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Page 1: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reservedMcGraw-Hill/Irwin

Page 2: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Extended Learning Module AExtended Learning Module A

COMPUTER HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

COMPUTER HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

Page 3: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

A-3

STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMESSTUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. Define information technology (IT) and its two basic categories: Hardware and software

2. Describe the categories of computers based on size

3. Compare the roles of personal productivity, vertical market, and horizontal market software

Page 4: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

A-4

STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMESSTUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES

4. Describe the roles of operating system and utility software as components of system software

5. Define the purpose of each of the six major categories of hardware

Page 5: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

• Information technology (IT) – any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization

Page 6: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Many Tools of ITMany Tools of IT

Page 7: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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A QUICK TOUR OF TECHNOLOGYA QUICK TOUR OF TECHNOLOGY

• Hardware – the physical devices that make up a computer (often referred to as the computer system)

• Software – the set of instruction that your hardware executes to carry out a specific task for you

Page 8: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Six Categories of HardwareSix Categories of Hardware

1. Input device – tool that you use to enter information and commands

2. Output device – tool you use to hear, see, hear, or otherwise recognize the results of your information-processing requests

3. Storage device – tool you use to store information for use at a later date

Page 9: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Six Categories of HardwareSix Categories of Hardware

4. Central processing unit (CPU) – the hardware that interprets and executes software and coordinates all hardware

5. Random access memory (RAM) – temporary holding area for information, as well as system and application software instructions

Page 10: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Six Categories of HardwareSix Categories of Hardware

6. Telecommunications device – tool you use to send information to and receive it from another person or computer in a network

7. Connecting hardware – any hardware that lets you connect peripherals to your computer, such as cables, ports, expansion boards, etc.

Page 11: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Six Categories of HardwareSix Categories of Hardware

Page 12: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Three Major Categories of SoftwareThree Major Categories of Software

1. Application software – enables you to solve specific problems or perform specific tasks

Page 13: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Three Major Categories of SoftwareThree Major Categories of Software

2. System software - handles tasks specific to technology management and coordinates the interaction of all technology devices– Operating system software – controls

application software and manages hardware devices

Page 14: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Three Major Categories of SoftwareThree Major Categories of Software

3. Utility software – provides additional functionality to your operating system software

Page 15: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS BY SIZE

CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS BY SIZE

• Personal digital assistant (PDA) – small hand-held computer for personal tasks like appointment scheduling and address book maintenance

• Tablet PC – pen-based computer with the functionality of a notebook or desktop

Page 16: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS BY SIZE

CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS BY SIZE

• Notebook computer – small, portable, fully functional, battery-powered computer

• Desktop computer – most popular type of personal computer

Page 17: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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PDA, Tablet PC, Notebook, DesktopPDA, Tablet PC, Notebook, Desktop

Page 18: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Minicomputers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers

Minicomputers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers

• Minicomputer (mid-range computer) – meets needs of several people simultaneously in a small or medium-sized business

• Mainframe computer – meets needs of hundreds of people in a large business

• Supercomputer – fastest, most powerful, and most expensive type of computer

Page 19: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Minicomputers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers

Minicomputers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers

Page 20: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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SOFTWARE – YOUR INTELLECTUAL INTERFACE

SOFTWARE – YOUR INTELLECTUAL INTERFACE

• Personal productivity software – helps you perform personal tasks– Writing memos– Creating graphs– Creating slide presentations

• Software suite – several applications bundled together (usually productivity software)

Page 21: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Application SoftwareApplication Software

• Word processing – helps you create letters, memos, and other basic documents

• Spreadsheet – helps you work with numbers, perform calculations and create graphs

Page 22: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Application SoftwareApplication Software

• Presentation – helps you create and edit information that will appear in slides

• Desktop publishing – extends word processing by including design and formatting techniques to enhance the appearance of the document

Page 23: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Application SoftwareApplication Software

• Personal information management (PIM) – helps you create and maintain to-do lists, appointments, calendars, etc.

• Personal finance – helps you maintain your checkbook and handle other personal finance tasks

Page 24: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Application SoftwareApplication Software

• Database management system (DBMS) – helps you specify the logical organization for a database; access and use the information within a database

Page 25: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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System SoftwareSystem Software

• Operating system software

– Microsoft Windows XP Home– Microsoft Windows XP Pro– Mac OS – Operating system for Macs– Linux – powerful open-source operating system

Page 26: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Utility SoftwareUtility Software

• Anti-virus software – detects and removes or quarantines computer viruses

• Crash-proof software – helps save information if your system crashes

• Uninstaller software – removes software from your hard disk

• Disk optimization software – organizes information on your hard disk

Page 27: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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HARDWARE: YOUR PHYSICAL INTERFACE

HARDWARE: YOUR PHYSICAL INTERFACE

• Representation of information– Binary digit (bit) – smallest unit of information

your computer can process

– Byte – eight bits or the number of bits it takes to represent one natural character

– ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) – coding system that personal computers use

Page 28: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Information RepresentationInformation Representation

Page 29: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Categories of Input DevicesCategories of Input Devices

Page 30: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Digital CamerasDigital Cameras

