# materials to make swingers 2 strings, 50cm 2 paper clips 2 pennies 2 pencils 1 meter tape *masking...

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• Materials to Make Swingers2 Strings, 50cm2 Paper clips2 Pennies2 Pencils1 Meter tapeMasking tapeHow to Build a Swinger sheet

• Vocabulary

Pendulum

A mass hanging from a fixed point that is free to swing back and forward

• ExperimentHow many times do you think your swinger will swing in 15 seconds?

How can you find out?

• Standardize the Counting CycleWhen the swinger is released, the swinger will swing away and then come backThis is one CycleNeed to count each time the swinger comes back close to the point from which it was released.

• What could you change in your swinger system that might change the number of swings in 15 seconds?number of penniesrelease positionlength of swingPush the swinger as you release it.Blow on it.

• Vocabulary

Variable

anything that you can change in an experiment that might affect the outcome

Pendulum

a mass hanging from a fixed point that is free to swing to and fro

Cycle

any motion or activity that repeats itself

• What can you think of that swings?old clockmuseumplayground swingmetronomeponytailbirdhouseleaf on a tree

• Content/Inquiry ChartWhat is a variable?What is a pendulum and where have you seen one?What variables might affect the number of cycles the pendulum makes in 15 seconds?

• Science StoriesWhat Scientist Do?

• MaterialsPart 2: Testing VariablesFor Each Group2 Swingers2 Strings, different lengths2 Pencils4 Pennies1 Meter tapeFor the ClassScissorsMasking tapeClock or watch with second handSwingers number line

• Standard PendulumReview the three variables that they thought might affect the number of swings of a pendulum. Review the setup for the pendulum -38 cm long, one, penny, released straight out to the side for 15 seconds. This is called a standard pendulum system. (record this in your journal)

• What is an experiment?An experiment is an investigation designed to find out how variables affect outcomes.

An experiment in which one variable is changed and the outcome is compared to a standard is a controlled experiment.

• Test the Variable of Release PositionHow do you think this new release position will affect the number of swings?

More swings? Fewer swings? Same number?

• If we change the angleChange the angleThe number of swings will angle

• Test the Variable of MassHow do you think adding mass to the pendulum bob will affect the number of swings?

More swings? Fewer swings? Same number?

• The effect of mass on the number of swingsIf we increase massThe number of swings will: Pennies

• Test the Variable of LengthHow do you think changing the length of the pendulum will affect the number of swings?

More swings? Fewer swings? Same number?

• Materials for Variable lengthEach group will be given an envelope with different lengths of stringsHandout Swingers Picture Graph each personUse the meter tape make the swinger the same way we made the standard swinger

• Length Number of Swings______________________________________________ 200 cm 170 cm 120 cm 90 cm 70 cm 55 cm

• Is there a relationship between the length of the pendulum and the number of swings a pendulum makes in 15 seconds?

The longer the pendulum, the ____the swings.

The shorter the pendulum, the _____the swings.

The greater the number of swings, the _____the pendulum.

The fewer the number of swings, the _____ the pendulum.

• Content/Inquiry ChartWhich variables made no difference in the number of swings?Which variable did make a difference in the number of swings?What variables might affect the number of cycles the pendulum makes in 15 seconds?

• Project FolderAs students come up with questions or ideas that suggest further investigation, you will ask them to write the idea on a piece of paper, which you will keep in a class folder.

This will be a resource for students at the end of the module when they are choosing a project to investigate on their own.

• Two-Coordinate GraphThe x-axis (along the bottom) is reserved for the independent variable.What did I know before the experiment started?The y-axis (along the side) is reserved for the dependent variable.What did I find out as a result of doing the experiment?

• Two coordinate graphRead the t-table on the Swingers Picture graph to find the length and number of swings of the first swingersFind the number along the (x axis) horizontal line that represents the length of the first swingerRun your finger up that line until you come to the horizontal line representing the number of swings made by the first swingerMake a pencil dot on that intersectionRepeat the procedure for the rest of the swingers

• Content/Inquiry ChartHow can you predict how many swings an 80-cm pendulum will make in 15 seconds?

