SHM 2 nd and 3 rd Generation: New design philosophy enabling weight reduction Slide 15 15Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond Intelligent aircraft structure: more than SHM Self-Cleaning Self-Monitoring Adaptive Structure Self-Healing Nano-Materials Nanotechnology Sensors Material Matched New Design Synergy between fuselage and cabin interior Slide 16 16Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond Airbus airframe vision Composites primary & secondary structure New material processes New metals and adapted design 2 st, 3 rd Generation SHM Nanotechnology: materials & sensors Composites adapted design Adaptive structures Fiber Metal Laminates 1 st Generation Structural Health Monitoring Optimized material matched design Future Airbus airframe technology 1970 1990 2030 2010 New Composite material applications Advanced composite & metallic materials High performance Intelligent airframe Slide 17 17Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond Conclusion Best materials and related technologies have been used/will be used in future in Airbus airframe for the specific application: THE BEST MATERIAL FOR THE SPECIFIC APPLICATION not ONE MATERIAL FOR ALL. The philosophy of best material use leads to a hybrid airframe adapted to the local specific requirements (mixture of different materials). The high performance intelligent Airbus airframe is: - optimized regarding new materials matched design - self-monitoring and reacting - adaptable to changing requirements The high performance intelligent Airbus airframe technology is introduced step-by-step after demonstrating maturity, securing the leading role of Airbus in airframe technology