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Measurement & Measurement & Calculations Calculations Honors Chemistry Honors Chemistry Chapter 2 Chapter 2

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Measurement amp Measurement amp CalculationsCalculations

Honors ChemistryHonors Chemistry

Chapter 2Chapter 2

Scientific NotationScientific NotationShorthand way of expressing Shorthand way of expressing

very large or very small numbersvery large or very small numbers

Consists of Consists of twotwo factors factors Coefficient - a number between 1 and 10 Coefficient - a number between 1 and 10

(only 1 digit to the LEFT of the decimal point)(only 1 digit to the LEFT of the decimal point) Base - a power of 10 Base - a power of 10 ldquopower of 10rdquo shows ldquopower of 10rdquo shows

the number of 10rsquos that are to be multiplied the number of 10rsquos that are to be multiplied togethertogether

Examples on the number lineExamples on the number line

1x102 4x101 1x100

1x10-10 1x10-1

Place numbers on the linePlace numbers on the line4x101 1x10-10 1x100 1x102 1x10-1

0

Uncertainty in Uncertainty in Measurement Measurement ndash due to instrument

flaw and estimation Measurements are Measurements are uncertainuncertain

becausebecause Instruments are not free from ERRORInstruments are not free from ERROR Measuring always involves some Measuring always involves some

ESTIMATIONESTIMATION Estimating with a scaleEstimating with a scale

Estimate ONE digit more than the Estimate ONE digit more than the instrument measuresinstrument measures

3 4 5

3 4 5

Length - Length - RulersRulers

3 4 5

Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance

TemperatureTemperature

UncertaintyUncertainty

AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity

bull Precise data vs Imprecise data

BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration

bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data

CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value

accepted valueaccepted valuex 100

Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision

DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty

EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision

Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is

assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Scientific NotationScientific NotationShorthand way of expressing Shorthand way of expressing

very large or very small numbersvery large or very small numbers

Consists of Consists of twotwo factors factors Coefficient - a number between 1 and 10 Coefficient - a number between 1 and 10

(only 1 digit to the LEFT of the decimal point)(only 1 digit to the LEFT of the decimal point) Base - a power of 10 Base - a power of 10 ldquopower of 10rdquo shows ldquopower of 10rdquo shows

the number of 10rsquos that are to be multiplied the number of 10rsquos that are to be multiplied togethertogether

Examples on the number lineExamples on the number line

1x102 4x101 1x100

1x10-10 1x10-1

Place numbers on the linePlace numbers on the line4x101 1x10-10 1x100 1x102 1x10-1

0

Uncertainty in Uncertainty in Measurement Measurement ndash due to instrument

flaw and estimation Measurements are Measurements are uncertainuncertain

becausebecause Instruments are not free from ERRORInstruments are not free from ERROR Measuring always involves some Measuring always involves some

ESTIMATIONESTIMATION Estimating with a scaleEstimating with a scale

Estimate ONE digit more than the Estimate ONE digit more than the instrument measuresinstrument measures

3 4 5

3 4 5

Length - Length - RulersRulers

3 4 5

Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance

TemperatureTemperature

UncertaintyUncertainty

AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity

bull Precise data vs Imprecise data

BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration

bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data

CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value

accepted valueaccepted valuex 100

Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision

DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty

EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision

Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is

assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Place numbers on the linePlace numbers on the line4x101 1x10-10 1x100 1x102 1x10-1

0

Uncertainty in Uncertainty in Measurement Measurement ndash due to instrument

flaw and estimation Measurements are Measurements are uncertainuncertain

becausebecause Instruments are not free from ERRORInstruments are not free from ERROR Measuring always involves some Measuring always involves some

ESTIMATIONESTIMATION Estimating with a scaleEstimating with a scale

Estimate ONE digit more than the Estimate ONE digit more than the instrument measuresinstrument measures

3 4 5

3 4 5

Length - Length - RulersRulers

3 4 5

Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance

TemperatureTemperature

UncertaintyUncertainty

AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity

bull Precise data vs Imprecise data

BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration

bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data

CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value

accepted valueaccepted valuex 100

Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision

DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty

EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision

Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is

assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Uncertainty in Uncertainty in Measurement Measurement ndash due to instrument

flaw and estimation Measurements are Measurements are uncertainuncertain

becausebecause Instruments are not free from ERRORInstruments are not free from ERROR Measuring always involves some Measuring always involves some

ESTIMATIONESTIMATION Estimating with a scaleEstimating with a scale

Estimate ONE digit more than the Estimate ONE digit more than the instrument measuresinstrument measures