• Word bank Two-coordinate graph- shows the outcome of a series of experiments when a variable is changed by steps.

• Read Science StoriesSwinging through History?

• Part 1: Exploring BoatsWhat are lifeboats and how are they used?

• Materials for Exploring Boats6 paper cupsSponge2 booksPencilPermanent marking pensScissors50 Pennies- 1983-later

1 Meter tape2 Plastic cups1 Syringe 50ml1 Basin Variable JournalStudent Sheet #8Student Sheet #9

• How many passengers can your lifeboat hold before it sinks?Test your boatIn your journal write a list of variables that might affect the number of passengers supported by their boat.

• Identify VariablesBoats of slightly different size.Distribution of passengers in the boat.Gentle versus reckless placement of passengers.Condition of the sea.

• Variable of the boatHow could you check the variable of boat size to find out if in fact all the boats are identical?

• VocabularyThe greatest amount of fluid a container can hold is its capacity.

• CapacityUsing the handout Measuring Lifeboat Capacity measure the capacity of your 3cm boat

• Construct Four New BoatsAll new boats should be a different size.No shorter than 2 cmNo taller than 4 cmName each boat.Find the capacity of each boat.Write the name and capacity of each boat on its side.

• Part 2: Lifeboat InspectionIn a controlled experiment, all of the variables are controlled, or kept constant, except one, so that the experimenter can observe the effect of that one variable on the experimental outcome.

You will conduct controlled experiments to find out how the variable of capacity affects the number of passengers a lifeboat can hold.

• StandardPlace pennies gently.Place pennies evenly.Dont shake the basin.Dry pennies.Place the pennies with heads up.

• Independent and Dependent VariablesIf you wanted to make a graph of the results of your lifeboat experiment, what are the two variables you would graph?Which variable did you know before the experiment started, the size of your boats or the number of passengers they hold?The independent variable goes on the x-axis.The dependent variable goes on the y-axis.

• Content/Inquiry ChartIs there a relationship between the capacity of lifeboats and the number of passengers they hold?

• Part 3: Inspecting Other BoatsIn a controlled experiment, all of the variables are controlled, or kept constant, except one, so that the experimenter can observe the effect of that one variable on the experimental outcome.

You will conduct controlled experiments to find out how the variable of capacity affects the number of passengers a lifeboat can hold.

• Review Variables/Content InquiryWhich boat held the greatest number of passengers?What variables make it possible for a boat to hold lots of passengers?What variables did you have to control?What is the relationship between the capacity of the boat and the number of passengers it can hold.If you had a new boat, could you use your graph to predict how many passengers it could hold?

• Swap FleetsRecord your results in part 3 of the Lifeboat Inspection sheet

• Content/Inquiry ChartHow were you able to predict the number of passengers a new boat would hold?Did any results surprise you? If so, what do you think happened?

• Content/Inquiry ChartWhat variables might affect the number of passengers (pennies) a paper-cup boat can hold?

• Exploring Flight-Materials1-Foss Plane Construction Sheet1-Jumbo Straw1-Super Jumbo Straw1-Propeller1-Hook1-Rubber Band1-Sandpaper Piece

2-Craft Sticks1-Scissors

• Part I: Exploring FlightThe FOSS plane flies along a piece of fishing line called a flight line.The FOSS plane and the flight line together are called the FOSS plane system.

• Conduct Test FlightsIf you had a piece of fishing line, could you get your plane to fly the entire length of the line?

• Additional Materials1- Fishing line 4 meters long2- ChairsDuct tape (to attach to back of chairs)1 Zip lock bagPlacing your chairs avoid other groups or traffic flow.

• Flight ChallengesGet your FOSS plane to fly.Fly your plane the entire length of the line.Figure out the minimum number of winds needed to fly your plane the length of the line.

• Flight LogsAirplane pilots keep records of every flight in a logbook. Pilot record information such as date, time, weather, number of passenger, mass of cargo, elevation and performance of the aircraft.Handout FLIGHT LOGS

• Fly HalfwayHow many winds of the propeller do you think it would take to fly your plane halfway down the line?