• Digital camera – captures still image or video as a series of 1s and 0s– Digital still camera – digitally captures still

images in varying resolutions

– Digital video camera – captures video digitally

– Webcam – captures digital video for the Web

Page 31: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Categories of Output DevicesCategories of Output Devices

Page 32: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Important ConsiderationsImportant Considerations

• Viewable image size (VIS) – the size of the image on a monitor

• Resolution of a screen – the number of pixels it has

• Pixels (picture elements) – the dots that make up the image

• Dot pitch – the distance between the centers of two like-colored pixels

Page 33: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Categories of Storage DevicesCategories of Storage Devices

Page 34: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Capacity of Storage DevicesCapacity of Storage Devices

• Megabyte (MB or M or Meg) – about 1 million bytes

• Gigabyte (GB or Gig) – about 1 billion bytes

• Terabyte (TB) – about 1 trillion bytes

Page 35: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Magnetic Storage MediaMagnetic Storage Media

• Hard disk – magnetic storage with one or more thin metal platters sealed inside the drive

• Zip disk – high capacity (100 MB, 250 MB, and 750 MB) removable storage medium

• Floppy disk – removable storage medium that holds 1.44 MB

Page 36: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Optical (or Laser) Storage MediaOptical (or Laser) Storage Media

• Optical storage media – plastic discs on which information is stored, deleted, and changed using laser technology

• Two types– CDs

– DVDs

Page 37: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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CDsCDs

• CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory) – information cannot be changed

• CD-R (compact disc – recordable) – write one time only

• CD-RW (compact disc – rewritable) – save, change, and delete files repeatedly

Page 38: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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DVDsDVDs

• DVD-ROM – high capacity; information cannot be changed

• DVD-R or DVD+R (DVD – recordable) – high capacity; write one time only

• DVD-RW or DVD+R (depending on manufacturer) – save, change, delete repeatedly

Page 39: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Flash Memory Devices and CardsFlash Memory Devices and Cards

• Flash memory device – very small storage device that plugs into USB port

• Flash memory card – high capacity storage laminated inside a small piece of plastic

Page 40: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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CPU and RAMCPU and RAM

• CPU and RAM work together to form the brain of your computer

• CPU speed measured in gigahertz (GHz)– GHz – number of billions of CPU cycles per

second

– CPU (machine) cycle – retrieve, decode, and execute instruction, then return result to RAM if necessary

Page 41: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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CPU ComponentsCPU Components

• CPU components– Control unit – directs what happens in the CPU

and the rest of your computer

– Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) – performs arithmetic, comparison, and logic operations

– CPU cache – CPU memory where instructions wait until they’re needed

– CPU clock – beats to keep instructions and information moving in synchronized fashion

Page 42: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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System BusSystem Bus

• System bus – electrical pathways that move information between motherboard components, especially between CPU and RAM

Page 43: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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CPU and RAM at WorkCPU and RAM at Work

Page 44: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Categories of Connectors and Ports Categories of Connectors and Ports

Page 45: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Connecting Hardware Outside to the Hardware Inside

Connecting Hardware Outside to the Hardware Inside

• Port – place on your system unit, monitor, or keyboard through which information and instructions flow to and from computer

Page 46: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Connecting Hardware Outside to the Hardware Inside

Connecting Hardware Outside to the Hardware Inside

• Some ports work with plug-and-play and hot-swap ports and devices– Plug and play – operating system feature that

finds and installs the driver for the device

– Hot swap – operating system feature that allows you to plug or unplug a device while the computer is running

Page 47: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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PortsPorts

• USB (universal serial bus) port – fits small, flat, plug-and-play, hot-swap USB connectors

• Firewire port (IEEE1394 or I-Link) – fits hot-swap, plug-and-play Firewire connectors

Page 48: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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PortsPorts

• PS/2 port – fits PS/2 connectors (used for keyboards and mice)

• Parallel port – fits parallel large flat parallel connectors found on printers

Page 49: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Wireless ConnectionsWireless Connections

• Infrared IR or IrDA (infrared data association) – uses red light to send and receive information

• Bluetooth – transmits information as radio waves for a distance of 30 feet

• WiFi (wireless fidelity) or IEEE 802.11a, b, or g – transmits information as radio waves for a distance of up to 300 feet

Page 50: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Expansion Bus, Slots and CardExpansion Bus, Slots and Card

Page 51: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Expansion Cards and SlotsExpansion Cards and Slots

• Expansion card (board) – circuit board that you insert into the expansion slot and connect to a peripheral device

• Expansion slot – long skinny socket on the motherboard for expansion card

• Expansion bus – pathways along which information moves between devices (outside the motherboard) and the CPU

Page 52: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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CAN YOU…CAN YOU…

1. Define information technology (IT) and its two basic categories: Hardware and software

2. Describe the categories of computers based on size

3. Compare the roles of personal productivity, vertical market, and horizontal market software

Page 53: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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CAN YOU…CAN YOU…

4. Describe the roles of operating system and utility software as components of system software

5. Define the purpose of each of the six major categories of hardware

Page 54: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All rights reserved McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Extended Learning Module AExtended Learning Module A

End of Extended Learning Module A

End of Extended Learning Module A