3 4 5

3 4 5

Length - Length - RulersRulers

3 4 5

Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance

TemperatureTemperature

UncertaintyUncertainty

AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity

bull Precise data vs Imprecise data

BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration

bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data

CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value

accepted valueaccepted valuex 100

Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision

DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty

EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision

Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is

assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

3 4 5

3 4 5

Length - Length - RulersRulers

3 4 5

Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance

TemperatureTemperature

UncertaintyUncertainty

AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity

bull Precise data vs Imprecise data

BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration

bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data

CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value

accepted valueaccepted valuex 100

Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision

DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty

EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision

Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is

assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance

TemperatureTemperature

UncertaintyUncertainty

AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity

bull Precise data vs Imprecise data

BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration

bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data

CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value

accepted valueaccepted valuex 100

Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision

DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty

EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision

Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is

assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance

TemperatureTemperature

UncertaintyUncertainty

AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity

bull Precise data vs Imprecise data

BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration

bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data

CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value

accepted valueaccepted valuex 100

Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision

DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty

EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision

Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is

assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Triple Beam BalanceTriple Beam Balance0 100 200

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance

TemperatureTemperature

UncertaintyUncertainty

AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity

bull Precise data vs Imprecise data

BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration

bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data

CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value

accepted valueaccepted valuex 100

Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision

DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty

EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision

Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is

assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

How to read a triple beam balanceHow to read a triple beam balance

TemperatureTemperature

UncertaintyUncertainty

AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity

bull Precise data vs Imprecise data

BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration

bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data

CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value

accepted valueaccepted valuex 100

Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision

DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty

EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision

Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is

assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

TemperatureTemperature

UncertaintyUncertainty

AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity

bull Precise data vs Imprecise data

BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration

bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data

CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value

accepted valueaccepted valuex 100

Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision

DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty

EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision

Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is

assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

UncertaintyUncertainty

AA Precision Precision ndash ndash represents agreement between several measurements of the same quantity

bull Precise data vs Imprecise data

BB Accuracy Accuracy ndash ndash represents agreement between a measurement amp the true value (within the limits of the instrument) enhanced with calibration

bull Accurate data vs Inaccurate data

CC Error Error = =measured value ndashaccepted valuemeasured value ndashaccepted value

accepted valueaccepted valuex 100

Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision

DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty

EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision

Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is

assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Accuracy vs Accuracy vs PrecisionPrecision

DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty

EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision

Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is

assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

DD Exact numbersExact numbers ndash numbers with no uncertainty

EE Significant DigitsSignificant Digits ndash certain digits plus 1 uncertain digit in a measurement indicative of precision

Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is

assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Nonzero DigitsNonzero Digits Every Every nonzerononzero digit is digit is

assumed significant assumed significant 247 m247 m0743 g0743 g714 m714 m

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Captive ZerosCaptive Zeros ZerosZeros appearing appearing betweenbetween

nonzero digits are significant nonzero digits are significant 7003 m7003 m4079 g4079 g1503 m1503 m

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Leftmost zerosLeftmost zeros appearing in front appearing in front of nonzero digits are NOT of nonzero digits are NOT significant They are significant They are placeholdersplaceholders

00071m = 71 x 1000071m = 71 x 10-3-3mm 042m = 42 x 10042m = 42 x 10-1-1mm 0000099m = 99 x 100000099m = 99 x 10-5-5mm

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Zeros at the Zeros at the ENDEND of a number AND of a number AND to the to the RIGHTRIGHT of a decimal point are of a decimal point are always significantalways significant

4300 m4300 m 1010 m1010 m 9000 m9000 m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Zeros at the rightmost end of a Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of measurement that lie to the left of an an understoodunderstood decimal point are decimal point are NOT significant if they serve as NOT significant if they serve as placeholdersplaceholders to show the to show the magnitude of the number magnitude of the number

300 m300 m 7000 m7000 m 27210 m27210 m Use decimal point at end to signify Use decimal point at end to signify

that the last 0(s) are significant that the last 0(s) are significant 300 m or 300 x 10300 m or 300 x 1022 m m

Trailing ZerosTrailing Zeros

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Significant DigitsSignificant Digits

Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US Use Atlantic-Pacific Rule ndash imagine a US mapmap

Atlantic

Pacific

decimal

point

decimal

point

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

1100

1100

11010000 0025

000035000

Decimal Absent Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

Decimal Present Start counting with the 1st nonzero digit and count all the rest

1000100

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

CalculationsCalculationsMultiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)Multiplication and Division (fewest sig digits)

1) 220cm x 096cm x 321cm =

2) 36g divide 420mL =

Addition and Subtraction (least number of Addition and Subtraction (least number of decimal places) decimal places)

1) 28751g ndash 72g =

2) 1257mL + 188mL + 676mL =

3) 1600m + 150m =

4) 100cm + 382cm =

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

When a gas is produced during the reaction the When a gas is produced during the reaction the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the gas can be pumped into the bulb of the manometer and the pressure of the gas can be manometer and the pressure of the gas can be determined determined

