MATHS IN THE ARAB WORLD
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DESCRIPTIONMATHS IN THE ARAB WORLD. INTRODUCTION. Greeks ?? Europeans Conquests: Damascus, Jerusalem, Mesopotamia, Alexandria. Arab territory: from India to Spain (including North Africa and South Italy) Library of Alexandria House of Wisdom(Beit al Hinka). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
MATHS IN THE ARAB WORLD
INTRODUCTIONGreeks ?? EuropeansConquests: Damascus, Jerusalem,Mesopotamia, Alexandria.Arab territory: from India toSpain (including North Africaand South Italy)Library of Alexandria House of Wisdom(Beit al Hinka)
Some translationsEuclids Elements
Aristotle, Apollonius, Archimedes, Heron, Diophantus and Indian writers.
AL-KHWARIZMIAbu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Ms al-Jwrizm Al-Khorezmi, al-Khwarizmi, Al-Khawarizmi,Al-Khawaritzmi or al-Khowarizmi
Some notes about his biography780 DC - Kharizm (south of Aral Sea)850 DC - Bagdad
820 DC Caliph Al'Mamun (House of Wisdom)
Travels: Afghanistan, Turkey, Russia...
Main worksMaths, Astronomy, Astrology, Geography and History A page from Algebra
Kitab al-jabr wa'l-muqabala algebrathe most ancient bookmethod for solving linear and quadratic equations Reduction of the equations to one of six standard forms (b,c >0) :squares equal roots (ax2 = bx)squares equal number (ax2 = c)roots equal number (bx = c)squares and roots equal number (ax2 + bx = c)squares and number equal roots (ax2 + c = bx)roots and number equal squares (bx + c = ax2) Al-Khwarizmi: father of Algebra
Solve the equation x2+6x=7
total area: x2+6x+9 x2+6x+9 = 7+9 = 16(x+3) 2 = 42x = 1
Algoritmi de numero Indorum(Latin translation)
numerical system Indiazero
The Arabic numeral systemDifferent number systems were used simultaneously in the Arabic world over a long period of time. There were three different types of arithmetic (11th century):
counting on the fingers with the numerals written entirely in words the sexagesimal system with numerals denoted by letters of the Arabic alphabetthe arithmetic of the Indian numerals
The biggest change was the fact that the 2 and the 3 have been rotated through 90.
The scribes therefore, instead of writing from right to left (the standard way that Arabic was written) wrote in lines from top to bottom.
al-Banna al-Marrakushi (beginning of the 14th century)
Al-HaythamHe was the first to attempt to classify all even perfect numbers as those of the form 2k-1(2k - 1) where 2k - 1 is prime.
He is also the first person that we know to state Wilson's theorem: If p is prime then 1+(p-1)! is divisible by p.
TrigonometryAl-Battani, Abul-Wafa, Ibn Yunus, Nasir al-Tusi
The Arabs start their study with the idea of the Greeks and the idea of Hindus.At the end, they prefer the idea of the Hindus.