There are 2 types of manometers ndash There are 2 types of manometers ndash closed amp closed amp openopen

ClosedClosed the difference in the height of the Hg the difference in the height of the Hg columns is the pressure of the gas in the bulbcolumns is the pressure of the gas in the bulb

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometera device used to measure a device used to measure

pressurepressure

140mm

20mm

Gas has no pressure

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Using a ManometerUsing a Manometer OpenOpen To use an open manometer you must also To use an open manometer you must also

have a barometer to determine the atmospheric have a barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure In an open manometer the gas pressure is working against atmospheric pressure is working against atmospheric pressurepressure

Assume the atmospheric pressure is Assume the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm 760 mm HgHg

20mm

140 mm

70mm

20mm

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

MeasurementsMeasurements basic to all sciences amp all are basic to all sciences amp all are comparisons to a standardcomparisons to a standard

EnglishEnglish ndash still used in US ndash still used in US MetricMetric ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in ndash devised in the late 1700rsquos in

FranceFrance SISI ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes ndash Le Systegraveme Internationale drsquoUniteacutes

Modern metric system (1960)Modern metric system (1960) Based on 7 base unitsBased on 7 base units Base units are modified by prefixesBase units are modified by prefixes

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

SI Base UnitsSI Base Units

1 Length

2 Mass (SI standard unit)

3 Time

4 Temperature

5 Amount of a substance mole (mol)

6 Electric current ampere (A)

7 Luminous intensity candela (cd)

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

Kelvin (K)

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Metric ConversionMetric Conversion

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Derived UnitsDerived Units

Area 2-DArea 2-D

Volume 3-DVolume 3-D Solid ndash Solid ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash Liquid or irregular shaped object ndash

Density Density

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

The The LiterLiter

The liter is 1000 mLThe liter is 1000 mL 10cm x 10cm x 10cm10cm x 10cm x 10cm 1 liter1 liter = 1000 cm= 1000 cm3 3 = 1 dm = 1 dm33

1 milliliter = 1 cm1 milliliter = 1 cm33 = 1 cc = = 1 cc = 20 drops20 drops

=

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Prefix Abbreviation Meaning

Scientific Notation

mega- 1000000 1 x 106

kilo- 1000 1 x 103

hecto- 100 1 x 102

deka- 10 1 x 101

BASE UNIT(g m L)

-------------- 1 100

deci- 01 1 x 10-1

centi- 001 1 x 10-2

milli- 0001 1 x 10-3

micro- 0000 001 1 x 10-6

nano- 0000 000 001 1 x 10-9

pico- 0000 000 000 001 1 x 10-12

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Length RelationshipsLength Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Conversions between unitsConversions between units Factor-label method or Factor-label method or dimensional dimensional

analysisanalysis ndash ndash based on using unit equalities_____ km = _____ m

1 km OR 1000 m1000 m 1 km

60 s = 1 min 60 s OR 1 min1 min 60 s

11 10010000

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

V Tools for AnalysisV Tools for AnalysisA Organize data into tablestables

Ascending values for independent variable

B Present data in a graphgraph IndependentIndependent variable is graphed on the x-axis DependentDependent variable is graphed on the y-axis Best-fit line or curve

Used to see a relationship

C Develop a relationshiprelationship from the graph Direct Indirect or inverse Develop an equation to relate the variables

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

The characteristic plot for a Direct Relationship is a straight line graph

Indirect Relationship The characteristic plot for an

Inverse Relationship is a curve of the type illustrated here As one of the variables increases the other decreases Note It is not a straight line sloping downward

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

ExamplesExamplesA Determine the density of aluminum from the analysis of data

from 5 samples1) 540-g sample has a volume of 200 mL2) 140-g sample has a volume of 50 mL3) 410-g sample has a volume of 150 mL4) 270-g sample has a volume of 100 mL5) 190-g sample has a volume of 70 mL

HINT Graph the data with volume as the independent variableFind the slope of the line

B Convert the density of benzene 08787 gcm3 to kgm3

C Calculate the density of mercury if 100 x 102 g occupies a volume of 736 cm3

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Density GraphDensity GraphDensity of Aluminum

y = 27134x

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 5 10 15 20

Volume (mL)

Mas

s (g)

BACK

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships

Specific HeatSpecific Heat Amount of energy required to raise the Amount of energy required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or temperature of 1 g of substance by 1degC or 1K1K

q = mCq = mCTTq ndash heat (J)q ndash heat (J)

m ndash mass of substance (g)m ndash mass of substance (g)

C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)C ndash specific heat capacity constant (JgdegC)

- different for every substance- different for every substance

T ndash change in temp (TT ndash change in temp (Tf f ndash Tndash Tii) (degC)) (degC)

Specific heat capacities of substances Specific heat capacities of substances

in reference packetin reference packet

• The Liter
• Length Relationships